Significant Variation of the Elevated Nitric Oxide Levels in Aqueous Humor from Patients with Different Types of Glaucoma
National Yang Ming University, T’ai-pei, Taipei, TaiwanOphthalmologica (Impact Factor: 1.68). 11/2002; 216(5):346-50. DOI: 10.1159/000066187
Though several studies have shown that the biochemical function of nitric oxide (NO) in the eye might play an important role in the regulation of intraocular pressure (IOP), local control of ocular blood flow and loss of retinal ganglion cells by apoptosis, it is unclear whether the role of NO is similar in the pathogenesis of different kinds of glaucoma: primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), chronic closed-angle glaucoma (CCAG) and neovascular glaucoma (NVG). To further explore this issue, we measured the concentrations of NO in aqueous humor and plasma samples from patients with POAG (n = 31), CCAG (n = 76), NVG (n = 8) and cataract (n = 30). All of the NVG patients suffered from severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy, while other patients were free of any other systemic disease. The NO levels in both aqueous humor and plasma samples were assessed by chemiluminescence assay. We found that the NO levels in aqueous humor samples were greatly varied in patients with POAG (36.2 +/- 3.3 microM), CCAG (47.7 +/- 3.4 microM) and NVG (65.8 +/- 5.4 microM), and all of them were significantly higher than in cataract patients (27.0 +/- 2.9 microM p < 0.05). Except NVG patients whose NO levels in plasma samples were highest (24.1 +/- 3.5 microM) among all groups, the plasma NO levels were not significantly different between the other glaucoma patients and the cataract patients. We therefore concluded that significant variation of the elevated NO levels in aqueous humor samples from the patients with different types of glaucoma may reflect their differences in the pathogenesis.
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- "Significant quantities of NOS-2 have been detected in the astrocytes and microglia at optic nerve head of glaucoma patients. Elevated NO levels have been observed in the aqueous humor of glaucoma patients and a genetic association of iNOS and POAG has also been observed. The animal experiments have also shown an association of elevated ocular NO levels with RGC death. "
ABSTRACT: Glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness, is characterized by changes in the optic disc and visual field defects. The elevated intraocular pressure was considered the prime factor responsible for the glaucomatous optic neuropathy involving death of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. Extensive investigations into the pathophysiology of glaucoma now reveal the role of multiple factors in the development of retinal ganglion cell death. A better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the onset and progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy is crucial in the development of better therapeutic options. This review is an effort to summarize the current concepts in the pathophysiology of glaucoma so that newer therapeutic targets can be recognized. The literature available in the National Medical Library and online Pubmed search engine was used for literature review.
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ABSTRACT: Abnormal nitric oxide (NO) synthesis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. The aim of our study was to elucidate the relationship between the stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and the NO levels in aqueous humor and plasma. Using the chemiluminescence assay, we measured the concentrations of NO in aqueous humor and plasma samples obtained during intraocular surgery from 45 diabetic patients and 19 nondiabetic cataract patients. The patients with diabetes were classified into 4 groups: proliferative DR (PDR) with active neovascularization (active PDR; 9 cases), PDR with quiescent neovascularization (regressed PDR; 6 cases), background DR (BDR; 16 cases) and no DR (14 cases). We found that the aqueous NO levels (mean +/- SE) of the active PDR group (83.2 +/- 13.9 microM) were significantly higher than those of the BDR group (45.8 +/- 6.0 microM, p = 0.049) and the diabetics without DR (33.3 +/- 5.2 microM, p = 0.011), and, although not statistically significantly, they were also higher than those of the regressed PDR group (52.1 +/- 10.3 microM, p = 0.224). However, no significant differences were observed between any of the diabetic subgroups in the plasma NO levels (p = 0.345). We therefore concluded that NO present in the ocular tissues may play important roles in the progression of DR.
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ABSTRACT: The role of nitric oxide (NO) in neuronal degeneration of glaucoma is well established, and drugs to inhibit NO production have been introduced in preclinical studies. The present experiments were made to investigate the pharmacological efficacy of a topical formulation of the nonselective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), in an experimental model of glaucoma in rabbits. L-NAME was dissolved in an isotonic, mucoadhesive, viscosized, buffered solution in concentrations of 0.1%, 0.5%, or 1% (w/v). Ocular hypertension (of at least 15 mmHg compared to basal values) was induced by intra-ocular injection of alpha-chymotrypsin. The instillation of L-NAME topical formulations lowered the IOP of hypertensive rabbits in a dose-related manner, with a maximum drop of 12.0 mmHg 60 minutes after administration of the highest concentration. The area under the curve (AUC) of the DeltaIOP (mmHg) versus time (minutes) was 1050.3 +/- 141.7 and 15.1 +/- 2.5 for the 1% L-NAME-treated group and vehicle-treated group, respectively. No change was found in IOP or pupil diameter after instillation of L-NAME eye drops in normotensive rabbits. This study provides the first evidence that topical L-NAME significantly reduces the IOP in a model of ocular hypertension.
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