ArticleLiterature Review

The Importance of the Ratio of Omega-6/Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids.

Authors:
  • Center for Genetics Nutrition and Health
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Abstract

Several sources of information suggest that human beings evolved on a diet with a ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFA) of approximately 1 whereas in Western diets the ratio is 15/1-16.7/1. Western diets are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids, and have excessive amounts of omega-6 fatty acids compared with the diet on which human beings evolved and their genetic patterns were established. Excessive amounts of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and a very high omega-6/omega-3 ratio, as is found in today's Western diets, promote the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, whereas increased levels of omega-3 PUFA (a low omega-6/omega-3 ratio) exert suppressive effects. In the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, a ratio of 4/1 was associated with a 70% decrease in total mortality. A ratio of 2.5/1 reduced rectal cell proliferation in patients with colorectal cancer, whereas a ratio of 4/1 with the same amount of omega-3 PUFA had no effect. The lower omega-6/omega-3 ratio in women with breast cancer was associated with decreased risk. A ratio of 2-3/1 suppressed inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and a ratio of 5/1 had a beneficial effect on patients with asthma, whereas a ratio of 10/1 had adverse consequences. These studies indicate that the optimal ratio may vary with the disease under consideration. This is consistent with the fact that chronic diseases are multigenic and multifactorial. Therefore, it is quite possible that the therapeutic dose of omega-3 fatty acids will depend on the degree of severity of disease resulting from the genetic predisposition. A lower ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is more desirable in reducing the risk of many of the chronic diseases of high prevalence in Western societies, as well as in the developing countries, that are being exported to the rest of the world.

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... Some reports suggest that the ancient human diet included the consumption of an equilibrated ω−6/ω−3 ratio near to 1:1 (Simopoulos, 2002(Simopoulos, , 2016(Simopoulos, , 2020. However, changes in dietary patterns over the last 150 years and the increased consumption of ω−6 in Western diets caused an imbalance in the ω−6/ω−3 ratio. ...
... The diets which contain a low ω−6/ω−3 ratio have a significant and positive impact on biological processes involved in the maintenance of normal brain function (Haag, 2003). Also, the consumption of a balanced ratio of ω−6/ω−3 between 2.5 and 5:1 has beneficial effects for patients with asthma and rheumatoid arthritis and for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (Simopoulos, 2002). On the contrary, excessive consumption of ω−6 PUFAs and high ω−6/ω−3 ratio represents a risk for overweight and obesity (Simopoulos, 2016) and can cause several illnesses such as cancer, inflammatory processes, cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases (Simopoulos, 2002). ...
... Also, the consumption of a balanced ratio of ω−6/ω−3 between 2.5 and 5:1 has beneficial effects for patients with asthma and rheumatoid arthritis and for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (Simopoulos, 2002). On the contrary, excessive consumption of ω−6 PUFAs and high ω−6/ω−3 ratio represents a risk for overweight and obesity (Simopoulos, 2016) and can cause several illnesses such as cancer, inflammatory processes, cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases (Simopoulos, 2002). Sublette et al. (2006) also support that low levels of DHA and high proportions of ω−6/ω−3 are associated with major depression and, possibly, suicidal behavior. ...
... Il est estimé que 0,5 à 4% du DHA exogène est rétroconverti en EPA (Brossard et al., 1996;Burdge & Calder, 2005). Tous ces apports en AGPI n-6 et AGPI n-3 vont jouer directement sur le ratio AGPI n-6/AGPI n-3 qui est un indicateur majeur en nutrition (Simopoulos, 2002(Simopoulos, , 2016. ...
... Ce régime implique une biosynthèse plus importante de AA, due à l'apport excessif de LA, ce qui diminue, par compétition la conversion en EPA et DHA. L'augmentation de la biosynthèse de AA va se répercuter directement sur la composition des phospholipides membranaires, en diminuant la teneur en EPA et DHA mais aussi en faisant varier les propriétés physico-chimiques des membranes (Simopoulos, 2002). L'ANSES recommande un ratio AGPI n-6/AGPI n-3 inférieur à 4 pour optimiser la biosynthèse de EPA et DHA mais aussi pour accroître les effets protecteurs des AGPI n-3 sur la santé (ANSES, 2011). ...
... Les interactions entre l'hôte et son microbiote reflètent une co-évolution mutuelle où chacun tire profit de l'autre. Dans un certain nombre de pathologies, telles que l'obésité ou la maladie de Crohn, le microbiote devient dysbiotique et engendre des conséquences néfastes pour l'hôte (Bäckhed et al., 2007;Hold et al., 2014;Turnbaugh et al., 2006 (Simopoulos, 2002). En effet, il a été montré qu'un ratio AGPI n-6/AGPI n-3 élevé était lié au développement de l'obésité (Simopoulos, 2016). ...
Thesis
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La prévention primaire et secondaire des pathologies inflammatoires chroniques telles que l’obésité et la maladie de Crohn (MC) reposent majoritairement sur des mesures hygiéno-diététiques incluant l’activité physique et la nutrition. Dans le cadre de ce travail de thèse, l’objectif principal était d’étudier l’influence de modalités d’exercice - exercice imposé de type intermittent de haute intensité (HIIT) ou activité de roue spontanée - associé à un apport en lin, riche en acides gras polyinsaturés (AGPI) n-3, sur les interrelations « composition corporelle – inflammation – microbiote intestinal » dans un contexte de pathologies inflammatoires chroniques (obésité, MC) sur modèles murins. Le deuxième objectif était d’étudier spécifiquement deux formes de lin, à travers la graine ou l’huile, afin de déterminer si la matrice de la graine de lin extrudée pouvait avoir des effets qui lui sont propres. Nos résultats indiquent qu’un programme de type HIIT est efficace pour prévenir la prise de poids et de masse grasse, et que le lin, indépendamment de sa forme, diminue l’inflammation. Nos travaux ont également montré un effet majeur du HIIT et de la graine de lin extrudée (TRADILIN, Valorex®) sur la modulation de la composition du microbiote intestinal associé à la muqueuse. Certaines de ces variations étaient corrélées aux modulations de la composition corporelle mais non à l’inflammation. Nos travaux ont montré spécifiquement un effet synergique du HIIT et de l’huile de lin sur l’abondance d’Oscillospira spp. et sur la conversion de l’acide α-linolénique en acide docosahexaénoïque. En conclusion, nos résultats montrent qu’un apport en lin, et particulièrement sous forme de graines extrudées, associé à une activité physique imposée et suffisamment intense, pourraient être efficace dans la prévention et/ou la prise en charge des pathologies inflammatoires chroniques telles que l’obésité et la MC. Les interrelations « composition corporelle – inflammation – microbiote intestinal », restent toutefois à approfondir et les mécanismes sous-jacents à explorer.
... Linoleic acid (LA; ω-6) is the most abundant (essential) fatty acid in chickpea, while α-linolenic acid (ALA; ω-3), the other essential fatty acid, is far less available in the seed . ALA is known for its human health benefits (Simopoulos, 2002(Simopoulos, , 2006(Simopoulos, , 2016. Thus, breeding chickpea to enrich the seed in ALA is important; however, the quantitative nature of these genetic traits makes chickpea breeding much complicated than for traits controlled by a single gene. ...
... The ω-6/ω-3 fatty acid ratio is an important indicator of the impact of EFAs on human health (Simopoulos, 2002). This ratio is a disease-controlling parameter, where the optimum range is 1-4:1 or 1-5:1 (Simopoulos, 2002(Simopoulos, , 2006Singh, 2005). ...
... The ω-6/ω-3 fatty acid ratio is an important indicator of the impact of EFAs on human health (Simopoulos, 2002). This ratio is a disease-controlling parameter, where the optimum range is 1-4:1 or 1-5:1 (Simopoulos, 2002(Simopoulos, , 2006Singh, 2005). This value ranges from 1-2:1 for optimum health benefits for combating obesity (Simopoulos, 2016). ...
... Additionally, another important determinant of health, namely the ratio of n-6/n-3 Fas, was evaluated [50]. ...
... Another relevant indicator, namely, the n-6/n-3 ratio, was exploited for explaining the influence of dietary PUFAs on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders as well. In the most simplistic interpretation, an n-6/n-3 ratio close to 10 is considered detrimental for human health, while a value as close as possible to 1 is considered protective against such pathologies [50]. ...
... Overall, the improvement of the functional traits in heavier chickens, as well as through feeding manipulation, led to the production of a healthier breast meat, whose regular consumption may prevent the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases and other disorders related to dyslipidemia. In particular, based on the calculated n-6/n-3 ratios, the consumption of products from heavier birds (ratio close to 4:1) would already protect from cardiovascular diseases while the functional meat (ratio < 2.5:1) would also reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, typically associated with the high consumption of meat [50]. ...
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The effect of dietary enrichment with flaxseed, selenium and vitamin E, and market class on the nutritional and functional value of breast meat was evaluated. A completely randomized block design was set up, where the experimental unit (n = 6000 birds) received conventional or enriched diet and was slaughtered at 37 (light class), 47 (medium class), or 57 (heavy class) days of life. Hence, functional and standard Pectoralis major muscles from every market class were analyzed for FA composition, inorganic elements and vitamin E. Lipid metabolism indices and health lipid indicators were assessed along with the nutritional value. A multiple linear model revealed that in breasts, the dietary treatment significantly influenced (p < 0.05) the FA profile, lipid metabolism and health lipid indices, while the slaughtering weight was related (p < 0.05) to most of elements (e.g., Na, Mg, K, Mn, and Se) and vitamin E. The interdependence of the two factors had strong relations (p < 0.05) with total PUFAs, including linolenic acid, desaturase activities, health lipid indices, trace essential elements and vitamin E. Consequently, enriched meat from heavy chickens showed the best functional and nutritional traits. Overall, the study pointed out that both market class and dietary manipulation are two relevant factors to consider for producing breast meat with higher nutritional and functional value.
... The dietary intake ratio of n-6 to n-3 FAs has also been reported to be of significance in overall health (Liu et al., 2017;Riediger et al., 2008;Russo, 2008;Yang et al., 2015). Apart from the n-6/n-3 ratio, two other nutritional quality indices, the atherogenicity (AI) and thrombogenicity index (TI), are commonly employed to estimate the nutritional value of PUFAs in human metabolism (Simopoulos, 2002;Ulbricht & Southgate, 1991). These indices are strongly associated with disease prevention and are claimed to promote health (Cherifi et al., 2018;Rhee et al., 2016;Simopoulos, 2002). ...
... Apart from the n-6/n-3 ratio, two other nutritional quality indices, the atherogenicity (AI) and thrombogenicity index (TI), are commonly employed to estimate the nutritional value of PUFAs in human metabolism (Simopoulos, 2002;Ulbricht & Southgate, 1991). These indices are strongly associated with disease prevention and are claimed to promote health (Cherifi et al., 2018;Rhee et al., 2016;Simopoulos, 2002). ...
... However, the importance of this ratio is debated, and the FAO does not give any specific recommendations (FAO, 2010). For years, nutritionists have emphasized adding fish rich in n-3 FAs to the Western diets, with the purpose of obtaining a more optimal n-6/n-3 ratio (Simopoulos, 2002). ...
Article
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The fatty acid profiles of wild and farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and salmon feed was elucidated and quantitated. Due to the increasing proportion of vegetable oils in salmon feed, it was of interest to evaluate the effects on the farmed salmon fatty acid profile. There was found to be four times more fat in the muscle in farmed compared to wild salmon, 8.97 ± 0.63% and 2.14 ± 0.32%, respectively. The contents of saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 15.0%, 55.4%, and 29.6%, respectively, in farmed salmon, while 26.3%, 47.4%, and 26.3% in wild salmon. The lipids were also fractioned into neutral lipids, free fatty acids, and polar lipids by solid-phase extraction. Both wild and farmed salmon contained approximately equal amount of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid with 520 and 523 mg/100 g fish muscle, respectively. The salmons of both kinds were evaluated from a health perspective by discussing the contents of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids together with nutritional quality indices. In conjunction with a lower fat intake by consumption, the wild Atlantic salmon displayed the most nutritionally beneficial profile.
... Corn and soybean meal are the main components of poultry diets and enrich poultry products in ω-6 FAs. Consequently, the ω-6/ω-3 ratio increased to 15-16.7:1 in poultry products [2]. This higher level of ω-6 FAs and an increased ω-6/ω-3 ratio contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, inflammation [2], and obesity [3]. ...
... Consequently, the ω-6/ω-3 ratio increased to 15-16.7:1 in poultry products [2]. This higher level of ω-6 FAs and an increased ω-6/ω-3 ratio contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, inflammation [2], and obesity [3]. The Minister of National Health and Welfare Canada [4] recommended an ω-6/ω-3 ratio of 4:1 in human diets. ...
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Background: Looking for alternative omega-3 sources in broiler nutrition, microalgae began to get attention. We suspected that schizochytrium might play a similar role as other omega-3 sources that have been used before. Methods: 20 g/kg schizochytrium powder (SP), salmon oil (SO), and flaxseed oil (FO) in each of the three treatment groups were supplemented in the basal diet (CON), and productive performance, carcass traits, and thigh meat quality of broilers were evaluated. Results: There was a significantly higher weight gain in the SP treatment compared to the other groups, but no difference was found in feed intake and feed conversion ratio. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance values increased during storage in all the treatments but were significantly lower for SP than for SO and FO after 7 days of storage. Among the ω-3 fatty acids (FAs), α-linolenic acid increased the most in the FO treatment, eicosapentaenoic acid increased the most in the SO treatment, and docosahexaenoic acid increased the most in the SP treatment in thigh meat, reflecting the FA composition of the lipid source diets. Conclusions: We suggested that all the dietary ω-3 FA sources could improve the FA composition of chicken meat and our results indicated the possibility to supplement broiler diets with 2% level of SP, SO, and FO as ω-3 FA sources to produce meat with a good nutritional quality for consumer's health benefits.
