Article

Hip fractures among the elderly: Causes, consequences and control

Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021, USA.
Ageing Research Reviews (Impact Factor: 4.94). 02/2003; 2(1):57-93. DOI: 10.1016/S1568-1637(02)00045-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

This review examines all pertinent literature sources published in the English language between 1966 to the present concerning hip fracture epidemiology, hip fracture injury mechanisms, and hip fracture management strategies. These data reveal hip fractures have several causes, but among these, the impact of falls and muscle weakness, along with low physical activity levels seems to be the most likely explanation for the rising incidence of hip fracture injuries. Related determinants of suboptimal nutrition, drugs that increase fall risk and lower the safety threshold and comorbid conditions of the neuromuscular system may also contribute to hip fracture disability. A number of interventions may help to prevent hip fracture injuries, including, interventions that optimize bone mass and quality, interventions that help prevent falls and falls dampening interventions. Rehabilitation outcomes may be improved by comprehensive interventions, prolonged follow-up strategies and ensuring that all aging adults enjoy optimal health.

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