Mosaic-Like Structure of Penicillin-Binding Protein 2 Gene (penA) in Clinical Isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with Reduced Susceptibility to Cefixime

Research Laboratories, Toyama Chemical Co., Ltd., 2-4-1, Shimookui, Japan.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Impact Factor: 4.48). 01/2003; 46(12):3744-9. DOI: 10.1128/AAC.46.12.3744-3749.2002
Source: PubMed


Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with reduced susceptibility to cefixime (MICs, 0.25 to 0.5 μg/ml) were isolated from male urethritis patients in
Tokyo, Japan, in 2000 and 2001. The resistance to cephems including cefixime and penicillin was transferred to a susceptible
recipient, N. gonorrhoeae ATCC 19424, by transformation of the penicillin-binding protein 2 gene (penA) that had been amplified by PCR from a strain with reduced susceptibility to cefixime (MIC, 0.5 μg/ml). The sequences of
penA in the strains with reduced susceptibilities to cefixime were different from those of other susceptible isolates and did
not correspond to the reported N. gonorrhoeae penA gene sequences. Some regions in the transpeptidase-encoding domain in this penA gene were similar to those in the penA genes of Neisseria perflava (N. sicca), Neisseria cinerea, Neisseria flavescens, and Neisseria meningitidis. These results showed that a mosaic-like structure in the penA gene conferred reductions in the levels of susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae to cephems and penicillin in a manner similar to that found for N. meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