... These contrasting results are imputable to different nutrient exposure and variable capacity to utilize/metabolize omega-3 among individuals. In this regard, the ratio between omega-3 and omega-6 amounts must be controlled since omega-6 PUFAs compete for the same enzymes involved in the omega-3 PUFAs pathway, making such a ratio crucial for the inflammatory balance [216]. The recommended value is 4:1 or less. ...
... The recommended value is 4:1 or less. Nonetheless, disproportionate amounts of omega-6 PUFAs are found in today's Western diets leading to 10:1-50:1 ratio [216]. ...
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Increasing evidence on the significance of nutrition in reproduction is emerging from both animal and human studies, suggesting a mutual association between nutrition and female fertility. Different “fertile” dietary patterns have been studied; however, in humans, conflicting results or weak correlations are often reported, probably because of the individual variations in genome, proteome, metabolome, and microbiome and the extent of exposure to different environmental conditions. In this scenario, “precision nutrition”, namely personalized dietary patterns based on deep phenotyping and on metabolomics, microbiome, and nutrigenetics of each case, might be more efficient for infertile patients than applying a generic nutritional approach. In this review, we report on new insights into the nutritional management of infertile patients, discussing the main nutrigenetic, nutrigenomic, and microbiomic aspects that should be investigated to achieve effective personalized nutritional interventions. Specifically, we will focus on the management of low-grade chronic inflammation, which is associated with several infertility-related diseases.
... The atherogenic (AI) and thrombogenic index (TI) consider the effects of FA on human health, as well as the probability of an increase in incidence of injuries such as atheroma and/or thrombus formation (Pilarczyk et al., 2015). Another index regarding the profile of FA is the n-6 to n-3 ratio, which is a numerical balance between these FA, as n-6 and n-3 have distinct metabolic pathways, both necessary for physiological functions (Simopoulos, 2002). ...
... The nutritional and health indexes PUFA/SFA, n-6/n-3, AI, and TI, are commonly used to evaluate the nutritional value and effects of edible products on consumer health. In general, a ratio of dietary PUFA to SFA above 0.45 and a ratio of n-6/n-3 below 4.0 are expected to reduce the risk of diseases such as coronary heart disease and cancer (Simopoulos, 2002). Furthermore, the low PUFA/SFA ratio (0.04 g/100g FAME) reported in this study was due to the high SFA content in the two sets of milk samples analyzed. ...
Article
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Bovine milk is one of the most complete foods that exist. During the last decades, milk FA have shown to improve human health due to the reduction in risk of cardiovascular disease and related pathologies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) reflectance analysis to predict the nutritional value, fatty acid (FA) composition, and health index of fresh milk from dairy cows of pastoral systems. The prediction of Atherogenicity and Thrombogenicity indexes, along with other FA ratios in fresh milk samples by NIRS were precise and accurate. In addition, the calibration model obtained by NIRS provides an opportunity for the routine quantification of milk's healthy FA such as omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), with applications in the dairy industry for food labeling, and at the farm level for management of the dairy cow's diet. RESUMEN: Determinación de los índices de salud nutricional de la leche fresca de bovino mediante espectroscopía de infrarrojo cercano. La leche bovina es uno de los alimentos más completos que existe. Durante la última década, se ha demostrado que los ácidos grasos de la leche pueden mejorar la salud humana, a través de la reducción del riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares y patologías asociadas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la factibilidad del análisis de reflectancia NIRS para predecir valor nutricional, com-posición de ácidos grasos e índices de salud de leche fresca de vacas de sistemas lecheros pastoriles. La predicción por NIRS del índice aterogénico y trombogénico, de ácidos grasos en muestras de leche fresca, fueron precisos. Por tanto, el modelo de calibración obtenido por NIRS representa una oportunidad para la cuantificación rutinaria de los ácidos grasos saludables de la leche como omega-3 y CLA, con aplicaciones en la industria lechera para el etiquetado nutricional y a nivel de lechería para el manejo de la alimentación de las vacas.
... Omega-3 has multiple benefits for human health including anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, anti-oxidant, anti-depressive, anti-aging and anti-arthritic activities [62]. While contemporary western diets are promoting the genesis of many diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases as a consequence of the excessive amounts of omega-6 (ω-6) PUFAs and a very high ω-6/ω-3 ratio due to their dietary habits and lifestyle [63,64], increased levels of ω-3 (a low ω-6/ω-3 ratio) in the diet may help reduce the onset of these diseases [64]. Although jellyfish are not likely to be exploited as a source of fatty acid integrators given their low content compared to other marine organisms [65], their biochemical composition makes them a healthy food to be included in the dietary composition of western countries, as suggested by recent studies [66]. ...
... Omega-3 has multiple benefits for human health including anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, anti-oxidant, anti-depressive, anti-aging and anti-arthritic activities [62]. While contemporary western diets are promoting the genesis of many diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases as a consequence of the excessive amounts of omega-6 (ω-6) PUFAs and a very high ω-6/ω-3 ratio due to their dietary habits and lifestyle [63,64], increased levels of ω-3 (a low ω-6/ω-3 ratio) in the diet may help reduce the onset of these diseases [64]. Although jellyfish are not likely to be exploited as a source of fatty acid integrators given their low content compared to other marine organisms [65], their biochemical composition makes them a healthy food to be included in the dietary composition of western countries, as suggested by recent studies [66]. ...
Article
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The world’s population growth and consequent increased demand for food, energy and materials together with the decrease of some natural resources have highlighted the compelling need to use sustainably existing resources and find alternative sources to satisfy the needs of growing and longer-aging populations. In this review, we explore the potential use of a specific fisheries by-catch, jellyfish, as a sustainable source of high-value compounds. Jellyfish are often caught up with fish into fishing gear and nets, then sorted and discarded. Conversely, we suggest that this by-catch may be used to obtain food, nutraceutical products, collagen, toxins and fluorescent compounds to be used for biomedical applications and mucus for biomaterials. These applications are based on studies which indicate the feasibility of using jellyfish for biotechnology. Because jellyfish exhibit seasonal fluctuations in abundance, jellyfish by-catches likely follow the same pattern. Therefore, this resource may not be constantly available throughout the year, so the exploitation of the variable abundances needs to be optimized. Despite the lack of data about jellyfish by-catches, the high value of their compounds and their wide range of applications suggest that jellyfish by-catches are a resource which is discarded at present, but needs to be re-evaluated for exploitation within the context of a circular economy in the era of zero waste.
... Omega 6 and omega 3 are essential fatty acids that must be part of the diet, since the human body is not able to synthesize them [56]. However, it is important that there is a balance in the intake of both, as the high consumption of omega 6 associated with low consumption of omega 3 may be related to the development of several pathologies [56][57][58]. The association of bovine colostrum with whey resulted in a lower n6:n3 ratio than that found in pure bovine colostrum, a factor considered beneficial to human health [57]. ...
... However, it is important that there is a balance in the intake of both, as the high consumption of omega 6 associated with low consumption of omega 3 may be related to the development of several pathologies [56][57][58]. The association of bovine colostrum with whey resulted in a lower n6:n3 ratio than that found in pure bovine colostrum, a factor considered beneficial to human health [57]. ...
Article
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The objective of this study was to investigate the nutritional quality of bovine colostrum and whey mixtures. Five whey with bovine colostrum formulations were prepared (90:10; 80:20; 70:30; 60:40 and 50:50 whey:colostrum v:v) to be subjected to low-temperature pasteurization (63°C to 65°C for 30 minutes) and freeze-drying. The samples underwent chemical composition characterization, fatty acid profile analysis, determination of contamination by Enterobacteriaceae, pH, and Dornic acidity measurements before and after vat pasteurization. The amount of protein, fat, total solids, defatted dry extract, Brix and density increased as the bovine colostrum concentration increased. The level of saturated fatty acids and the thrombogenicity and atherogenicity indices reduced, while unsaturated fatty acids increased as the level of added bovine colostrum increased. The low-temperature pasteurization of the formulations was possible and effective, eliminating contamination by Enterobacteriaceae in the samples. Mixing bovine colostrum and whey reduced the colostrum viscosity, allowing a successful pasteurization procedure. Due to colostrum composition, the formulations yielded a higher nutritional value when compared to whey alone. The parameters applied in the formulation of mixtures of bovine colostrum and whey resulted in valuable ingredients for preparing novel dairy products.
... The optimal FA composition is a decisive factor for the nutritional value of food products. A high ratio of omega-3/ omega-6 FA is required for healthy nutrition, whereas a lower omega-3/omega-6 ratio is supposedly associated with adverse health effects (Fabiani et al., 2021;Simopoulos, 2002). In western diets, high contents of omega-6 FA are prevailing, which might be related to several diseases of affluence, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and autoimmune diseases (Shanab et al., 2018;Simopoulos, 2002). ...
... A high ratio of omega-3/ omega-6 FA is required for healthy nutrition, whereas a lower omega-3/omega-6 ratio is supposedly associated with adverse health effects (Fabiani et al., 2021;Simopoulos, 2002). In western diets, high contents of omega-6 FA are prevailing, which might be related to several diseases of affluence, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and autoimmune diseases (Shanab et al., 2018;Simopoulos, 2002). In contrast, higher chained omega-3 FA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are important precursors of hormones and can be protective against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and multiple sclerosis disease (Shanab et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Blue-green light is known to maximize the degree of fatty acid (FA) unsaturation in microalgae. However, knowledge on the particular waveband responsible for this stimulation of FA desaturation and its impact on the pigment composition in microalgae remains limited. In this study, Acutodesmus obliquus was cultivated for 96 h at 15 C with different light spectra (380-700 nm, 470-700 nm, 520-700 nm, 600-700 nm, and dark controls). Growth was monitored daily, and qualitative characterization of the microalgal FA composition was achieved via gas chromatography coupled with electron impact ionization mass spectrometry (GC-EI/MS). Additionally, a quantitative analysis of microalgal pigments was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Spectra that included wavelengths between 470 and 520 nm led to a significantly higher percentage of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) 18:3 and 16:4, compared to all other light conditions. However, no significant differences between the red light culti-vations and the heterotrophic dark controls were observed for the FA 18:3 and 16:4. These results indicate, that exclusively the blue-green light waveband between 470 and 520 nm is responsible for a maximized FA unsaturation in A. obliquus. Furthermore, the growth and production of pigments were impaired if blue-green light (380-520 nm) was absent in the light spectrum. This knowledge can contribute to achieving a suitable microalgal pigment and FA composition for industrial purposes and must be considered in spectrally selective microalgae cultivation systems.
... The typical Western diet is usually high in SFAs and n−6 PUFAs and deficient in n−3 PUFAs, related to an increased risk of developing CVDs, diabetes, obesity, and cancer (Simopoulos, 2002). However, FAs need to be considered individually to assess their effects on human health (Calder, 2015;Bloomfield et al., 2016). ...
... However, the conversion from ALA to longchain n−3 PUFAs remains low and is influenced by sex and LA concentrations (Harnack et al., 2009;Welch et al., 2010;Zhou et al., 2019). The n−6:n−3 ratio in the Western diet is estimated to be between 15:1 and 20:1 compared to 1:1 in wild animals or traditional human diets (Simopoulos, 2002(Simopoulos, , 2006. A lower n−6:n−3 ratio is considered important to prevent chronic diseases (Simopoulos, 2006;Husted and Bouzinova, 2016). ...
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As the global population increases, so does meat consumption. This trend is accompanied by concerns regarding the meat industry, and consumers are demanding transparency on the environmental and health effects of the products they are purchasing. Many leading health organizations recommend reducing red meat consumption. Nevertheless, no differentiation is made among red meats and beef. The beef production system is generally ignored despite nutritional differences between grain- and grass-fed beef. Compared to grain-fed beef, grass-fed beef contains a healthier fatty acid profile, including more omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid, and increased concentrations of phytochemicals desired by health-conscious customers. However, there is a lack of consistency among grass-fed beef in the United States regarding clear product labeling and cattle dietary components. Grass-fed beef labeling confusion has emerged, including misunderstandings between grass-fed and grass-finished beef. Along with this, previous studies observed significant nutritional variation among grass-finished beef from different producers across the country. Cattle diet has the strongest influence on the nutritional composition of beef. Therefore, understanding differences in feeding practices is key to understanding differing nutritional quality of grass-fed beef. Feeding cattle diverse pastures composed of multiple plant species including grasses and legumes managed in a rotational grazing fashion results in higher omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and phytochemical levels in beef compared to feedlots and monocultures. Seasonal differences including changes in temperature, rainfall, grazing practices, and plant growth cycles affect the nutritional composition of feeds and ultimately meat. Additional feeds utilized in grass-fed beef production systems such as conserved forages may reduce or increase health-promoting nutrients in grass-fed beef, while supplements such as grape byproducts and flaxseed may improve its nutritional profile. Further research should measure the effects of individual feedstuff and the finishing period on the nutritional profile on grass-fed beef. A better understanding of these details will be a step toward the standardization of pasture-raised ruminant products, strengthening the relationship between grass-fed beef consumption and human health.
