Article

Effects of prune consumption on the ratio of 2-hydroxyestrone to 16� -hydroxyestrone1-3

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Clinical Nutrition, and Vascular Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95817, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 01/2003; 76(6):1422-7.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

A higher urinary ratio of the biologically inactive estrogen metabolite, 2-hydroxyestrone (2OHE1), to the biologically active metabolite, 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alphaOHE1), may be associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. High fiber intake is also associated with decreased breast cancer risk.
We investigated the effects of prunes, which are naturally rich in both soluble and insoluble fiber, on the concentrations of 2OHE1 and 16alphaOHE1 and on the ratio of 2OHE1 to 16alphaOHE1.
Nineteen healthy premenopausal women consumed their habitual diets for 3 menstrual cycles and then consumed 100 g prunes/d for the next 3 cycles. Concentrations of urinary 2OHE1 and 16alphaOHE1 were determined during the follicular and luteal phases.
Prune supplementation increased total and soluble fiber intakes by 4 and 2 g/d, respectively (P < 0.001). Mean (+/- SEM) luteal 2OHE1 excretion decreased from 3.92 +/- 0.79 to 2.20 +/- 0.40 nmol/mmol creatinine during the third cycle (P = 0.017). Luteal 16alphaOHE1 excretion decreased from 1.38 +/- 0.24 to 0.87 +/- 0.10 and 0.87 +/- 0.15 nmol/mmol creatinine during the first and third cycles, respectively (P = 0.018 for both values). Follicular 16alphaOHE1 excretion decreased significantly only during the first cycle (from 0.82 +/- 0.12 to 0.45 +/- 0.09 nmol/mmol creatinine; P = 0.005). The 2OHE1-16alphaOHE1 ratio did not change significantly after prune supplementation.
Prune supplementation significantly decreased the excretion of 16alphaOHE1 during the follicular phase of the first menstrual cycle and during the luteal phases of both the first and third menstrual cycles. The 2OHE1-16alphaOHE1 ratio did not change significantly. The potential significance of the decrease in 16alphaOHE1 excretion, without a change in the 2OHE1-16alphaOHE1 ratio, on the prevention of estrogen-dependent cancers remains to be determined.

Full-text preview

Available from: ajcn.org
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Eighteen plum/prune preparations and byproducts were analyzed for proximate constituents and carbohydrate profiles. Plum puree and prune juice contained the highest concentrations of ash (13.0 and 13.8%, respectively). Crude protein (CP), acid-hydrolyzed fat (AHF), and total dietary fiber (TDF) concentrations were higher in byproducts (waste cake and dried plum pits) compared with the other fractions. Several classes of oligosaccharides were found in low concentrations in many of the substrates and were associated with the fruit rather than the pit. Maltooligosaccharides were found in very high concentrations in three of the preparations as a result of the addition of maltodextrin during processing. Monosaccharides, sugar alcohols, and oligosaccharides were found in higher concentrations in the fruit than in the pit and accounted for 2.9-84.7% of substrate organic matter. These results indicate that carbohydrates of various types constitute a significant proportion of plum/prune preparations and byproducts.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2004 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Effects of a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich diet were investigated in 17 polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. After a 3-month habitual diet period, dietary fats were partly replaced with PUFAs for another 3 months. The PUFA-rich diet increased plasma linoleic acid from 28.36 +/- 1.00% to 33.76 +/- 1.08% (P < 0.002) and alpha-linolenic acid from 0.52 +/- 0.03% to 1.06 +/- 0.10% (P < 0.0001). Fasting glucose increased from 76 +/- 3 to 95 +/- 3 mg/dl (4.2 +/- 0.2 to 5.30.2 mmol/liter; P < 0.0001), and the area under the curve for glucose during oral glucose tolerance test increased from 421 +/- 34 to 503 +/- 31 mg/dl (23.4 +/- 1.9 to 27.9 +/- 1.7 mmol/liter; P < 0.001). Plasma insulin did not change either at fasting or during oral glucose tolerance test. Fasting plasma free fatty acids decreased from 0.596 +/- 0.048 to 0.445 +/- 0.058 mg/dl (P = 0.037), and ketone bodies decreased from 9.14 +/- 1.57 to 3.63 +/- 0.62 mg/dl (895 +/- 154 to 356 +/- 61 micromol/liter; P < 0.003). Plasma 15-deoxyprostaglandin J(2) tended to decrease (from 239 +/- 65 to 171 +/- 60 ng/ml; P = 0.053). Plasma testosterone, free testosterone, SHBG, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, LH, FSH, and urinary estrogen conjugates did not change. Urinary pregnanediol 3-glucuronide increased from 18.6 +/- 2.2 to 31.0 +/- 5.7 micro g/mg creatinine (P = 0.038). In conclusion, increased dietary PUFA intake can exert significant metabolic and endocrine effects in women with PCOS.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2004 · Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Equol and O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA) are products of bacterial metabolism of daidzein, an isoflavone in soybeans; thus, the presence or absence of equol and/or O-DMA in urine is a marker of particular intestinal bacteria profiles. Plasma hormone concentrations may be lower in pre-menopausal women who harbor the bacteria capable of producing equol (equol producers) compared to women who do not (equol non-producers). We evaluated concentrations of serum hormones, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OH E(1)) and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alpha-OH E(1)) in relation to equol-producer and O-DMA-producer phenotypes in 89 post-menopausal women. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) was 23% greater in O-DMA-producers compared to non-producers (P = 0.04). No significant differences in serum estrogens, androgens, metabolic hormones, or SHBG were observed in relation to either daidzein-metabolizing phenotype. Compared with non-producers within each phenotype, age-adjusted 2-OH E(1):16alpha-OH E(1) was 27% greater (P = 0.06) in equol-producers and 9% greater (P > 0.10) in O-DMA-producers, and 2-OH E(1) concentrations were 24% greater in equol producers (P = 0.07) and 42% greater in O-DMA producers (P = 0.02). No significant differences in 16alpha-OH E(1) were observed in relation to either phenotype. These results suggest that interindividual variability in intestinal bacteria may be related to differences in products of hormone metabolism in post-menopausal women.
    No preview · Article · May 2004 · The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Show more