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    • "Both DNA strands of the PCR products were sequenced with an ABI BigDye Terminator cycle sequencing kit (version 3.1) on an ABI 3130 xl sequencer, in accordance with the instructions from the manufacturer (Applied Biosystems , Foster City, CA, USA). The penA gene that encodes the PBP 2 X sequence variant has a mosaic-like structure that includes regions relatively similar to the corresponding regions of the penA genes of N. perflava, N. sicca and N. cinerea[23]. Subsequently, many different mosaic PBP 2 sequences have been described, which have up to 60 to 70 amino acid changes compared to a wild type PBP 2 sequence[7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), last options for first-line monotherapy of gonorrhoea, likely emerged and initially disseminated in Japan, followed by international transmission. In recent years, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) ST1901 and N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) ST1407 isolates with the mosaic penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 2 XXXIV have accounted for most ESC resistance globally. Our aim was to elucidate the initial emergence and transmission of ESC-resistant strains by detailed examination of N. gonorrhoeae isolates from 1995 to 2005 in Kanagawa, Japan. Methods: N. gonorrhoeae isolates were examined phenotypically (n = 690) and genetically (n = 372) by agar dilution method (cefixime, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin), penA gene sequencing, MLST and NG-MAST. Results: Already in 1995, one cefixime-resistant (CFM-R) isolate was found, which is the first CFM-R isolate described globally. After 1996, the prevalence of CFM-R and CFM-decreased susceptibility (CFM-DS) isolates significantly increased, with the peak resistance level in 2002 (57.1 % CFM-R). In 1997-2002, the CFM-R MLST ST7363 strain type with the mosaic PBP 2 X was predominant among CFM-R/DS isolates. The first CFM-R/DS MLST ST1901 clone(s), which became the predominant CFM-R/DS strain type(s) already in 2003-2005, possessed the mosaic PBP 2 X, which was possibly originally transferred from the MLST ST7363 strains, and subsequently acquired the mosaic PBP 2 XXXIV. The first MLST ST1901 and NG-MAST ST1407 isolate was identified in Kanagawa already in 2003. Conclusions: The two main internationally spread cefixime-resistant gonococcal clones, MLST ST7363 and ST1901 (NG-MAST ST1407 most frequent internationally) that also have shown their capacity to develop high-level ceftriaxone resistance (superbugs H041 and F89), likely emerged, evolved and started to disseminate in the metropolitan area, including Kanagawa, in Japan, which was followed by global transmission.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · BMC Infectious Diseases
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    • "Penicillin-binding proteins are involved in the synthesis of peptidoglycan, a major component of bacterial cell walls. Mosaic sequences of PBP2, resulting from recombination events involving penA gene sequences from other Neisseria species, have been identified in clinical isolates that demonstrate reduced susceptibility to cefixime and ceftriaxone [24-26]. Options to treat gonorrhoea if cephalosporins become ineffective are severely limited. "
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    ABSTRACT: A high level of resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has developed against penicillins, sulphonamides, tetracyclines and quinolones, and recent surveillance data have shown a gradual reduction in sensitivity to current first-line agents with an upward drift in the minimum inhibitory concentration of ceftriaxone. Laboratory sensitivity testing suggests that gentamicin, an aminoglycoside, may be an effective treatment option for gonorrhoea infection when used as a single intramuscular dose. A search of electronic reference databases and grey literature was used to identify randomised trials and well-conducted prospective studies with concurrent controls evaluating single-dose gentamicin against placebo or a comparator regimen in the treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhoea infection in men and women aged 16 years and over. The primary outcome was microbiological cure of N. gonorrhoeae. Eight hundred and thirty-nine studies were identified, of which five (1,063 total participants) were included. All five studies administered single-dose gentamicin via intramuscular injection to men with uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis. Three studies were randomised trials, one was quasi-randomised and one was non-randomised but included a comparator arm. Comparator antibiotics included an alternative aminoglycoside or antibiotic used in the syndromic management of male urethritis. Methodology was poorly described in all five included studies. The high risk of bias within studies and clinical heterogeneity between studies meant that it was inappropriate to pool data for meta-analysis. Cure rates of 62% to 98% were reported with gentamicin treatment. The relative risk of cure was comparable between gentamicin and comparator antibiotics. The studies identified provide insufficient data to support or refute the efficacy and safety of single-dose intramuscular gentamicin in the treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhoea infection. Additional randomised trials to evaluate gentamicin for this indication are therefore required. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42012002490
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Systematic Reviews
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    • "The European gonorrhoea treatment guideline was also revised in 2012, now recommending treatment with ceftriaxone 500 mg plus azithromycin 2 g [23]. Mutations in the penA gene (mosaic gene or A501 mutations) encoding the penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) is the main determinant for decreased susceptibility and resistance to ESCs [5,9,17,24-30]. For molecular epidemiological typing of gonococci, the N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) has been used in many countries [31]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In Poland, gonorrhoea has been a mandatorily reported infection since 1948, however, the reported incidences are likely underestimated. No antimicrobial resistance (AMR) data for Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been internationally reported in nearly four decades, and data concerning genetic characteristics of N. gonorrhoeae are totally lacking. The aims of this study were to investigate the AMR to previously and currently recommended gonorrhoea treatment options, the main genetic resistance determinant (penA) for extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), and genotypic distribution of N. gonorrhoeae isolates in Poland in 2010-2012. N. gonorrhoeae isolates cultured in 2010 (n = 28), 2011 (n = 92) and 2012 (n = 108) in Warsaw and Bialystok, Poland, were examined using antimicrobial susceptibility testing (Etest), pyrosequencing of penA and N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). The proportions of N. gonorrhoeae isolates showing resistance were as follows: ciprofloxacin 61%, tetracycline 43%, penicillin G 22%, and azithromycin 8.8%. No isolates resistant to ceftriaxone, cefixime or spectinomycin were found. However, the proportion of isolates with an ESC MIC = 0.125 mg/L, i.e. at the resistance breakpoint, increased significantly from none in 2010 to 9.3% and 19% in 2012 for ceftriaxone and cefixime, respectively. Furthermore, 3.1% of the isolates showed multidrug resistance, i.e., resistance to ciprofloxacin, penicillin G, azithromycin, and decreased susceptibility to cefixime (MIC = 0.125 mg/L). Seventy-six isolates (33%) possessed a penA mosaic allele and 14 isolates (6.1%) contained an A501V/T alteration in penicillin-binding protein 2. NG-MAST ST1407 (n = 58, 25% of isolates) was the most prevalent ST, which significantly increased from 2010 (n = 0) to 2012 (n = 46; 43%). In Poland, the diversified gonococcal population displayed a high resistance to most antimicrobials internationally previously recommended for gonorrhoea treatment and decreasing susceptibility to the currently recommended ESCs. The decreasing susceptibility to ESCs was mostly due to the introduction of the internationally spread multidrug-resistant NG-MAST ST1407 in 2011. It is essential to promptly revise the gonorrhoea treatment guidelines, improve the gonorrhoea laboratory diagnostics, and implement quality assured surveillance of gonococcal AMR (ideally also treatment failures) in Poland.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · BMC Infectious Diseases
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