... The ratio of omega 6:3 PUFA are not just slightly different between the diets; summer Standard Rodent Chow plasma is 7.3 times the ratio of wild AGS in summer. This suggests that the current laboratory diet, which is indicative of a Westernized diet with heavy dietary input from omega 6 PUFA and deficiencies in omega 3 PUFA (Simopoulos 2002), does not represent the wild ratio of omega 6:3. Feeding the Balanced Diet led to omega 6:3 ratios that mimicked plasma profiles of wild AGS in autumn. ...
Article
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Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are well-documented for their influence on health and weight loss. Recent studies indicate omega 3 PUFAs may exert a negative impact on cellular stress and physiology in some hibernators. We asked if physiological stress indicators, lipid peroxidation and mass gain in Arctic Ground Squirrels (AGS) were negatively influenced by naturally occurring dietary omega 3 PUFA levels compared to omega 3 PUFA levels found in common laboratory diets. We found plasma fatty acid profiles of free-ranging AGS to be high in omega 3 PUFAs with balanced omega 6:3 ratios, while standard laboratory diets and plasma of captive AGS are high in omega 6 and low in omega 3 PUFAs with higher omega 6:3 ratios. Subsequently, we designed a diet to mimick free-range AGS omega 6:3 ratios in captive AGS. Groups of wild-caught juvenile AGS were either fed: (1) Mazuri Rodent Chow (Standard Rodent chow, 4.95 omega 6:3 ratio), or (2) balanced omega 6:3 chow (Balanced Diet, 1.38 omega 6:3). AGS fed the Balanced Diet had plasma omega 6:3 ratios that mimicked plasma profiles of wild AGS. Balanced Diet increased female body mass before hibernation, but did not influence levels of cortisol in plasma or levels of the lipid peroxidation product 4-HNE in brown adipose tissue. Overall, as the mass gain is critical during pre-hibernation for obligate hibernators, the results show that mimicking a fatty acid profile of wild AGS facilitates sex-dependent mass accumulation without increasing stress indicators.
... Oxidative stress in cells typically results from an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as free radicals [1,2], which can lead to an array of human ailments, including neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular complications, aging or cancer [2][3][4][5]. The dietary intake of antioxidant compounds such as vitamins, fatty acids or carotenoids has hence been recognised as an efficient way to maintain homeostasis and reduce risks of lipid peroxidation and ROS production [6][7][8][9]. Epidemiological studies have also indicated that dietary antioxidants may play an important role in neuroprotection [10]. ...
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There has been increasing demands worldwide for bioactive compounds of natural origins, especially for the nutraceutical and food-supplement sectors. In this context, microalgae are viewed as sustainable sources of molecules with an array of health benefits. For instance, astaxanthin is a xanthophyll pigment with powerful antioxidant capacity produced by microalgae such as the chlorophyte Haematococcus sp., which is regarded as the most suitable organism for the mass production of this pigment. In this study, three Haematococcus sp. strains were cultivated using a batch mode under favourable conditions to promote vegetative growth. Their environment was altered in a second phase using a higher and constant illumination regime combined with either exposure to blue LED light, an osmotic shock (with NaCl addition) or supplementation with a phytohormone (gibberellic acid, GA3), a plant extract (ginger), an herbicide (molinate) or an oxidant reagent (hydrogen peroxide). The effects of these stressors were evaluated in terms of antioxidant response and astaxanthin and β-carotene accumulation. Overall, strain CCAP 34/7 returned the highest Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) response (14.1–49.1 µmoL Trolox eq. g− 1 of DW), while the highest antioxidant response with the Folin–Ciocalteu (FC) was obtained for strain RPFW01 (62.5–155 µmoL Trolox eq. g− 1 of DW). The highest β-β-carotene content was found in strain LAFW15 when supplemented with the ginger extract (4.8 mg. g− 1). Strain RPFW01 exposed to blue light returned the highest astaxanthin yield (2.8 mg. g− 1), 5-fold that of strain CCAP 34/7 on average. This study documents the importance of screening several strains when prospecting for species with potential to produce high-value metabolites. It highlights that strain-specific responses can ensue from exposure of cells to a variety of stressors, which is important for the adequate tailoring of a biorefinery pipeline. Graphical Abstract
... Baltymų ir riebalų suvartojimas vertintas atsižvelgiant į mokslinėje literatūroje pateiktas rekomendacijas . Sportininkams rekomenduojamas baltymų kiekis sudaro 1,4-2 g/kg, polinesočiųjų RR teikiamos energinės vertės (TEV) procentas -6-10 %, ω-6 RR -5-8 %, ω-3 RR -1-2 %, o ω-6 ir ω-3 RR tarpusavio santykis -atitinkamai 1-4 : 1 (Baranauskas et al., 2020;Simopoulos, 2002). Maisto papildų vartojimo įpročių tyrimui buvo parengta ir panaudota sportininkų mitybos tyrimų anketa (Baranauskas, 2012 ...
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Nowadays athletes are forced to take a variety of nutritional supplements and regularly consult with nutritionists and sports physicians. However, there are also far more ambiguous ways to reach sporting heights: the use of certain banned substances. Normally, appropriate drugs are prescribed only to patients, but, paradoxically, athletes often become such patients in order to legally consume what is prohibited. The article seeks to clarify the manifestation of such behavior, its potential benefits, and its relationship to the concepts of sports law and sports sociology. The study revealed that the use of illicit drugs still remains in the gray area and there is still a lack of research perspective on inhalers containing beta-2 agonists. The main recommendation that follows from the article is that the WADA should scientifically investigate whether certain asthmatic symptoms during tough physical and psychological exertion can be equated to a medical diagnosis of asthma.
... It should also be considered that selective breeding for increased muscle fat content would result in an increase in all fatty acids, including the less desirable omega-6 fatty acids. This is critical from a nutritional health perspective, as it is not only the amount of EPA and DHA that is important, but also the ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acids (Saini and Keum, 2018;Simopoulos, 2002). In addition, the genetic correlations indicated that increasing muscle fat would actually reduce the proportional content of DHA in the muscle, leading to a less desirable fatty acid profile of the seabream fillet (Table 6). ...
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Lipid-related traits are important candidates for a breeding goal for gilthead seabream, because they affect both fish and human health, as well as production efficiency. However, to date there have been very few estimates of genetic parameters for these traits, and the genetic relationship between fatty acids and other important traits have never been reported for gilthead seabream. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate genomic heritability and genetic relationships of fat deposition traits and individual muscle fatty acids in a commercial population of gilthead seabream using the novel ~30 k MedFish SNP array. In total 967 gilthead seabream fed with a commercial feed were genotyped with the MedFish SNP chip which included ~30 K informative markers for this species. On average, the fish weighed 372 g. The mean content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was 822 mg per 100 g fillet. The heritability of muscle fat, viscera weight and percentage viscera were in the range of 0.34–0.46. The genetic correlation of body weight with muscle fat was 0.12, indicating that genetic variation in muscle fat is largely independent of the weight of the fish. The heritability of the product of endogenous fatty acid synthesis (n = 240), palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), was high (0.43). The estimated heritability of EPA (%) and DHA (%) was 0.39 and 0.33, respectively. Both EPA and DHA had low, non-significant genetic correlations with body weight, and DHA had a negative genetic correlation with muscle fat (−0.53). It is possible to increase EPA and DHA content in gilthead seabream fillets by selective breeding. The high heritability of 16:1n-7, a marker of de novo lipogenesis, suggests that there is a strong genetic component to this metabolic pathway in gilthead seabream. Muscle fat deposition and body weight seem to be independent traits, and selective breeding for faster growth is not likely to influence the proportional content of EPA and DHA.
... For example, it is well known, especially in the clinical field, the anti-inflammatory role of some fatty acids, especially those of polyunsaturated chain, such as omega 3 and 6 (53). However, it is the ratio in which they are supplied that promotes an inflammatory or anti-inflammatory status in the body, therefore for the majority of athletes it is recommended to provide them in a ratio of 2: 1 (omega 3: omega 6) (54,55). Ensure this ratio is complex, as a food is generally composed of many other nutrients, being very difficult to find exclusive sources of omega 3 and omega 6. ...
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Introduction: only sparse scattered studies present a practical approach on the nutritional requirements of modern basketball players. Thispaper aims to gather and complete such a disseminated knowledge from a theoretical-practical perspective.Objectives: to analyze the fatigue produced during a basketball game, while offering a practical solution to accelerate its recovery through nutrition.Methods: database research over the reviews of the last 15 years and its original articles on basketball of the last 5 years.Results: the selection of nutrients and food supplements along with their proper timing and doses are key for a quicker and more effective recovery.Conclusions: nutrition before, during and after games or high intense practices, plays a fundamental role in the recovery of the basketball player (PDF) The role of nutrition in the recovery of a basketball player (English). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/360080845_The_role_of_nutrition_in_the_recovery_of_a_basketball_player_English [accessed May 17 2022].
... 12,144,146 Omega-6 fatty acids are metabolized to proinflammatory substances that influence cytokine production, platelet aggregation, vasodilation, and vascular permeability, and therefore may be harmful. [147][148][149][150][151] Nutritional support high in omega-6 fatty acids should be avoided. 147 Nutritional supplementation with higher omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acid ratios have been recommended to reduce the risks of inflammatory disorders such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, cancer, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and asthma. ...
... In fact, long-chain n-3 PUFAs give rise to anti-inflammatory mediators, decrease the production of inflammatory mediators such as eicosanoids and cytokines and the expression of adhesion molecules [51]. It is reported that long chain n-3 and n-6 dietary PUFA ratios could have had immune modulatory and anti-inflammatory effects on the development of gastritis (and related secondary renal amyloidosis) in cheetahs [48,[52][53][54]. In addition, studies demonstrate that n-3 PUFAs could reduce Helicobacter spp. ...
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The rapid decline of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) throughout their range and long-term studies of captive breeding has increased conservation action for this species including the study of chronic diseases. Gastritis is one of the captive diseases that leads to high mortality presented with symptoms including vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, and weight loss. The disease presents different histological lesions in the gastrointestinal tract that are characterized by inconstant and different clinical appearance in captive and free-range cheetahs. The aim of this review is to summarize the causes of chronic gastritis in the cheetah. Factors including diet, living conditions, infections with gastric Helicobacter-like organisms (GHLOs), the lack of genetic polymorphism and the cheetah’s specific-immunocompetence are analyzed. All studies on gastroenteric cheetah pathologies, conducted between 1991 (to the best of our knowledge, the first report on online databases) and 2021, are included in this review, highlighting the possible correlation between stress-related captive conditions and chronic gastric pathology.
... Thus, it is clear that after high pressure pasteurisation, the fatty acid profile of HPP milk did not differ across storage under RF and HS samples. On the other hand, the ratio n-6/n-3 in milk fat was consistently at 6:1, as usually reported for milk (Bainbridge, et al, 2016;Simopoulos, 2002). ...
Article
High pressure pasteurised (HPP) milk was stored by hyperbaric storage at room temperature (HS/RT) (50-100 MPa at 20 °C) and compared with refrigeration/(RF), to assess the effect on two pathogens surrogates and a pathogenic, up to 120 days, and on fatty acids, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and secondary lipid oxidation over 60 days. HS/RT (75-100 MPa) was able to inactivate at least 6.68/6.31/6.03 log CFU/mL of Escherichia coli/Listeria innocua/Salmonella senftenberg (to below the detection limit), while RF resulted only in minor changes. Overall, fatty acids profile remained stable under HS/RT, although secondary lipid oxidation showed slightly higher values. In addition, both HS/RT and RF showed stable and similar VOCs profiles and off-flavour indicative compounds were not detected, except for the lowest pressure (50 MPa) after 40 days. HS/RT preserved HPP milk with enhanced microbial safety, shelf-life and quality compared to RF, being in addition quasi-energetically costless and more sustainable than RF.
... Microalgae species, such as S. limacinum, P. tricornutum, and Nannochloropsis sp., comprise 30-40% of ω-3 fatty acids in their total content [53]. LC-PUFAs such as ω-3 and 6 must be consumed regularly because humans and many animals cannot synthesize them [80]. PUFAs are also necessary ingredients for fish growth because they cannot be formed from saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids [81]. ...
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Sustainable management of natural resources is critical to food security. The shrimp feed and fishery sector is expanding rapidly, necessitating the development of alternative sustainable components. Several factors necessitate the exploration of a new source of environmentally friendly and nutrient-rich fish feed ingredients. Microalgal biomass has the potential to support the growth of fish and shrimp aquaculture for global food security in the bio-economy. Algal biorefineries must valorize the whole crop to develop a viable microalgae-based economy. Microalgae have the potential to replace fish meal and fish oil in aquaculture and ensure sustainability standards. Microalgae biomasses provide essential amino acids, valuable triglycer-ides such as lipids, vitamins, and pigments, making them suitable as nutritional supplements in livestock feed formulations. Fish and microalgae have similar nutritional profiles, and digestibility is a critical aspect of the aquafeed formulation. A highly digestible feed reduces production costs, feed waste, and the risk of eutrophication. Due to low input costs, low carbon footprint, waste-water treatment benefits, and carbon credits from industrial CO 2 conversion, microalgae-based fish and shrimp feeds have the potential to provide significant economic benefits. However, several challenges must be addressed before microalgal biomass and bioproducts may be used as fish feeds, including heavy metal bioaccumulation, poor algal biomass digestion, and antinu-trient effects. Knowledge of biochemical composition is limited and diverse, and information on nutritional value is scattered or contradictory. This review article presents alternative approaches that could be used in aquaculture to make microalgal biomass a viable alternative to fish meal. ARTICLE HISTORY
... The ratios of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 were often used to evaluate the health impact of fat in meat (36) and the recommendations of the ratios were more than 0.4 for PUFA/SFA and <4.0 for n-6/n-3 (37,38). In our study, the ratios of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 varied in the range of 0.76-0.80 and 17.06-17.99, ...
