Vitamin C and vitamin E supplement use and bladder cancer mortality in a large cohort of US men and women.

Department of Epidemiology and Surveillance Research, American Cancer Society, National Home Office, Atlanta, GA 30329-4251, USA.
American Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 5.23). 12/2002; 156(11):1002-10.
Source: PubMed


Some epidemiologic studies suggest that use of vitamin C or vitamin E supplements, both potent antioxidants, may reduce the risk of bladder cancer. The authors examined the association between use of individual vitamin C and vitamin E supplements and bladder cancer mortality among 991,522 US adults in the Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II) cohort. CPS-II participants completed a self-administered questionnaire at enrollment in 1982 and were followed regarding mortality through 1998. During follow-up, 1,289 bladder cancer deaths occurred (962 in men and 327 in women). Rate ratios were adjusted for age, sex, cigarette smoking, education, and consumption of citrus fruits and vegetables. Regular vitamin C supplement use (>or=15 times per month) was not associated with bladder cancer mortality, regardless of duration (rate ratio (RR) = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68, 1.20 for <10 years' use; RR = 1.25, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.72 for >or=10 years' use). Regular vitamin E supplement use for >or=10 years was associated with a reduced risk of bladder cancer mortality (RR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.96), but regular use of shorter duration was not (RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.77, 1.40). Results support the hypothesis that long-duration vitamin E supplement use may reduce the risk of bladder cancer mortality.

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Available from: Marjorie L Mccullough, May 12, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The associations between supplement use and certain demographics, lifestyles, health characteristics, and dietary intakes have not been studied in a large population in non-Western societies. The objective of our study was to investigate the association between supplement use and demographics, lifestyles, health characteristics, and dietary intake in a population-based cohort study in Japan. Subjects were the 78 531 participants (45-74 years) who completed a self-administered questionnaire in 1995 or 1998 in a 5-year follow-up survey by the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective Study on cancer and cardiovascular disease. The questionnaire included enquiries about supplement use, occupation, height, weight, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, dietary behaviours, working hours, subjective stress, as well as intakes for 138 foods. The supplement users were likely to have formerly smoked or never smoked. Female supplement users were likely to consume alcohol moderately. The prevalence of users was higher in the elderly, the self-employed, those with lower body mass index, greater physical activity, lower frequency of eating prepared food, higher frequency of eating out, and higher stress level in both sexes after mutual adjustment. Mean intakes of energy and nutrients were lower for users than for non-users. The demographics, lifestyles, health characteristics, and dietary intakes may need to be adjusted when evaluating the effect of dietary supplements on disease because they can become potential confounding factors.
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