Determinants of nutrient intake among children and adolescents: Results from the enKid Study

Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, PO Box 550, E-35080 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 2.62). 02/2002; 46 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):31-8.
Source: PubMed


Although adequacy of nutrient intake has been studied considerably in children and adolescents across Europe, the factors associated with nutritional risk have rarely been addressed. This study was developed in order to explore the nutritional intakes of Spanish children and the factors influencing the risk of nutritional inadequacy.
To evaluate socio-economic and lifestyle variables associated with nutritional adequacy in Spanish children and adolescents.
A cross-sectional study utilising face-to-face interviews. A random sample of 3,534 individuals aged 2-24 years were interviewed by a team of 43 dieticians in the subjects' homes. Interviews included two 24-hour recalls (a second 24-hour recall in 25% of the sample) and other questions, including lifestyle. Weight and height were measured in all subjects. Under-reporters (18%) were excluded from the present analysis. An unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with greater nutritional risk.
The participation rate was 68%. Twenty percent of males and 50% of females were classified as being at high nutritional risk. Variables associated with increased nutritional risk were: age between 14 and 24 years, being female, low social class, low educational level of the mother, having more than one sibling, smoking, watching TV during meals, sedentary habits at leisure time, infrequent meals and a poor quality breakfast. One dietary factor closely associated with nutritional risk was a failure to consume ready-to-eat cereals.
Nutritional risk during infancy and adolescence is associated with socio-economic and educational variables of the family, and some lifestyle factors including physical activity and the quality of the breakfast meal.

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    • "However, people from Mediterranean countries are changing the traditional Mediterranean Diet and include low nutrient dense foods (such as sugared soft drinks, sweets, bakery products, salted snacks) or vary their food processing methods (such as refinement of flour) towards a less healthy diet. These changes may have contributed to an increased risk of deficient intakes for some vitamins, especially folates, vitamins A and D, as well as inadequate intakes for the rest of the vitamins, in particular among certain population groups or collectives (Serra-Majem et al., 2002). Finally, seasonality, biodiversity, the use of traditional and local food products are the key elements of the Mediterranean Diet for better understanding how all these differences may be translated in several " Mediterranean Diets " . "
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    ABSTRACT: The Mediterranean Diet, through a healthy profile of fat intake, carbohydrate atlow glycaemic index, high content of dietary fibre, antioxidants and anti- inflammatory compounds, reduces the risk of certain pathologies such as cardiovascular disease. However, it represents anything much more than a dietary regimen and it is also characterised by its links to the various food cultures ofthedifferentcountriesoftheMediterraneanarea.Ontheotherhand,the traditional cuisineofthePugliaregion(Southern Italy) isbasedonanutritionalmodelmainlyvegetarian becauseonlyasmallshareofcaloriesisof animal origin;cerealsarethebasicingredient,pulsesand oliveoilthemainproteinandfatsource,respectively. Inthispaperwereportedtheculture,history, identity andheritageofthisculinarymodeloftheSouthern Italytraditiontounderstandpossible linkages withtheMediterraneanDiet.Moreover, some traditional recipesofthePugliac
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
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    • "Another explanation could be due to the relationship between the number of sibling and the amount of food per one child; for instance, a previous study showed that the amount of food for each child in large families is smaller than that in small families [29]. In fact, one variable associated with increased nutritional risk was reported to be having more than one sibling [30]. Moreover, a previous study showed that only children had significantly higher intakes of many nutrients and nutrients/1000 kcal than children with sibling(s) [31], which might be due to the fact that a mother with an only child is more concerned with persuading her child to eat and grow than is a mother with several children [29]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Although several studies have investigated the relationship between the number of siblings or birth order and childhood overweight, the results are inconsistent. In addition, little is known about the impact of having older or younger siblings on overweight among elementary schoolchildren. The present population-based study investigated the relationship of the number of siblings and birth order with childhood overweight and evaluated the impact of having younger or older siblings on childhood overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Methods Subjects comprised fourth-grade schoolchildren (age, 9–10 years) in Ina Town during 1999–2009. Information about subjects’ sex, age, birth weight, birth order, number of siblings, lifestyle, and parents’ age, height, and weight was collected by a self-administered questionnaire, while measurements of subjects’ height and weight were done at school. Childhood overweight was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of "number of siblings" or "birth order" for overweight. Results Data from 4026 children were analyzed. Only children (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.45-3.14) and youngest children (1.56, 1.13-2.16) significantly increased ORs for overweight compared with middle children. A larger number of siblings decreased the OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001). Although there was no statistically significant relationship between a larger number of older siblings and overweight, a larger number of younger siblings resulted in a lower OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001). Conclusions Being an only or youngest child was associated with childhood overweight, and having a larger number of younger siblings was negatively associated with overweight. The present study suggests that public health interventions to prevent childhood overweight need to focus on children from these family backgrounds.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · BMC Public Health
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    • "Additionally, obese children show higher rates of meal skipping compared to non-obese children [19,20]. The reason for obesity due to meal skipping might be related to the observation that children do not select healthy foods or have poor eating habits [3,21]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study was performed to investigate the differences in food choice, nutrition labeling perceptions, and prevalence of obesity due to meal skipping in Korean elementary school children. A national survey was performed in 2010 to collect data on food intake frequency, understanding of nutrition labeling, and body mass index from 2,335 fifth grade students in 118 elementary schools selected from 16 metropolitan local governments by stratified cluster sampling. The data were analyzed using the SAS 9.1 and SUDAAN 10.0 packages. Students who consumed three meals for 6-7 days during the past week were classified into the regular meal eating (RM) group (n = 1,476) and those who did not were placed into the meal skipping (MS) group (n = 859). The daily intake frequency of fruits, vegetables, kimchi, and milk was significantly lower in the MS group compared to that in the RM group (P < 0.001), whereas the daily intake frequency of soft drinks and instant noodles (ramyeon) was significantly higher in the MS group than that in the RM group (P < 0.05). The MS group demonstrated a significantly lower degree of understanding with regard to nutrition labeling and high calorie foods containing low nutritional value than that in the RM group. The distribution of obesity based on the percentile criteria using the Korean growth chart was different between the MS and RM groups. The MS group (8.97%) had a higher percentage of obese subjects than that in the RM group (5.38%). In conclusion, meal skipping was related to poor food choice, low perception of nutrition labeling, and a high prevalence of obesity in Korean fifth grade children.
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