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The disparity in fatty acids (FA) composition exhibits a significant impact on meat quality, however, the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying this trait in chicken are far from clear. In this study, a total of 45 female Beijing-You chicken (BYC) hens, fed on the same diet, were collected at the slaughter age of 150, 300, or 450 days (D150, D300, and D450) from sexual maturation stage to culling stage (15 birds per age). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and tandem mass tag labeling technology based on liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (TMT-LC-MS/MS) analysis strategies were applied to profile FA compositions and to compare differential expressed proteins (DEPs) between these different slaughter ages, respectively. The FA profiling showed that increasing hen ages resulted in increased contents of both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Proteomic analyses showed a total of 4,935 proteins in chicken breast muscle with the false discovery rate (FDR) < 1% and 664 of them were differentially expressed (fold change > 1.50 or < 0.67 and P < 0.01). There were 410 up- and 116 down-regulated proteins in D150 vs. D300 group, 32 up- and 20 down-regulated in D150 vs. D450 group, and 72 up- and 241 down-regulated in D300 vs. D450 group. A total of 57 DEPs related to FA/lipid-related metabolisms were obtained according to the enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). These DEPs were involved in 21 significantly enriched (P < 0.05) pathways, including well-known pathways for FA synthesis (metabolism, desaturation, and elongation) and the signaling pathways for lipid metabolism (PPAR, adipocytokine, calcium, VEGF, MAPK, and Wnt). In addition, there existed several representative DEPs (FABP, FABP3, apoA-I, apoA-IV, apoC-III, apoB, VTG1, and VTG2) involved in the regulation of FA/lipid transportation. The construction of the interaction networks indicated that HADH, ACAA2, HADHA, ACSL1, CD36, CPT1A, PPP3R1, and SPHK1 were the key core nodes. Finally, eight DEPs were quantified using parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) to validate the results from TMT analysis. These results expanded our understanding of how the laying age affects the FA compositions and metabolism in hen breast meat.
... The two long-chain PUFA, linoleic and α-linolenic acids, are two essential FA that humans cannot synthesise and must be obtained from the diet. The ω6:ω3 ratio in T. molitor was high (~24:1) and different from the lower ratio of 4:1 that is purported to be important in human health (Simopoulos 2002). The SFA occurring in a higher percentage was palmitic acid, which makes up about 75% of the total SFA. ...
... Mice were divided randomly into three different groups with 10 mice each, according to the diet: animals fed with control diet (PURINA, 5001), ω-6-rich diet with ω-6/ω-3 ratio of 20:1 (Envigo Teklad, TD. 130321 [20]) (this diet more closely resembles the ω-6/ω-3 ratio in the typical Western diet) and a PUFAbalanced diet with ω-6/ω-3 ratio of 1.1:1 (Envigo Teklad, TD. 140429 [20]). (This ratio is optimal for the human health [83].) Fatty acid composition of diets is shown in Table 3. Importantly, mice maintained their weights equally on all diets (data not shown). ...
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Lung cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer death worldwide; it is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and bears poor prognosis. It has been shown that diet is an important environmental factor that contributes to the risk and mortality of several types of cancers. Intake of ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs plays an important role in cancer risk and progression. Current Western populations have high consumption of ω-6 PUFAs with a ratio of ω-6/ω-3 PUFAs at 15:1 to 16.7:1 This high consumption of ω-6 PUFAs is related to increased cancer risk and progression. However, whether a diet rich in ω-6 PUFAs can contribute to tumor aggressiveness has not been well investigated. We used a murine model of pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma to study the aggressiveness of tumors in mice fed with a diet rich in ω-6 PUFAs and its relationship with oxylipins. Our results shown that the mice fed a diet rich in ω-6 showed a marked increase in proliferation, angiogenesis and pro-inflammatory markers and decreased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins in their tumors. Oxylipin profiling revealed an upregulation of various pro-tumoral oxylipins including PGs, HETEs, DiHETrEs and HODEs. These results demonstrate for the first time that high intake of ω-6 PUFAs in the diet enhances the malignancy of tumor cells by histological changes on tumor dedifferentiation and increases cell proliferation, angiogenesis, pro-inflammatory oxylipins and molecular aggressiveness targets such as NF-κB p65, YY1, COX-2 and TGF-β.
... In contrast, consumption of high levels of n-3 fatty acids are correlated with reductions in diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, and some forms of neurological degeneration (Natto et al., 2019). The key to health is in the balance of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (Simopoulos, 2003). The high levels of the n-6 PUFA, 18:2, from vegetable oils in the diets of many countries has led to efforts to enrich diets for n-3 fatty acids by promoting changes in diet to fish oils or designing food-stuffs that are n-3 enriched. ...
Article
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Vegetable oils composed of triacylglycerols (TAG) are a major source of calories in human diets. However, the fatty acid compositions of these oils are not ideal for human nutrition and the needs of the food industry. Saturated fatty acids contribute to health problems, while polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) can become rancid upon storage or processing. In this review, we first summarize the pathways of fatty acid metabolism and TAG synthesis and detail the problems with the oil compositions of major crops. Then we describe how transgenic expression of desaturases and downregulation of the plastid FatB thioesterase have provided the means to lower oil saturates. The traditional solution to PUFA rancidity uses industrial chemistry to reduce PUFA content by partial hydrogenation, but this results in the production of trans fats that are even more unhealthy than saturated fats. We detail the discoveries in the biochemistry and molecular genetics of oil synthesis that provided the knowledge and tools to lower oil PUFA content by blocking their synthesis during seed development. Finally, we describe the successes in breeding and biotechnology that are giving us new, high-oleic, low PUFA varieties of soybean, canola and other oilseed crops.
... [30][31][32][33] Unfortunately, the current Western diet tends to be deficient in n-3 fatty acids, with the n-6:n-3 ratio approaching 17:1, depending on geographic location. 34 Despite these important discoveries, the molecular mechanisms of how nutritional challenges from a Western diet affect the lacrimal glands are poorly studied. ...
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Purpose: A high-fat diet (HFD) increases the risk of developing many systemic diseases; however, the effects of high fat intake on lacrimal gland functions and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. We explored the effects of an HFD on the circadian rhythms of the extraorbital lacrimal glands (ELGs). Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice maintained on a 12/12-hour light/dark cycle were fed an ad libitum HFD or normal chow (NC) for 2 weeks. The ELGs were collected from euthanized animals every 3 hours throughout the circadian cycle (24 hours). Using high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq), we studied the circadian transcriptomic profile of the ELGs. Circadian oscillations in cell size, secretion response, lipid deposition, and immune cell trafficking of the ELGs were also analyzed. Results: An HFD modulated the circadian transcriptomic profile of the ELGs, including the composition, phase, and amplitude of cyclical transcript oscillations, and affected the associated signaling pathways at spatiotemporal levels. HFD feeding significantly altered the normal rhythmic oscillations of ELG cell size, immune cell trafficking, secretion response, and lipid deposition. After dietary reversal in HFD-fed animals, the activity, core temperature, and lipid accumulation in lacrimal glands recovered partially to the level of NC-fed animals. However, the average cell size of the ELGs, the recruitment of immune cells, and the rhythm of lacrimal secretion did not return to the levels of the NC-fed group. Conclusions: HFD perturbation interferes with the cyclical transcriptomic profile, cell size, immune cell trafficking, and secretion function of the ELGs with a strikingly high sensitivity.
... Blood fatty acid composition could be used as a biomarker of dietary intake and could be an important parameter to understand the relationship between diet, metabolism, and some diseases. Some fatty acids (FA), such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), have a potential role in the prevention of several diseases, such as atherosclerosis, cancer, and inflammation [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. A positive correlation between the total content of dietary PUFA in the diet and the relative amount of PUFA in the blood lipid fraction has been documented in humans [9,10] and animals [11]. ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fish (FH) and chicken (CH) diets and the combination of these with a supplementation with antioxidant compounds (FH-AOX and CH-AOX, respectively), on biochemical parameters and blood fatty acid (FA) profile. For this purpose, 27 dogs were allocated to four groups and fed with the experimental diets for six months. Blood samples were taken before starting the experimental period and at the end of the trial. Dietary treatment effects were assessed by ANOVA test. The antioxidant supplement increased glucose values, independently of the type of meat. Triglycerides and urea were significantly higher in FH compared to CH diet. As regard blood FA profile, the antioxidant supplementation significantly increased the linoleic acid content. Polyunsaturated FA n-3 were higher in FH than CH, but a greater increase was recorded in the two groups with the addition of antioxidant. On the contrary, arachidonic acid was found lower in the two groups fed the antioxidant compounds. In conclusion, FH led to a better FA profile than CH diet. In addition, the use of antioxidant supplement was able to improve the FA profile independently on the basal diet.
... According to Simopoulos (2002), the ω-3/ω-6 ratio is a useful indicator to compare the nutritional value of fish from different species. ...
Article
The seasonal effect in the fatty acid composition of total lipids of four fish species, white needle (Hemiramphus brasiliensis), black needle (Hyporhamphus unifasciatus), mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla), and sardines (Opisthonema oglinum) was evaluated. Fish samples were collected from coastal regions of the State Pernambuco of Northeastern Brazil in two seasonal periods (summer and winter). The results showed that fatty acid composition of total lipids values was slightly higher in the winter for all species, however, with no significant statistical difference between seasons, except for the pentanoic fatty acid (C15:0) content, which showed a significantly higher value in mackerel, in the summer. The highest contents of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids were observed in sardines, which also presented the best lipid profile. All examined species contained ω-3/ω-6 and ω-6/ω-3 ratios that are nutritionally recommended and could be considered a source of benefits to human health.
... It has been suggested that human beings evolved on a diet with a ratio of ω-6/ω-3 of approximately 1:1. 43 However, today, Western diets have this ratio between 15:1 and 16.7:1. As this ratio demonstrates, the deficiency in ω-3 fatty acids in Western diets is the major problem causing chronic diseases. ...
Article
Fruits are important foods and may be processed into juice, jam and snack products. During the processing, fruit seeds are generated as byproducts and discarded at a cost and with potential environmental contamination. Fruit seeds contain high contents of lipids together with bioactive compounds such as phytosterols, tocopherols, phenolics including flavonoids, and carotenoids and, thus, can be used to produce functional food oils. In this review, the chemical profiles of fatty acids and bioactive compounds, as well as potential health beneficial properties of fruit seed oils, are introduced. The clarification of these pieces of information could stimulate further interest in research and commercialization of fruit seed oils and enhance the profitability of the fruit production and processing industries while reducing environmental hazards.
... The ω-6:ω-3 FA ratio in the human diet varies from 15:1 to 40:1 and is remarkably larger compared to the suggested ratio of 4:1, or even lower, for the cardiovascular disease avoidance reported by the UK Department of Health, and is also superior to the documented ratios of around 1:1 or 2:1 in the hunter-gatherer's diet of our ancestors (Fernandes et al., 2014;Rep Health Soc Subj, (Lond), 1994). This increment in the ω-6:ω-3 ratio has been more likely related to the advance of several sicknesses (El-Badry, Graf, & Clavien, 2007;Simopoulos, 2002b;Zhu et al., 2010). Hence, from a dietary point of view, lessening of the unfavorable food status by increasing the ω-3 FA and decreasing the ω-6 FA ingestion may be regarded as one advantageous nutrition approach to shield health (Kris-Etherton, Fleming, & Harris, 2010). ...
Chapter
Fish is regarded as a healthy animal-derived food owing to its remarkable content in macro and micronutrients, which results in a large consumption by humans. Consequently, fishery-related industries generate huge amounts of byproducts that are frequently used to manufacture low-value products or are even discarded. Nevertheless, these marine derivatives present interesting high-value functional features that can be exploited, due to their importance, in the food or nutraceutical industries. In order to obtain these compounds of interest, such as bioactive lipids, it is important to select suitable extraction methods. It is of current concern the use of alternative green cutting edge technologies such as ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) or supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), which possess some advantages over conventional extractions methods, improving the quality of the extracts and reducing the loss of functional properties of the bioactive compounds obtained. The potential use, and advantages and drawbacks of UAE, MAE, and SFE for the obtainment of lipids from fish derivatives were pinpointed and discussed, in addition to the beneficial effect to the bioactive lipids in human health.
... However, S. aegyptiaca has good proportions of omega-9 (22.81%) and omega-6 (21.03%), as well as has a significant nutrition ratio of omega-6/omega-3 (2.89:1) recommended in the diet. Many studies showed that a high omega-6/omega-3 ratio (~16:1), as found in today's Western diets promotes the pathogenesis of many diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases whereas a low omega-6/omega-3 ratio (~3:1 to 4:1) exerts suppressive effects [37]. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to determine the compositions of carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, fatty acids (FAs), and amino acids (AAs) of four Rea Sea halophytes: Anabasis ehrenbergii, Suaeda aegyptiaca, Suaeda monoica, and Zygophyllum album. The results showed that S. aegyptiaca and S. monoica were rich in gallic acid with 41.72 and 47.48 mg/g, respectively, while A. ehrenbergii was rich in naringenin with 11.88 mg/g. The polysaccharides of the four species were mainly composed of galactose (54.74%) in A. ehrenbergii, mannose (44.15%) in S. aegyptiaca, glucose and ribose (33 and 26%, respectively) in S. monoica, and arabinose and glucose (36.67 and 31.52%, respectively) in Z. album. Glutamic acid and aspartic acid were the major AAs in all halophyte species with 50–63% and 10–22% of the total AAs, respectively. The proportion of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) of the four species was 42.18–55.33%, comprised mainly of linolenic acid (15.54–28.63%) and oleic acid (5.68–22.05%), while palmitic acid (23.94–49.49%) was the most abundant saturated fatty acid (SFA). Phytol and 9,19-cyclolanost-24-en-3β–ol represented the major unsaponifiable matter (USM) constituents of S. monoica and A. ehrenbergii with proportions 42.44 and 44.11%, respectively. The phenolic fraction of S. aegyptiaca and S. monoica demonstrated noteworthy antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 9.0 and 8.0 μg/mL, respectively, while the FAs fraction of Z. album exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against Huh-7, A-549, and Caco-2 cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 7.4, 10.8, and 11.8 μg/mL, respectively. Our results indicate that these plants may be considered a source of naturally occurring compounds with antioxidant and anticancer effects that could be suitable for future applications.
