Article

Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: A Review of the Past 10 Years, Part II

Department of Psychiatry, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 7.26). 12/2002; 41(11):1275-93. DOI: 10.1097/00004583-200211000-00009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

To review empirical findings on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD).
Selected summaries of the literature over the past decade are presented.
Research on ODD and CD during the past decade has addressed the complexity involved in identifying the primary risk factors and developmental pathways to disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). In some domains, research is entering an entirely new phase because of the availability of new technologies. In others, larger data sets and more complicated methodological and statistical techniques are testing increasingly complex models. Yet questions remain regarding the most useful subtyping systems, the identification of the most significant risk factors, and the relationships between risk factors from multiple domains.
Convincing evidence of causal linkages remains elusive. Research has questioned the notion that CD is intractable, especially when multiple domains of risk and impairment are the targets of intervention. It is apparent that there is not one single causative factor; thus it is not likely that one single modality will suffice to treat CD. Future steps will involve the restructuring of diagnostic criteria to capture adequate subtypes and indicators, clarification of the neurological underpinnings of the disorder, and refinement in the models available to explain the varied pathways to DBD.

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    • "In summary, it is clear that the link between parenting behavior and child emotional and behavioral problems is dynamic and reciprocal. However, less clear are the connections between the severe parenting behaviors, such as emotional and physical abuse, and their contribution to the underlying etiology of ODD (Burke et al., 2002). Thus, in the present study, we explored the impact of maltreatment on ODD symptoms. "
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    ABSTRACT: Maltreatment has negative effects on the parent–child relationship and the emotional and behavioral development of children. The current study aimed to examine the associations among maltreatment, parent–child relationship, and emotional and behavioral problems in Chinese children with or without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Participants in the study included 259 children with ODD and their 269 non-ODD counterparts from northern, eastern, and southwestern China. We also collected data from their teachers and fathers or mothers. The results showed that ODD children suffered more maltreatment and had more emotional and behavioral problems than their non-ODD peers. For all children (both ODD and non-ODD children), emotional abuse predicted emotional problems but not behavioral problems. Physical abuse predicted behavioral problems but not emotional problems. Parent–child relationship mediated the effects of emotional abuse and physical abuse on emotional problems among ODD children but not among non-ODD children. Implications for prevention of emotional and physical abuse and ODD in the Chinese cultural context are discussed.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Interpersonal Violence
    • "Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is an externalizing behavior disorder characterized by angry/irritable mood, noncompliance, and defiance (APA 2013) that is often comorbid with other conditions, particularly ADHD (Burke et al. 2002). Longitudinal research suggests that ODD in childhood often precedes later conduct disorder and substance abuse, as well as academic underachievement and school dropout in adolescence (Biederman et al. 2008; Bradshaw et al. 2010; Burke et al. 2002; Murrihy et al. 2010; Nock et al. 2007). Children with ODD may also experience social difficulties, such as peer rejection, that may affect their socio-emotional development and psychological adjustment (Hamilton and Armando 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), characterized by angry/irritable mood, and argumentative/defiant behavior, is associated with significant negative outcomes in childhood and beyond. Researchers posit that these behaviors arise from poor parenting and/or an incompatibility between characteristics of the child and the child’s parents, resulting in strained interaction styles. The present study examines parent–child synchrony, the inverse of parent–child incompatibility as a predictor of children’s emotional lability, aggression, and overall functioning following psychosocial treatment. Participants were 75 treatment-seeking families with children diagnosed with ODD (46 boys). Families received one of two empirically supported treatments for ODD (Parent Management Training or Collaborative and Proactive Solutions). Findings indicated that pre-treatment parent–child synchrony was associated with decreased emotional lability and aggression following both treatments, as well as improvement in overall functioning, irrespective of treatment condition. These results reflect the importance of parent–child relations at the onset of treatment in predicting response to treatment and suggest potential treatment targets within parent–child relationships.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Child and Family Studies
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    • "The initial challenge occurs when parents first learn about the child's diagnosis (Huang, Kellett, & St John, 2010). How parents overcome intense and difficult emotions and adapt to the novel situation affects parenting practices, approaches towards the child, and parents' general well-being (Burke et al., 2004). Emotional , social and physical health problems are frequently reported among parents of children with CP, including difficulties in maintaining social relationships , marital conflicts, disadvantage in employment, and insufficient support from services, among others (Brehaut et al., 2004; Davis et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Development of children with cerebral palsy (CP) depends on the quality of parental care. The aim of the research was to compare parenting attitudes in mothers of children with CP to mothers of typically developing children, and to study the relationship between parenting attitudes and personality traits, stress, coping strategies and self-efficacy in mothers of children with CP. Twenty-seven mothers of children with cerebral palsy (MCCP) (mean age 35.50 years, SD = 4.83) and twentyeight mothers (mean age 35.60 years, SD = 4.27) of typically developing children (MTDC) participated in this study. Each parent had a child between the ages of two and seven years. A battery of tests was administered to both groups, which included the Parenting Attitudes Scale (SPR), the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), and the COPE Inventory. Also, maternal stress and the amount of social support received were assessed. Although acceptance was the most common parental attitude among all participants, mothers of children with CP presented with a stronger tendency towards overprotective and demanding attitudes. MCCP obtained higher scores in neuroticism and lower in openness compared to MTDC. Furthermore, MCCP declared a higher level of distress than MTDC. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups of mothers regarding self-efficacy, the level of social support or the most often used coping strategies. Neuroticism was found to be the best predictor of overprotective and demanding parental attitudes. The study emphasises the importance of parenting programmes for mothers with children with CP to promote the development of autonomy among children with developmental difficulties.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
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