Immune status and autoantibody formation in children with chronic hepatitis B infection
Department of Pediatric Immunology and Pediatric Gastroenterology, Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey. Panminerva medica
(Impact Factor: 1.67).
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes a wide spectrum of disease which ranges from acute hepatitis to liver cirrhosis. Patients who fail to mount a vigorous immune response in acute HBV develop chronic infection. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the cellular and humoral immune parameters of the patients with chronic HBV and to evaluate the prevalence of autoantibodies before the beginning of immunomodulator and antiviral therapy.
In this comparative study, serum immunoglobulins, IgG subclasses, secretory IgA, serum complement components, lymphocyte subsets and CD11a, CD18, CD54 molecules on lymphocytes were determined in 44 hospitalized patients of chronic HBV infection and 20 cases of healthy control subjects.
Significant increase in IgG and significant decrease in the complement C4 were observed. The mean percentage of CD3+ lymphocytes, reflecting the percentage of total T cells was significantly higher in the patient group due to the increase of CD8+ lymphocytes. The mean percentage of CD19+ B lymphocytes was lower in the patient group secondary to the increase of their total T cells. No significant difference was found in cell surface adhesion molecules between patient and control groups. The percentage of antinuclear antibody positivity was 18.2%.
Our data show that ANA formation is part of the natural course of chronic HBV infection and this value may reflect the tendency to autoimmune diseases and the importance of clinical follow-up. The abnormalities observed in immunological parameters may reflect the role of the cellular and humoral immune system in pathogenesis.
Available from: Chi-Chiang Yang
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ABSTRACT: To study IgG subclasses for the hepatitis B virus (HBV) core antigen (anti-HBc) in different populations, a comparison was made between 104 chronic carriers (60 male and 44 female) and 434 recovered individuals (247 male and 192 female). Biochemistry analyses of AST (aspartate aminotransferase) and ALT (alanine aminotransferase) were also performed. Among the 104 chronic carriers, 21 patients were found to be ALT and AST abnormal (> 25 IU/ml). After comparing these ALT and AST abnormal patients with other ALT and AST normal chronic carriers, no statistical difference was observed in the OD values of the anti-HBe (p > 0.05). The ELISA results showed the anti-HBc IgG subclass pattern was IgG1 > IgG3 > IgG4 in chronic carriers and IgG3 > IgG1 > IgG4 in recovered individuals (p < 0.05). This result suggests the IgG1/IgG3 ratio may be related with HBV status. However, in spite of the different anti-HBc IgG1/IgG3 patterns demonstrated in different populations, both anti-HBc IgG1 and IgG3 concentrations were significantly higher in chronic carriers (p < 0.05). Therefore, both the anti-HBc IgG1/IgG3 ratio and their amounts differed. They may play a significant role in chronic carriers and recovered individuals. The anti-HBc IgG subclass profiles of chronic carriers were not changed regardless of liver inflammation, and were independent of sex and age.
Available from: Guzide Aksu
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ABSTRACT: Host-related immune factors in childhood chronic hepatitis B and change in the initial profile with interferon (IFN)-α treatment need to be clarified.
Sixteen patients were included in the study, and 10 million units of IFN-α treatment 3 times per week for 6 months was initiated. Pre- and post-treatment percentages of interleukin (IL)-2 and IFN-γ in CD4+ T cells were assessed to determine intracellular T helper cell 1 (Th1) type cytokine expression. Similarly, percentages of intracellular IL-2 and IFN-γ were detected to verify cytotoxic T cell 1 (Tc1) type cytokine expression in CD8+ T cells. Percentages of Th2 and Tc2 type cytokine expression (IL-4 and IL-13) were determined in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, respectively.
Six (50%) of these were evaluated as having no response and the other half with partial/complete response. All patients had higher percentages of Th2 cells with respect to healthy controls pre-treatment. Tc percentages, both Tc1 and Tc2, were significantly different between these groups, being higher in the patient group. When values of the nonresponder group were compared with healthy controls, IL-4 expression was higher and the percentages of Th1 type cells were significantly low. IL13 expression in Th and Tc cells decreased after 6 months of treatment in the unresponsive group. The decrease we observed in Th1 percentages with treatment, in the responsive group, may be due to Th1 deposition shifting from the periphery to liver tissue, as reported before. Intracellular cytokine profiles of treatment responders and normal controls were not different.
This is the first study in children comparing baseline and post-treatment intracellular cytokine profiles with values in healthy controls.
Available from: Charisse Flerida Pasaje
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ABSTRACT: The complement component 9 (C9), a major cytolytic protein in the complement system, plays an important role in the immunological process. However, associations between genetic variations of the complement factor and chronic hepatitis B virus infection still need to be investigated.
We hypothesized that genetic variations in the complement component 9 gene can influence the clearance of chronic hepatitis B virus infection, hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence, and onset age of hepatocellular carcinoma. To investigate the relationship between complement component 9 variations and these disease phenotypes, we performed a case-control association analysis in a Korean population.
Genetic variations were identified through direct DNA sequencing and genotyped using TaqMan assay (n = 1,103). In order to investigate the relationship of complement component 9 with chronic hepatitis B virus clearance and hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence, differences in SNP and haplotype frequency distributions were analyzed using logistic and multiple regression analyses with adjusted age and gender as covariates.
Although +23189C>T polymorphism in exon 4 and C9_ht2 [T-G-C-A-C] were significantly associated with clearance of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence, the association signals were not retained after multiple testing corrections.
We conclude that variations in the complement component 9 gene are unlikely to influence clearance of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence. Although this preliminary result provides meaningful information, further functional investigations in other genetic factors for pathway analyses are required.
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