... Moreover, the ratio of the essential fatty acids linoleic acid (ω-6) and alpha-linoleic acid (ω-3) has been reported to play a fundamental role in reducing the incidence of chronic diseases, especially of cardiovascular character [35]. The ratio of w-6/w-3 between 2:1 and 3:1 was reported to be the optimal ratio that gives beneficial effects on human health [36]. ...
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The recovery of bioactive compounds from agro-industry-derived by-products sustains circular economy principles by encouraging maximized recycling and minimized waste. Tomato processing by-products are abundant in carotenoids, which have several health-promoting properties, and their reintegration into functional food products represents a major interest for scientists and manufacturers. In the present study, carotenoids were recovered from tomato processing by-products based on the principles of green chemistry by using generally recognized as safe (GRAS) solvents, freeze-drying as pretreatment, and ultrasound in the recovery procedure. Spectrophotometric measurements and HPLC were used to identify and quantify total and individual carotenoids from the extracts. The highest values for lycopene (1324.89 µg/g dw) were obtained when ethyl lactate was applied as a solvent, followed by ethyl acetate with slightly smaller differences (1313.54 µg/g dw). The extracts obtained from freeze-dried samples presented significantly lower amounts of lycopene, indicating that carotenoids are highly susceptible to degradation during lyophilization. Flaxseed, grape seed, and hempseed oils were enriched with carotenoids and their rheological measurements showed favorable viscoelastic properties, especially hempseed and flaxseed oil, with viscosity under 50 mPa·s. Considering the results and the economic perspective of carotenoid recovery from tomato processing by-products, ethyl acetate is suitable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly for carotenoid extraction.
... Previous studies suggest that diets rich in saturated fatty acids are not healthy, and the consumption of mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids is recommended to maintain good health [41,42]. Generally, the good thing is fish species have a relatively low SAFA [43], which have been linked to coronary heart disease [44]. Many studies have shown that fish oil has a high nutritional value because it is rich in PUFAs, which consist of n-3 PUFAs and n-6 PUFAs, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) [45][46][47]. ...
Article
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Selenium is an important micronutrient that has antioxidant, growth potential, and reproduction enhancement abilities in various organisms. The aquaculture industry is a significant contributor towards meeting the dietary requirements of a majority of the global population, which further warrants developing novel approaches for enhancing the production of dietary fish. This study was performed to assess the growth performance of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) fingerlings (1 gm in average weight and 2.75 cm in average length) upon nano-selenium (Se-Nps) supplementation. Nanoselenium was synthesized using high-energy ball milling (HEBM) using a 10-hour dry milling technique at 10:1 ball-to-powder ratio (BPR), size characterized by XRD and TEM, followed by mixing with basal feed in desired concentrations (0.5 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, and 2 mg/kg) and administration to Nile tilapia fingerlings for 30 days, followed by the evaluation of growth performance parameters, fatty acid profile analysis using GC-MS, and nutritional quality index (NQI): [Thrombogenicity Index (IT), Atherogenicity Index (IA), n-3/n-6, n-6/n-3)]. Nile tilapia supplemented with 1 mg/kg Se-Nps showed improved growth performance (RGR: 1576.04%, SGR: 4.70%, and FCR: 1.91), demonstrated by higher survivability (> 95%), isometric growth (coefficient of allometry, b = 2.81), and higher weight gain compared to control (RGR: 680.41%, SGR: 3.42%, and FCR: 1.31), 0.5 mg/kg Se-Nps (RGR: 770.83%, SGR: 3.61%, and FCR: 1.18) and 2 mg/kg Se-Nps (RGR: 383.67%, SGR: 2.63%, and FCR: 1.22). The average length-weight relationship assessed as the condition factor (K) was highest in the 1 mg/kg Se-Nps group compared to others (p < 0.05). GC-MS analysis revealed that Nile tilapia supplemented with 1 mg/kg Se-Nps showed better meat quality, higher amount of n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, high PUFA/SAFA ratios (1.35) and n-3/n-6 (0.33) ratios, with low atherogenicity index (0.36) and thrombogenic index (0.44), and relatively low n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio (3.00) compared to other groups. Overall, Se-Nps supplementation at 1 mg/kg enhanced the growth performance and meat quality in Nile tilapia, and therefore could be a potential growth-promoting micronutrient for aquaculture enhancement.
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To expand the new germplasm of Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) and explain its quality characteristics, this study used two-year-old mature female E. sinensis (TWC) as the control to explore the differences in edible yield, color, proximate composition, fatty acids, free amino acids and mineral elements of three-year-old mature female E. sinensis (THC). TWC had a significantly higher hepatosomatic index (HSI) but a lower gonadosomatic index (GSI) than THC (P < 0.05). The eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content in the hepatopancreas, ovary and muscle tissues of TWC were higher than those of THC. However, the content of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (ARA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), total essential fatty acids (ΣEFA), total highly unsaturated fatty acids (ΣHUFA), Σn-6 PUFA and DHA/EPA were lower than those of THC. Total essential free amino acids (ΣEFAA), total free amino acids (ΣFAA) and percentage of ∑EFAA to ∑FAA (PETFAA) in the hepatopancreas, ΣEFAA and PETFAA in the ovary and ΣFAA in the muscle of TWC were higher than those of THC (P > 0.05). The values of total umami values (ΣTUV) and total sweetness values (ΣTSV) in the hepatopancreas, ovary and muscle tissue and total bitterness values (ΣTBV) in the hepatopancreas and muscle of TWC were higher than those of THC. Except for the higher Zn in TWC, the contents of the other elements measured were lower than those in THC. Overall, the edible yield and quality of THC was greater than that of the TWC, and THC was a new high-quality germplasm of E. sinensis.
Thesis
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Resumen La presente investigación evaluó la composición y capacidad de acumulación de lípidos en cuatro microalgas nativas de Colombia y un alga de referencia como fuentes potenciales para la producción de biodiesel. Las microalgas Scenedemus ovalternus y Chlorella vulgaris presentaron las mayores productividades de lípidos con 18,8 y 18,7mg·L-1·día-1, respectivamente, equivalentes a 4,1 veces la productividad de aceite de la palma africana, actual materia prima empleada en Colombia para la producción industrial de biodiesel. De acuerdo con la caracterización de los ácidos grasos producidos por las microalgas estudiadas, todas pueden ser empleadas en la producción de biodiesel, debido a la similitud de estos con aceites ya empleados en la producción de biodiesel, por lo cual fue escogida la microalga Chlorella vulgaris para estudios posteriores, los cuales consistieron en la optimización de la acumulación y productividad de lípidos variando los factores contenido de CO2, irradiancia, fotoperiodo y aireación. La productividad de lípidos óptima predicha por el modelo estadístico dentro del intervalo estudiado fue 69,7 ± 5,9 mg·L-1·día-1, 15,2 veces la productividad de la palma africana, para un contenido de CO2 de 2%, irradiancia de 114 µE·m-2·s-1, fotoperiodo de 24:0 LO y aireación de 1,2 vvm; el contenido de lípidos bajo las condiciones mencionadas fue de 16,4 ± 1,4%. La optimización de los factores para maximizar el contenido de lípidos y minimizar la disminución de la productividad de lípidos se logró para un contendido de CO2 del 1,2%, irradiancia de 22 µE·m-2·s-1, fotoperiodo de 12:12 LO y aireación de 0,4 vvm con valores de 32,7 ± 1,4% y 42,0 ± 5,9 mg·L-1·día-1, respectivamente, equivalente a 9,1 veces la productividad de aceite de la palma africana, las anteriores son condiciones fácilmente alcanzables en cualquier parte del territorio colombiano. Abstract This research evaluated the ability to accumulate lipids and their composition of five microalgae, four of them native from Colombia and one reference alga as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production. The microalgae Scenedesmus ovalternus and Chlorella vulgaris had the highest lipid productivity: 18.8 and 18.7 mg·L-1·day-1, respectively, 4.1 times longer than the productivity of palm oil, current feedstock for the industrial production of biodiesel in Colombia. According to the characterization of the fatty acids produced by the microalgae studied, the five microalgae can be employed in the production of biodiesel because their oils have similarities with the oils used in the production of biodiesel. Microalga Chlorella vulgaris was chosen for the next research where CO2 content, irradiance, photoperiod, and aeration were evaluated as parameters of production and accumulation of lipids. The optimal lipid productivity predicted by the statistical model in the range studied was 69.7 ± 5.9 mg·L-1·day-1, 15.2 times the oil productivity of African Palm, for CO2 content of 2%, irradiance of 114 μE·m-2·s-1, photoperiod of 24:0 LO and aeration of 1.2 vvm. The content of lipids in those conditions was 16.4 ± 1.4%. The optimal conditions of the factors in order to maximize the lipid content and to minimize the reduction in lipid productivity was reached with CO2 content 1.2%, photoperiod 12:12 LO, Irradiance 22 μE·m-2·s-1 and aeration 0.4 vvm, these conditions are easily reachable in any part of Colombia. The optimum lipid content and lipid productivity were 32.7 ± 1.4% and 42.0 ± 5.9 mg·L-1·day-1, respectively, 9.1 times the oil productivity of African Palm.
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As woody oil crop, pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] may be a solution to the shortage of edible oil in the future. In this study, fruit traits, kernel nutrition and fatty acid composition of 10 pecan varieties were determined to assess the potential of pecans for exploitation as edible oil, as well as to further screen varieties that could be used as edible oil resources and to understand their development prospects for cultivation in mountainous hills. The study showed that all the fruit trait indicators measured, including green-fruit weight (mean 28.47 g), nut weight (10.33 g), kernel weight (5.25 g), nut percentage (36.83%) and kernel percentage (50.50%), showed highly significant differences among the 10 varieties. Among the main nutritional indicators of the kernels, the crude fat content was stable (mean 70.01%) with non-significant differences, while protein (67.50 mg·g−1), soluble sugar (10.7 mg·g−1) and tannin (6.07 mg·g−1) showed highly significant differences between varieties. The oil percentage of nuts (kernel percentage * crude fat) averaged 35.36%, with highly significant differences between varieties. The fatty acid composition was dominated by unsaturated fatty acids (mean 91.82%), with unsaturated fatty acids being 11.24 times more abundant than saturated fatty acids. Among the monounsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid was the highest (mean 70.02%), with highly significant differences between varieties, followed by cis-11-eicosanoic acid (0.25%), with non-significant differences between varieties; among the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid was the highest (19.58%), followed by linolenic acid (0.97%), both of which showed highly significant differences between varieties; monounsaturated fatty acids were 2.42 times more abundant than polyunsaturated fatty acids. Compared to other oilseed crops, pecan has the potential to produce “nutritious, healthy and stable” edible oil, while its wide habitat and good productivity benefits offer broad prospects for development in the hills and mountains of subtropical China.
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Background Breast cancer survivors (BCS) are at risk for psychoneurological symptoms (PNS) and inflammation for years following cancer treatment. Fish, particularly salmon, provides a rich source of omega-3 long chain fatty acids (omega-3LC), which has an anti-inflammatory effect. However, the benefit of omega-3LC on PNS is not well-known. Aims This study evaluated the feasibility and the initial efficacy of a personalized meal plan with dietary omega-3LC in reducing PNS. Methods A prospective, randomized controlled trial design (n = 46) was used to evaluate the feasibility of a personalized meal plan using two omega-3LC dose levels (high and low omega-3LC) in reducing PNS including pain, depression, fatigue, sleep, and stress. Results The recruitment rate was 4.9% with overall retention rate of 74% and 67.1% adherence to personalized meal plan and dietary procedures. Of participants who completed the investigation, 94% completed fish adherence logs and consumed ≥70% of the assigned quantity of fish. Saliva collection was 97.8% at baseline and 100% at follow-up. BCS in the high omega-3LC group had a significant decrease in pain (p < .01), perceived stress (p < .05), sleep (p < .001), depression (p < .001), and fatigue (p < .01) over the course of intervention. There were trends of PNS improvement in the low omega-3LC group but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion Our results support the feasibility of our investigational design, procedures, and intervention. The outcomes provide preliminary support for an expanded research effort using fish as a source of omega-3LC and personalized dietary planning as a vehicle for symptom self-management in BCS.
