Comparison of active and passive surveillance for cerebrovascular disease: The Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) Project.
To provide a scientific rationale for choosing an optimal stroke surveillance method, the authors compared active surveillance with passive surveillance. The methods involved ascertaining cerebrovascular events that occurred in Nueces County, Texas, during calendar year 2000. Active methods utilized screening of hospital and emergency department logs and routine visiting of hospital wards and out-of-hospital sources. Passive means relied on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), discharge codes for case ascertainment. Cases were validated by fellowship-trained stroke neurologists on the basis of published criteria. The results showed that, of the 6,236 events identified through both active and passive surveillance, 802 were validated to be cerebrovascular events. When passive surveillance alone was used, 209 (26.1%) cases were missed, including 73 (9.1%) cases involving hospital admission and 136 (17.0%) out-of-hospital strokes. Through active surveillance alone, 57 (7.1%) cases were missed. The positive predictive value of active surveillance was 12.2%. Among the 2,099 patients admitted to a hospital, passive surveillance using ICD-9 codes missed 73 cases of cerebrovascular disease and mistakenly included 222 noncases. There were 57 admitted hospital cases missed by active surveillance, including 13 not recognized because of human error. This study provided a quantitative means of assessing the utility of active and passive surveillance for cerebrovascular disease. More uniform surveillance methods would allow comparisons across studies and communities.
Available from: Jan Risser
- "This passive surveillance was then compared to active surveillance, and any discrepancies were further evaluated. The method of active and passive surveillance is superior to either alone (Piriyawat et al. 2002). Included in this study were ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. "
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ABSTRACT: To provide insight into the reduced post-stroke all-cause mortality among Mexican Americans, we explored ethnic differences in the pre-stroke prevalence of (1) spirituality, (2) optimism, (3) depression, and (4) fatalism in a Mexican American and non-Hispanic white stroke population. The Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project is a population-based stroke surveillance study in Nueces County, Texas. Seven hundred ten stroke patients were queried. For fatalism, optimism, and depression scales, unadjusted ethnic comparisons were made using linear regression models. Regression models were also used to explore how age and gender modify the ethnic associations after adjustment for education. For the categorical spirituality variables, ethnic comparisons were made using Fisher's exact tests. Mexican Americans reported significantly more spirituality than non-Hispanic whites. Among women, age modified the ethnic associations with pre-stroke depression and fatalism but not optimism. Mexican American women had more optimism than non-Hispanic white women. With age, Mexican American women had less depression and fatalism, while non-Hispanic white women had more fatalism and similar depression. Among men, after adjustment for education and age, there was no ethnic association with fatalism, depression, and optimism. Spirituality requires further study as a potential mediator of increased survival following stroke among Mexican Americans. Among women, evaluation of the role of optimism, depression, and fatalism as they relate to ethnic differences in post-stroke mortality should be explored.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "BASIC is a population-based stroke surveillance study conducted in Nueces County, Texas, USA. Methods of the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) Project have been reported . Due to its distance from Houston and San Antonio, investigation in Nueces County allows for complete case capture for first medical contact in acute stroke. "
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ABSTRACT: The genetic epidemiology of ischemic stroke remains relatively unstudied, and information about the genetic epidemiology of ischemic stroke in populations with significant minority representation is currently unavailable.
The Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi project (BASIC) is a population-based stroke surveillance study conducted in the bi-ethnic community of Nueces County, Texas, USA. Completed ischemic strokes were identified among patients 45 years or older seen at hospitals in the county between January 1, 2000-December 31, 2002. A random sample of ischemic stroke patients underwent an in-person interview and detailed medical record abstraction (n = 400). Outcomes, including initial stroke severity (NIH stroke scale), age at stroke onset, 90-day mortality and functional outcome (modified Rankin scale > or = 2), were studied for their association with family history of stroke among a first degree relative using multivariable logistic and linear regression. A chi-square test was used to test the association between family history of stroke and ischemic stroke subtype.
The study population was 53.0% Mexican American and 58.4% female. Median age was 73.2 years. Forty percent reported a family history of stroke among a first degree relative. Family history of stroke was borderline significantly associated with stroke subtype (p = 0.0563). Family history was associated with poor functional outcome in the multivariable model (OR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.14-3.09). Family history was not significantly related to initial stroke severity, age at stroke onset, or 90-day mortality.
Family history of stroke was related to ischemic stroke subtype and to functional status at discharge. More research is needed to understand whether stroke subtype would be a useful selection criterion for genetic association studies and to hypothesize about a possible genetic link to recovery following ischemic stroke.
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