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Cold‐pressed hempseed oil (HSO) is known to have many health benefits due to many phytochemicals and high polyunsaturated fatty acids content. In this study, HSO oleogels were prepared with 3%, 5%, and 7% natural waxes including sunflower wax (SW), rice bran wax (RBW), beeswax, and candelilla wax to evaluate their potential as solid fat replacements in margarines and spreads. Firmness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, solid fat content (SFC), crystal structures, and melting properties of these oleogels were evaluated. In general, HSO oleogels except for RBW‐HSO oleogels had lower gel strength and weaker crystal network than the corresponding soybean oil (SBO) oleogels. In contrast, RBW‐HSO oleogels had comparable gel strength to SBO oleogels. After removing polar compounds from HSO, waxes except for RBW provided oleogels with greater firmness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, and stronger crystal network. Therefore, it was concluded that polar compounds negatively affected the physical properties of wax‐HSO oleogels but not those of RBW‐HSO oleogels. Margarine samples were prepared with SW‐ and RBW‐HSO oleogels, and their firmness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, and melting properties were examined. The firmness of these margarines indicated that wax‐HSO oleogels may achieve the firmness of commercial spreads with less than 3% wax while the firmness of stick margarines cannot be achieved even with 7% wax. Although the properties of wax‐HSO oleogels should be further improved, they showed potential as solid fat replacements in margarines and spreads.
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Aim of study: To assess the effects of rearing system (extensive, ES; semi-extensive, SES) and feeds (grazed woodland, acorns, chestnuts, compound feed) on the performance, carcass traits and energetic balance of autochthonous Gochu Asturcelta pigs. Area of study: Asturias (Spain). Material and methods: In two successive years, a total of 58 immunocastrated Gochu Asturcelta pigs (25 females, 33 males), with an initial weight of 93.39 ± 3.36 kg and mean age of 6.82 ± 0.24 months, were randomly divided between ES and SES plots from July to December. ES pigs grazed woodland, acorns (Quercus robur L.) and chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) and they were given additionally 1.5 kg compound-feed/pig·day. SES animals received only 2.5 kg compound-feed/pig·day. Chemical composition and metabolizable energy of feeds, energetic balance, growth performances and pig carcass traits were analysed. Main results: Acorns and chestnuts were both very close in their chemical composition, except for the polyphenol content and profile, and had a lower omega-6/omega-3 ratio than compound feeds. Live weight for the ES pigs was 25% lower and carcass weight 30% lower than for SES pigs (p<0.001). Total ME requirement (MJ/day) was lower in ES than in SES pigs. Research highlights: The productive and carcass parameters observed are a consequence of a lower energy intake for pigs in ES than in SES, it being necessary to drastically reduce the stocking rate to increase weight gain and to improve carcass traits when Gochu Asturcelta pigs are reared in ES.
Chapter
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer death in women. There is growing evidence showing that a healthy diet has a protective effect on breast cancer. However, the effect of dietary lipids on breast cancer is not clearly understood. Thus, we reviewed the association between dietary lipids and breast cancer in this chapter. It is well established that total dietary fat amount, fatty acid type, and timing of fat exposure can all determine their effect on breast cancer development, in terms of incidence, treatment, recurrence, and prognosis. Most epidemiological studies have shown that both high-fat diet and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-deficient diet have an inverse effect on breast cancer development. The potential mechanisms associated with the anticancer effect of n-3 PUFA mainly involve suppressing biosynthesis of proinflammatory eicosanoid, influencing signaling transcriptional pathway to balance the proliferation and apoptosis, and regulating epigenetics and gut microbiota. Based on these findings, breast cancer patients or women with high breast cancer risk should be encouraged to improve their dietary fat habits, in order to reduce the cancer risk and to improve quality of life and long-term survival.
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The analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) influencing the aroma of an oil is essential for evaluating its quality. Although a large number of extraction methods exists, the simple and reliable protocols for quantitative analysis of VOCs in oils are scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to develop an analytical methodology using headspace solid-phase microextraction with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography–time of flight mass spectrometry (HS-SPME–GC×GC–ToFMS) for the quantification of the volatile compounds in rapeseed oil that can influence its aroma. The method optimised using design of experiment (DOE) approach was then applied to track changes in VOCs during roasting and the accelerated storage test of rapeseed and camelina oils. The optimal conditions were established at an equilibration time of 6 min and extraction for 38 min at 58 ºC using a Carboxen™/PDMS fibre. The statistical experimental design effectively selected the optimal values of each factor and analysed interactions between them. This methodology proved to be reliable for the routine analysis of oil samples. The proposed protocol can be easily extended to quantify other VOCs and can be used in future studies on the aroma of vegetable oils.
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The canning industry plays a crucial role in the sector of marine foods, but produces several organic wastes and effluents with reduced economic value that must be upgraded to comply with the circular bioeconomy principles. Initially, we have searched the best experimental conditions for the hydrolysis of upper and lower halves from yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) heads by four commercial proteases (alcalase, papain, protamex and esperase). Then, optimal conditions were corroborated at 5 L pH-Stat reactor producing fish oil, bones and fish protein hydrolysates (FPH). Alcalase and esperase applied on upper head were the options that led to the largest volumes of oils recovered, and the highest degrees of hydrolysis, digestion yields and concentrations of protein in FPH. Fish oils showed an excellent content in omega-3 fatty acids, mainly the highly valued docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In the case of FPH, the proportion of human essential amino acids was higher than 40% and the average protein size in the interval 1400–1800 Da. Finally, these hydrolysates were incorporated, as source of protein material in substitution of commercial peptones, in two types of bacterial culture media (marine and Man-Rogosa-Sharpe, MRS). The bioproductions of the four bacteria assayed (two lactic acid bacteria and two marine probiotic bacteria) in the low-cost media formulated with tuna hydrolysates were generally similar or even higher than found in commercial broths. The whole of these results evidenced the validity of the present proposal, aimed to the integral production of valuable biocompounds, in order to contribute to a more sustainable tuna canning industry.
Article
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133 ، ‫صهستاى‬ 1400 ‫بزرس‬ ‫ی‬ ‫بزخ‬ ‫و‬ ‫عملکزد‬ ‫بز‬ ‫کتان‬ ‫بذر‬ ‫مختلف‬ ‫سطوح‬ ‫ی‬ ‫فزاسنجه‬ ‫های‬ ‫خون‬ ‫ی‬ ‫جوجه‬ ‫در‬ ‫های‬ ‫گوشت‬ ‫ی‬ ‫چكيذُ‬ ‫بِ‬ ‫پظٍّص‬ ‫ایي‬ ‫فشاسٌجِ‬ ‫بشخی‬ ٍ ‫عولكشد‬ ‫بش‬ ‫کتاى‬ ‫بزس‬ ‫هختلف‬ ‫سطَح‬ ‫اثشات‬ ‫بشسسی‬ ‫هٌظَس‬ ‫جَجِ‬ ‫دس‬ ‫خًَی‬ ‫ّای‬ ‫گَضتی‬ ‫ّای‬ ‫تعذاد‬ ‫هٌظَس‬ ‫بذیي‬ ‫ضذ.‬ ‫اًجام‬ 192 ‫ی‬ ‫گَضتی‬ ‫جَجِ‬ ‫قطعِ‬ ‫ک‬ ‫سٍصُ‬ ‫ساع‬ ‫سَیِ‬ 308 ‫دس‬ 16 ‫آصهایطی‬ ‫ٍاحذ‬ ‫(ّش‬ ‫آصهایطی‬ ‫ٍاحذ‬ 12 ‫با‬ ‫پشًذُ)‬ 4 ٍ ‫تيواس‬ 4 ‫ت‬ ‫ضاهل‬ ‫آصهایطی‬ ‫تيواسّای‬ ‫ضذ.‬ ‫استفادُ‬ ‫كشاس‬ : 1 ‫سَیا،(ضاّذ)‬ ٍ ‫رست‬ ‫پایِ‬ ‫بش‬ ‫جيشُ‬) 2 ‫داسای‬ ‫جيشُ‬) 5 / 2 ‫کتاى،‬ ‫بزس‬ ‫دسصذ‬ 3 ‫داسای‬ ‫جيشُ‬) 5 ٍ ‫کتاى‬ ‫بزس‬ ‫دسصذ‬ 4 ‫داسای‬ ‫جيشُ‬) 5 / 7 ‫عولكشدی‬ ‫صفات‬ ‫بَد.‬ ‫کتاى‬ ‫بزس‬ ‫دسصذ‬ ‫بِ‬ ‫صَست‬ ‫دٍسُ‬ ‫ای‬ ‫اًذاصُ‬ ‫سٌيي‬ ‫دس‬ ‫ضذ.‬ ‫گيشی‬ 21 ٍ 42 ‫بِ‬ ‫سٍصگی‬ ‫اًذاصُ‬ ‫هٌظَس‬ ‫خَى‬ ‫سشم‬ ‫ّای‬ ‫فشاسٌجِ‬ ‫بشخی‬ ‫گيشی‬ ‫گيشی‬ ‫سطح‬ ‫اص‬ ‫استفادُ‬ ‫کِ‬ ‫داد‬ ‫ًطاى‬ ‫آصهایص‬ ‫ًتایج‬ ‫ضذ.‬ ‫اًجام‬ 5 / 7 ‫هعٌی‬ ‫کاّص‬ ‫سبب‬ ‫جيشُ‬ ‫دس‬ ‫کتاى‬ ‫بزس‬ ‫دسصذ‬ ‫داس‬ ‫افضا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ٍصى‬ (‫ضذ‬ ‫سٍصاًِ‬ 05 / 0 P< ‫سطح‬ ‫اص‬ ‫استفادُ‬ .) 5 ‫جيشُ‬ ‫دس‬ ‫کتاى‬ ‫بزس‬ ‫دسصذ‬ ‫جَجِ‬ ‫کاّص‬ ‫هَجب‬ ‫پظٍّص‬ ‫ایي‬ ‫دس‬ ‫گَضتی‬ ‫ّای‬ ‫آًضین‬ ‫فعاليت‬ ‫گ‬ ‫ّای‬ (‫ضذ‬ ‫کاتاالص‬ ٍ ‫دیسوَتاص‬ ‫سَپشاکسيذ‬ ‫پشاکسيذاص،‬ ‫لَتاتيَى‬ 05 / 0 P< .) ‫استفادُ‬ ‫پظٍّص،‬ ‫ایي‬ ‫ًتایج‬ ‫اساع‬ ‫بش‬ ‫اص‬ 5 ‫هی‬ ‫پيطٌْاد‬ ‫گَضتی‬ ‫ّای‬ ‫جَجِ‬ ‫جيشُ‬ ‫دس‬ ‫کتاى‬ ‫بزس‬ ‫دسصذ‬ ‫ضَد.
Thesis
Due to the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associated health problems, the demand for low-calorie and low-fat foods is growing worldwide, especially in the fast food and convenience sectors. However, fat- or calorie-reduced products are often accompanied by sensory deficiencies. Although fat reduction in foods has been addressed in literature, an ideal fat replacer has not been identified due to the variety of fats, their multifarious functions in foods, and the wide range of food products. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of selected fat replacers on the properties of reduced-fat model emulsion systems and processed cheese. The use of dietary fibers as fat replacers was of particular interest due to their intrinsic health benefits. In addition, both new and established methods of measurement of sensory attributes were applied and compared to determine correlations of findings between different methods of measurement. Chapter 1 addresses the influence of fat replacers on attributes such as energy density, flowability, and firmness in a real food product, processed cheese. To this end, microparticulated whey protein (MWP), which has been widely used as a fat replacer, and three dietary fibers (corn dextrin (CD), inulin, and polydextrose), were used in reduced-fat processed cheese slices. A reduction in energy density of about 30 to 40% was achieved using a fat replacer compared to standard commercial full-fat processed cheese. Higher CD and inulin concentrations reduced the flowability of the cheese slices upon heating, but only had a minor impact on the firmness of the unheated cheese. The addition of MWP resulted in firmer cheese slices with higher flowability compared to the other fat replacers. However, changes in the MWP concentration had little effect on either property. The results demonstrated that different fat replacers with varying concentrations need to be applied to achieve desired attributes for specific conditions of use, e.g., unheated cheese in sandwiches or heated cheese in cheeseburgers. To evaluate newly developed reduced-fat foods, the impact of fat replacers on sensory properties and aroma release also needs to be investigated, which is addressed in chapters 2 to 4. Due to the complex composition of cheese, systematic investigation of the mode of action of fat replacers is difficult. Therefore, emulsion-based model foods were used to eliminate interfering factors and natural variations of ingredients. The second study (chapter 2) focused on developing and validating appropriate methods to investigate the effects of fat, fat reduction and the use of fat replacers on emulsion systems. Tribology, a comparatively new method in food research, was used to instrumentally analyze selected aspects of food mouthfeel. Reduced-fat salad mayonnaises were prepared as separate samples containing different CD concentrations, and characterized using textural, rheological and tribological analyses together with measures of spreadability and human-sensory analysis. The results showed a very high correlation between tribological measurements and the sensory evaluation of the attribute stickiness. In addition, it was shown that some correlations between instrumental and sensory data were best described by a non-linear correlation (Stevens’ power law), such as the relationship between Texture Analyzer measurements and sensory sensations of firmness. Furthermore, the Kokini oral shear stress correlated very well with the sensory attribute creaminess. Hence, the instrumental analytical methods used showed the potential to predict elements of the sensory analysis and reduce the overall analytical effort. While aroma release plays a key role in consumer acceptance, the influence of fat replacers on this attribute has rarely been studied. The third study (chapter 3) therefore investigated not only techno-functional properties but also the release of typical cheese aromas using a liquid emulsion as a model food. While both MWP and CD exhibited a retarding effect on the release of lipophilic aroma compounds, MWP also reduced the release of hydrophilic aroma compounds. It was also shown that aroma release is not only influenced by a change in viscosity, but also by interactions between aroma compounds and fat replacers. In this context, CD exhibited a similar ability to interact with aroma compounds as fat, which is desirable for the development of low-fat foods. In the final study (chapter 4), the findings and methods developed in chapters 1-3 of this work, supplemented with additional methods, were used to investigate the effect of fat reduction and CD concentration on a model processed cheese spread (PCS). By replacing 50% of fat completely with CD, the fat content of the PCS could be reduced without causing any significant changes in properties compared to the full-fat version, e.g. in firmness, flowability upon heating and aroma release. CD was determined to be a promising fat replacer, mimicking important properties of fat. Additional correlations, such as those between the parameters of Winter’s critical gel theory (gel strength and interaction factor) and spreadability and lubrication properties were identified and can help to further reduce the analytical effort. In conclusion, CD has been confirmed as a promising fat replacer in both liquid and semi-solid food emulsion products. Furthermore, this work contributes to closing the research gap in the instrumental measurement of sensory attributes by outlining correlations, for example, between tribological methods and mouthfeel sensations. Thus, the evaluation tools of this work can help to assess the potential applications of new fat replacers without extensive application and sensory testing which significantly shortens the development time for food manufacturers. In addition, the results contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between fat, fat replacers and aroma compounds in food matrices. This facilitates the systematic development of reduced-fat processed cheese and other dairy- and emulsion-based products which meet consumer preferences and accelerate the trend towards healthy eating.
Article
BACKGROUND Obesity has now been recognized as a high-risk factor for reproductive health. Although remarkable advancements have been made in ART, a considerable number of infertile obese women still suffer from serial implantation failure, despite the high quality of embryos transferred. Although obesity has long been known to exert various deleterious effects on female fertility, the underlying mechanisms, especially the roles of lipid metabolism in endometrial receptivity, remain largely elusive. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE This review summarizes current evidence on the impacts of several major lipids and lipid-derived mediators on the embryonic implantation process. Emerging methods for evaluating endometrial receptivity, for example transcriptomic and lipidomic analysis, are also discussed. SEARCH METHODS The PubMed and Embase databases were searched using the following keywords: (lipid or fatty acid or prostaglandin or phospholipid or sphingolipid or endocannabinoid or lysophosphatidic acid or cholesterol or progesterone or estrogen or transcriptomic or lipidomic or obesity or dyslipidemia or polycystic ovary syndrome) AND (endometrial receptivity or uterine receptivity or embryo implantation or assisted reproductive technology or in vitro fertilization or embryo transfer). A comprehensive literature search was performed on the roles of lipid-related metabolic pathways in embryo implantation published between January 1970 and March 2022. Only studies with original data and reviews published in English were included in this review. Additional information was obtained from references cited in the articles resulting from the literature search. OUTCOMES Recent studies have shown that a fatty acids-related pro-inflammatory response in the embryo-endometrium boundary facilitates pregnancy via mediation of prostaglandin signaling. Phospholipid-derived mediators, for example endocannabinoids, lysophosphatidic acid and sphingosine-1-phosphate, are associated with endometrial receptivity, embryo spacing and decidualization based on evidence from both animal and human studies. Progesterone and estrogen are two cholesterol-derived steroid hormones that synergistically mediate the structural and functional alterations in the uterus ready for blastocyst implantation. Variations in serum cholesterol profiles throughout the menstrual cycle imply a demand for steroidogenesis at the time of window of implantation (WOI). Since 2002, endometrial transcriptomic analysis has been serving as a diagnostic tool for WOI dating. Numerous genes that govern lipid homeostasis have been identified and, based on specific alterations of lipidomic signatures differentially expressed in WOI, lipidomic analysis of endometrial fluid provides a possibility for non-invasive diagnosis of lipids alterations during the WOI. WIDER IMPLICATIONS Given that lipid metabolic dysregulation potentially plays a role in infertility, a better understanding of lipid metabolism could have significant clinical implications for the diagnosis and treatment of female reproductive disorders.
Article
There is a lack of knowledge about the influence of seasonality on the microbial and physicochemical quality of oysters in Sado and Mira rivers. Water, sediment, and oysters (Crassostrea angulata and Crassostrea gigas) were collected for microbiological, nutritional, and sensory analyses. The oysters found good environmental growth conditions during the studied period, and it was possible to demonstrate the high microbiological quality of the oysters. Also, a good physicochemical and nutritional quality was observed, with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, including omega-3 fatty acids, resulting in good lipid quality indices. From the sensory evaluation, it was possible to verify that both oysters’ species were well scored and presented the highest scores (4) in parameters such as cream-ivory colour, sea smell, firmness and juiciness. These attributes denote the freshness degree at the time of the tasting, reflecting the quality of the bivalve.
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Peixes são animais consumidos por diferentes culturas e países no mundo, esses são extremamente ricos em diversos tipos de nutrientes, como vitamina A, vitamina B12, iodo, zinco, selênio, fósforo e vitamina B2, além dessas destaca-se os Ácidos graxos, principalmente poli insaturados Ecosapentaenóico (EPA) e docosahexaenóico (DHA), sendo consumida principalmente na forma de óleos, considerado excelente fonte destas substâncias. Tem se estabelecido um consenso mundial na razão de ácidos graxos ômega 6 e ômega 3, que variam de 4:1 até 5:1, devido sua ação cardioprotetora, envolvendo prevenção à fibrilação atrial, aterosclerose, trombose e morte cardíaca súbita. Além de melhorias nas funções cognitivas, de aprendizagem e memória, presentes desde a formação do Sistema Nervoso Central, diminuindo fatores associados aos processos neurodegenerativos. Portanto, nesta revisão, abordaremos os principais efeitos da ingestão de óleo de peixe para a saúde da população, com ênfase especial nos benefícios do consumo de ácidos graxos principalmente ômega 3 e ômega 6. Discutiremos seus benefícios à memória, cognição e sistema cardiovascular. Esperamos com isso, elucidar que a inclusão desses derivados do peixe na dieta pode ser vista como promissora frente à prevenção de doenças neurodegenerativas, cardiovasculares e inflamatórias, bem como para a manutenção da vida saudável.
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Noncommunicable chronic diseases have been on the rise for decades. Almost 10% of the world adult population lives with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)—a leading cause of severe complications associated with disability and premature mortality. Worldwide, nearly 500 million adults are living with T2DM and 4.2 million deaths were caused directly by the disease. Dietary quality is a major component influencing the development of T2DM, due to diet-related inflammatory processes, linked to metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). In addition to systemic and tissue-specific low-grade chronic inflammation, characterized by mediators such as various cytokines, T2DM is characterized by a disturbed homeostasis of oxidative stress, as well as a dysregulated glucose and lipid metabolism. Poor inflammatory and antioxidant status have been related to an enhanced risk of developing MUO, MetS, and T2DM. However, diet also is an important source of antioxidants, which are antiinflammatory and may reduce disease risk and improve symptomology. This includes dietary patterns rich in fruits/vegetables, which are good sources of fiber, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals such as polyphenols, and low in animal products, ultraprocessed foods, sugar, saturated fats, total calories, and salt. Mechanistic studies have highlighted that antiinflammatory and antioxidant diets might positively influence several cellular processes. These include direct effects on the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as quenching effects by antioxidants, but also the interaction of dietary constituents with transcription factors, especially with nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2), important for regulating inflammation and oxidative stress, respectively. In this chapter, we evaluate the association between dietary patterns and T2DM, as well as the role played by MUO and oxidative stress in influencing inflammation and increasing the risk of MetS and, eventually, T2DM.
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Omega−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential components required for normal cellular function and have been shown to exert many preventive and therapeutic actions. The amount of n−3 PUFAs is insufficient in most Western people, whereas the level of n−6 PUFAs is relatively too high, with an n−6/n−3 ratio of >18. These two classes of PUFAs are metabolically and functionally distinct and often have important opposing physiological functions; their balance is important for homeostasis and normal development. Elevating tissue concentrations of n−3 PUFAs in mammals relies on chronic dietary intake of fat rich in n−3 PUFAs, because mammalian cells lack enzymatic activities necessary either to synthesize the precursor of n−3 PUFAs or to convert n−6 to n−3 PUFAs. Here we report that adenovirus-mediated introduction of the Caenorhabditis elegans fat-1 gene encoding an n−3 fatty acid desaturase into mammalian cells can quickly and effectively elevate the cellular n−3 PUFA contents and dramatically balance the ratio of n−6/n−3 PUFAs. Heterologous expression of the fat-1 gene in rat cardiac myocytes rendered cells capable of converting various n−6 PUFAs to the corresponding n−3 PUFAs, and changed the n−6/n−3 ratio from about 15:1 to 1:1. In addition, an eicosanoid derived from n−6 PUFA (i.e., arachidonic acid) was reduced significantly in the transgenic cells. This study demonstrates an effective approach to modifying fatty acid composition of mammalian cells and also provides a basis for potential applications of this gene transfer in experimental and clinical settings.
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omega-3 fatty acids, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene and glutathione determined in leaves of purslane (Portulaca oleracea), grown in both a controlled growth chamber and in the wild, were compared in composition to spinach. Leaves from both samples of purslane contained higher amounts of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3w3) than did leaves of spinach. Chamber-grown purslane contained the highest amount of 18:3w3. Samples from the two kinds of purslane contained higher leaves of alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and glutathione than did spinach. Chamber-grown purslane was richer in all three and the amount of alpha-tocopherol was seven times higher than that found in spinach, whereas spinach was slightly higher in beta-carotene. One hundred grams of fresh purslane leaves (one serving) contain about 300-400 mg of 18:3w3; 12.2 mg of alpha-tocopherol; 26.6 mg of ascorbic acid; 1.9 mg of beta-carotene; and 14.8 mg of glutathione. We confirm that purslane is a nutritious food rich in omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants.
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Immunohistochemistry of human atherosclerotic arteries demonstrates expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on endothelial cells, macrophages, and smooth muscle cells of the plaques. Normal arterial endothelial cells and intimal smooth muscle outside plaques give weaker or negative reactions; these differ from the strong endothelial expression in small vessels. Quantitative color-image analysis of the endothelial layer shows increased expression of ICAM-1 in all subtypes of atherosclerotic lesions, except fibrous plaques. Endothelial expression of ICAM-1 may be involved in the recruitment of monocytes to the lesion, as suggested by its role in the entry of leukocytes, including monocytes, into foci of inflammation. Collaboration with other mechanisms, particularly chemoattractant factors, may be important for this effect. ICAM-1 enhanced monocyte recruitment is a potential mechanism for the growth of an atherosclerotic plaque.
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The relation of trans-fatty acid intake to fasting serum lipid concentrations was evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 748 men aged 43-85 y. Multiple-linear-regression analysis was used to adjust for age, body mass index, waist-to-hip circumference ratio, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol intake, total energy, dietary cholesterol and linoleic acid, and previous serum cholesterol concentration. Trans-fatty acid intake was directly related to total serum (r = 0.07, P = 0.04) and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) (r = 0.09, P = 0.01), and inversely related to high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (r = 0.08, P = 0.03). Trans-fatty acid intake was positively associated with the ratios of total to HDL cholesterol (r = 0.11, P = 0.002) and LDL to HDL cholesterol (r = 0.12, P = 0.001). The estimated ratios of total to HDL cholesterol were 4.4 and 4.9 for persons at the 10th (2.1 g/d) and 90th (4.9 g/d) percentiles of trans-fatty acid intake, respectively. On the basis of results from other studies, these ratios would correspond to a 27% increase in risk of myocardial infarction.
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To test whether a fat reduced diet rich in soluble dietary fibre, antioxidant vitamins, and minerals reduces complications and mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Randomised, single blind, controlled trial. Primary and secondary care research centre for patients with myocardial infarction. 505 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. Those with definite or possible acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina based on World Health Organisation criteria were assigned to diet A (n = 204) or diet B (n = 202) within 24-48 hours of infarction. Both groups were advised to follow a fat reduced diet. Group A was also advised to eat more fruit, vegetables, nuts, and grain products. Mortality from cardiac disease and other causes. Serum lipid concentrations and compliance with diet. Blood lipoprotein concentrations and body weight fell significantly in patients in group A compared with those in group B (cholesterol fell by 0.74 mmol/l in group A v 0.32 mmol/l in group B, 95% confidence interval of difference 0.14 to 0.70, and weight by 7.1 v 3.0 kg, 0.52 to 7.68). The incidence of cardiac events was significantly lower in group A than group B (50 v 82 patients, p less than 0.001). Group A also had lower total mortality (21 v 38 died, p less than 0.01) than group B. Comprehensive dietary changes in conjunction with weight loss immediately after acute myocardial infarction may modulate blood lipoproteins and significantly reduce complications and mortality after one year.
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In this paper we compare the fatty acid content of egg yolks from hens fed four different feeds as a source of docosahexaenoic acid to supplement infant formula. Greek eggs contain more docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 omega 3) and less linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 omega 6) and alpha-linolenic acid (LNA, 18:3 omega 3) than do fish-meal or flax eggs. Two to three grams of Greek egg yolk may provide an adequate amount of DHA and arachidonic acid for a preterm neonate. Mean intake of breast milk at age 1 mo provides 250 mg long-chain omega 3 fatty acids. This amount can be obtained from less than 1 yolk of a Greek egg (0.94), greater than 1 yolk of flax eggs (1.6) and fish-meal eggs (1.4), or 8.3 yolks of supermarket eggs. With proper manipulation of the hens' diets, eggs could be produced with fatty acid composition similar to that of Greek eggs.
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Intakes of partially hydrogenated fish oil and animal fats have declined and those of palm, soybean, sunflower, and rapeseed oils have increased in northern Europe in the past 30 y. Soybean and rapeseed oils are currently the most plentiful liquid vegetable oils and both have desirable ratios of n−6 to n−3 fatty acids. However, soybean and rapeseed oils are commonly partially hydrogenated for use in commercial frying to decrease susceptibility to oxidative degradation. This process leads to selective losses of α-linolenic acid (18:3n−3). Intake of linoleic acid (18:2n−6) has risen in many northern European countries. In the United Kingdom, intakes have increased from ≈10 g/d in the late 1970s to ≈15 g/d in the 1990s. The intake of α-linolenic acid is estimated to be ≈1–2 g/d but varies with the type of culinary oil used. There are few reliable estimates of the intake of long-chain n−3 fatty acids, but those are generally ≈0.1–0.5 g/d. The increased use of intensive, cereal-based livestock production systems has resulted in a lower proportion of n−3 fatty acids in meat compared with traditional extensive production systems. Overall, there has been a shift in the balance between n−6 and n−3 fatty acids over the past 30 y. This shift is reflected in the declining concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid and rising concentrations of linoleic acid in breast milk.
Article
Several sources of information suggest that man evolved on a diet with a ratio of ω6 to ω3 fatty acids of ∼ 1 whereas today this ratio is ∼10:1 to 20–25:1, indicating that Western diets are deficient in ω3 fatty acids compared with the diet on which humans evolved and their genetic patterns were established. Omega-3 fatty acids increase bleeding time; decrease platelet aggregation, blood viscosity, and fibrinogen; and increase erythrocyte deformability, thus decreasing the tendency to thrombus formation. In no clinical trial, including coronary artery graft surgery, has there been any evidence of increased blood loss due to ingestion of ω3 fatty acids. Many studies show that the effects of ω3 fatty acids on serum lipids depend on the type of patient and whether the amount of saturated fatty acids in the diet is held constant. In patients with hyperlipidemia, ω3 fatty acids decrease low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol if the saturated fatty acid content is decreased, otherwise there is a slight increase, but at high doses (32 g) they lower LDL cholesterol; furthermore, they consistently lower serum triglycerides in normal subjects and in patients with hypertriglyceridemia whereas the effect on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) varies from no effect to slight increases. The discrepancies between animal and human studies most likely are due to differences between animal and human metabolism. In clinical trials eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the form of fish oils along with antirheumatic drugs improve joint pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; have a beneficial effect in patients with ulcerative colitis; and in combination with drugs, improve the skin lesions, lower the hyperlipidemia from etretinates, and decrease the toxicity of cyclosporin in patients with psoriasis. In various animal models ω3 fatty acids decrease the number and size of tumors and increase the time elapsed before appearance of tumors. Studies with nonhuman primates and human newborns indicate that DHA is essential for the normal functional development of the retina and brain, particularly in premature infants. Because ω3 fatty acids are essential in growth and development throughout the life cycle, they should be included in the diets of all humans. Omega-3 and ω6 fatty acids are not interconvertible in the human body and are important components of practically all cell membranes. Whereas cellular proteins are genetically determined, the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of cell membranes is to a great extent dependent on the dietary intake. Therefore appropriate amounts of dietary ω6 and ω3 fatty acids need to be considered in making dietary recommendations, and these two classes of PUFAs should be distinguished because they are metabolically and functionally distinct and have opposing physiological functions. Their balance is important for homeostasis and normal development. Canada is the first country to provide separate dietary recommendations for ω6 and ω3 fatty acids.
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Lee, et al, have demonstrated that fish — oil ingestion leads to decreased production of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) derived from arachidonate through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway with the new production of leukotriene B5 (LTB5) from EPA(1). Since LTB4 is a potent inflammatory and chemotactic compound, a decrease in its production could favorably affect the clinical manifestations of an inflammatory disease like rheumatoid arthritis. It was not surprising, then, when we observed improvement in certain clinical manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis which were significantly correlated with decreased production of neutrophil LTB4 in patients receiving fish — oil(2).
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Background There is conflicting evidence on the benefits of foods rich in vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and their pharmacological substitutes. We investigated the effects of these substances as supplements in patients who had myocardial infarction. Methods From October, 1993, to September, 1995, 11324 patients surviving recent (less than or equal to 3 months) myocardial infarction were randomly assigned supplements of n-3 PUFA (Ig daily, n=2836), vitamin E (300 mg daily, n=2830), both (n=2830), or none (control, n=2828) for 3.5 years. The primary combined efficacy endpoint was death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and stroke. Intention-to-treat analyses were done according to a factorial design (two-way) and by treatment group (four-way). Findings Treatment with n-3 PUFA, but not vitamin E, significantly lowered the risk of the primary endpoint (relative risk decrease 10% [95% CI 1-18] by two-way analysis, 15% [2-26] by four-way analysis). Benefit was attributable to a decrease in the risk of death (14% [3-24] two-way, 20% [6-33] four-way) and cardiovascular death (17% [3-29] two-way, 30% [13-44] four-way). The effect of the combined treatment was similar to that for n-3 PUFA for the primary endpoint (14% [1-26]) and for fatal events (20% [5-33]). Interpretation Dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA led to a clinically important and satistically significant benefit. Vitamin E had no benefit. Its effects on fatal cardiovascular events require further exploration.
Article
Background ω3 Fatty acids may inhibit neuronal signal transduction pathways in a manner similar to that of lithium carbonate and valproate, 2 effective treatments for bipolar disorder. The present study was performed to examine whether ω3 fatty acids also exhibit mood-stabilizing properties in bipolar disorder. Methods A 4-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, comparing ω3 fatty acids (9.6 g/d) vs placebo (olive oil), in addition to usual treatment, in 30 patients with bipolar disorder. Results A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of the cohort found that the ω3 fatty acid patient group had a significantly longer period of remission than the placebo group (P=.002; Mantel-Cox). In addition, for nearly every other outcome measure, the ω3 fatty acid group performed better than the placebo group. Conclusion ω3 Fatty acids were well tolerated and improved the short-term course of illness in this preliminary study of patients with bipolar disorder.
Article
The Workshop on the Essentiality of and Recommended Dietary Intakes (RDIs) for Omega-6 and Omega-3 Fatty Acids was held at The Cloisters, National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Md., USA, April 7–9, 1999. The workshop was sponsored by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism-NIH, the Office of Dietary Supplements-NIH, The Center for Genetics, Nutrition and Health, and the International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids, and cosponsored by several industry groups1.
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Background: It has been hypothesized that depletion of cell membrane n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly docosahexanoic acid (DHA), may be of etiological importance in depression. Methods: We measured the fatty acid composition of phospholipid in cell membranes from red blood cells (RBC) of 15 depressive patients and 15 healthy control subjects. Results: Depressive patients showed significant depletions of total n3 PUFA and particularly DHA. Incubation of RBC from control subjects with hydrogen peroxide abolished all significant differences between patients and controls. Conclusions: These findings suggest that RBC membranes in depressive patients show evidence of oxidative damage. Possible interpretations, and implications for the etiology and treatment of depression, are discussed.
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The advanced lesions of atherosclerosis represent the culmination of a specialized form of chronic inflammation followed by a fibroproliferative process that takes place within the intima of the affected artery. Proliferation of smooth muscle cells and generation of connective tissue occur. Proliferation results from interactions between arterial smooth muscle, monocyte-derived macrophages, T lymphocytes, and endothelium. The initial lesion of atherosclerosis, the fatty streak, begins as an accumulation of monocytederived macrophages and T lymphocytes, which adhere and migrate into the intima of the affected artery. Smooth muscle cells, which are present in the intima or which migrate into the intima from the media, then replicate. Monocyte-derived macrophages and T cells also replicate during lesion formation and progression due to the production of cytokines and growth-regulatory molecules. These molecules determine whether there is proliferation and lesion progression or inhibition of proliferation and lesion regression. Several growthregulatory molecules may play critical roles in this process, including platelet-derived growth factor (PGDF), transforming growth factor beta, fibroblast growth factor, heparinbinding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor, and others. PDGF may be one of the principal components in this process because protein containing the PDGF B-chain has been demonstrated within activated lesion macrophages during every phase of atherogenesis. The presence of this growth factor and its receptors on lesion smooth muscle cells creates opportunities for smooth muscle chemotaxis and replication. Smooth muscle proliferation depends upon a series of complex signals based upon cellular interactions in the local microenvironment of the artery. The intracellular signalling pathways for mitogenesis versus chemotaxis are being investigated for smooth muscle. The roles of the cytokines and growth-regulatory peptides involved in these cellular interactions represent critical points of departure for intervention and the development of new diagnostic methods. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging has been developed to demonstrate the fine structure of lesions of atherosclerosis in peripheral arteries not subject to cardiac motion. This noninvasive methodology holds great promise for the future of these approaches.
Article
To determine the safety and benefit of n-3 fatty acid therapy in the prevention of early restenosis after coronary angioplasty, we conducted a randomized, unblinded study comparing a conventional antiplatelet regimen (325 mg of aspirin and 225 mg of dipyridamole per day; control group) with a similar regimen supplemented with 3.2 g of eicosapentaenoic acid per day (treatment group). Treatment began seven days before angioplasty and continued for six months afterward. All angiographic analyses were blinded and performed by a method that was validated by comparison with quantitative coronary angiography. In 82 male patients, 103 coronary lesions were dilated. Both groups had similar base-line clinical and angiographic characteristics. The incidence of early vessel restenosis, as determined on a second angiogram three to four months after angioplasty, was 36 percent in the control group and 16 percent in the treatment group (P = 0.026). The incidence of restenosis per patient was also significantly lower in the treatment group (46 vs. 19 percent). Both multiple logistic regression and Mantel-Haenszel statistical analyses demonstrated a significant independent benefit of treatment with n-3 fatty acids. No important bleeding complications developed in the treated patients. These results, in a male population at relatively high risk for restenosis, suggest that a dietary supplement of n-3 fatty acids, administered for one week before and for six months after coronary angioplasty, is safe and reduces the occurrence of early restenosis after that procedure. Whether this beneficial effect also applies to other populations is unknown.
Article
A comparison has been made of the tissue fatty acids in domestic bovids and bovids from free-living and undisturbed habitats. In the domestic state, the proportion of polyunsaturated to non essential fatty acids was of the order of 1/50, whereas in the free-living animal it was 1/2.3. There also seemed to be a greater diversity of polyunsaturated acids in free-living species. These differences may arise partly because oil-rich vegetation which is available to free-living animals has been eliminated from the diet of domestic animals raised on grassland. Since man's tissue lipids approximate to the domestic pattern on which he is dependent, the question arises as to whether the total domestic development of water-rich vegetation is nutritionally detrimental and that a resultant low balance of polyunsaturated to saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids may be related to arterial disease.
Article
Several studies have indicated dietary fish oil (FO) as a protective agent in colon carcinogenesis. Rectal cell proliferation as an intermediate biomarker of cancer risk was shown to be reduced by dietary FO in patients with adenomatous polyps and healthy subjects consuming a low-fat diet. Because the synthesis of prostaglandins (PG) which seem to be involved in this process is dependent on the ratio of n-3:n-6 fatty acids in the diet, the present study was designed to investigate whether this FO effect is also detectable in volunteers eating a high-fat diet (50% of energy) with a low n-3:n-6 ratio of 0.25. Twelve healthy volunteers received in addition to a controlled basal diet either FO (4.4 g n-3 fatty acids/day) or corn oil supplements (double-blind, crossover) for two 4-week periods. No significant differences between the two study periods were found for rectal cell proliferation as assessed by bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemistry and ornithine decarboxylase activity, as well as for mucosal PGE(2) release and mucosal membrane fatty acid composition. The results emphasize the importance of dietary n-3:n-6 ratio in determining the effects of FO on rectal cell proliferation.
Article
• Human physiology during evolution would have been adapted to the nature of wild foods, yet there is a striking qualitative and quantitative difference between the fat in wild or extensive meat consumption compared to what we eat today. • The total proportion of ω-3 has fallen 10-fold from a range of 12–16% of the fatty acids in wild bovids to 1.0–2.6% in currently sold meat. • The intensively reared animal carcass ratio is >1 often with between four and nine times the calories coming from fat compared to protein so that a chicken thigh eaten today provides the consumer with 100 more calories from fat than it did in the 1970s. • Most of the fat is of a saturated type and there is a discernable loss of ω-3 fatty acids in the meat of beef and poultry so that the ω6/ω-3 ratio in chickens as purchased was found to be about 9 compared to wild birds in which it is approximately 2. • A high level of fat infiltration in muscle which is purchased as meat has happened because of the intensive conditions of high-energy diets, growth promotion and absence of exercise which encourages weight gain as fat and fat infiltration at the expense of muscle loss. • Human physiology is adapted to wild foods; so drift from the genetic adaptation background contributed to the rise in the Western cluster of non-communicable diseases and the current concern with obesity, metabolic syndrome and mental ill health.
Article
In this article, Dr. Simopoulos proposes that, in developing food guides for various populations, attention be directed to the dietary patterns that prevailed early in the evolutionary history of that population and its current health status. She emphasizes that the dietary aspects of the environment have changed much more over the centuries than has the human genome. Because of the diverse genetic patterns in various cultures, she argues that universal dietary recommendations are not applicable and that, to be effective, food guides must incorporate the unique dietary components in which the group has evolved and thrived. (C) Williams & Wilkins 1995. All Rights Reserved.
Article
This article presents a review of the recent findings on the role of insulin resistance in obesity, the importance of fatty acid composition of muscle cell membranes in modulating insulin action, and dietary factors that require consideration. (C) Williams & Wilkins 1994. All Rights Reserved.