Biological Factors are More Important than Socio-demographic and Psychosocial Conditions in Relation to Hypertension in Middle-aged Women. The Women's Health in the Lund Area (WHILA) Study

Department of Community Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
Blood Pressure (Impact Factor: 1.81). 02/2002; 11(5):270-8. DOI: 10.1080/080370502320779476
Source: PubMed


The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyse the influence of biological, socio-demographic, and psychosocial factors and current perimenopausal status on hypertension in a geographically defined population of 10,766 women aged 50-59 years, of whom 6901 attended the study. Altogether 1887 (27.3%) women had hypertension: 996 with drug treatment and 891 diagnosed at the study. In a logistic multiple regression analysis (controlled for age), drug treatment of hyperlipidaemia, family history of hypertension, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index (BMI) increase > or = 25% during the past 25 years, S-triglycerides, S-cholesterol, education up to comprehensive school, and to upper secondary school, consumption of 84-167 g of alcohol/week, and of > or = 168 g of alcohol/week, were positively associated with hypertension, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and current smoking were negatively associated. A significant interaction was found between current smoking and BMI increase, with a lower risk for hypertension among smokers who had increased their BMI > or = 25%. No interaction was found between smoking and alcohol. In conclusion, hypertension was predominantly associated with biological factors, and with heredity for hypertension. Of the socio-demographic factors, only low level of education was associated with hypertension in a comprehensive analysis. Perimenopausal status showed no relation to occurrence of hypertension in the multiple regression analysis. The risk for hypertension increased with moderate and high consumption of alcohol, whereas smoking showed a decreased risk. Among women with weight gain, present smoking remained protective. Although both smoking and hypertension are established risk factors for cardiovascular disease, they seem not to be directly linked, indicating a complexity of mechanisms.

1 Read
  • Source
    • "Also, 11 mental and physical symptom questions were answered with ''yes'' or ''no'', on whether the woman had been troubled by any symptoms during the previous 3 months. The procedure has been described previously [25]. Informed consent was given by the participants, and the Ethics Committee at Malmö /Lund University approved the study. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether the serological marker for coeliac disease, tissue transglutaminase autoantibody (tTGAb), is associated with decreased bone mass density (BMD) and increased frequency of fractures in middle-aged women screened for osteoporosis. The study comprised 6480 women (mean age 56 years, range 50-64) who answered a number of questionnaires and who underwent dual X-ray absorptiometry of the wrist bone. Serum samples were analysed for tTGAb using radioligand binding assays. A tTGAb level of >4 U/ml was used to determine a positive value and a level of >17 U/ml was used as an alternative discrimination of high levels. A tTGAb level >4 U/ml was found among 90/6480 (1.4%) women and correlated with lower BMD (multiple linear regression coefficient -382.1; 95% CI = - 673.6-90.7, p=0.011) and with fracture frequency (r=0.18, p=0.023). The 59 women with tTGAb levels >or=17 U/ml had a lower BMD (0.41+/-0.08 g/cm(2) versus 0.44+/-0.08 g/cm(2), p=0.001) and a lower T-score (-1.40+/-1.28 versus -0.90+/-1.40, p=0.003) as well as a higher prevalence of osteoporosis (13.4% versus 6.5%, p=0.008) compared with the remaining 6421 women with tTGAb levels <17 U/ml. Furthermore, fracture frequency was more pronounced in women with tTGAb levels >or=17 U/ml, among whom 19/59 (32.2%) had fractures during the study period compared with 1204/6421 (18.8%) among women with tTGAb levels <17 U/ml (p=0.009). High levels of tTGAb indicating coeliac disease are associated with lower BMD and higher fracture frequency in women between 50 and 64 years of age. Osteometry is therefore warranted in middle-aged women detected with tTGAb.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to describe and analyse self-rated health in relation to sense of coherence and socioeconomic and health-related factors and to explore the associations between self-rated health and these factors in order to identify health resources and health limitations in a group of healthy middle-aged women. Healthy middle-aged women from a defined geographical area in Southern Sweden ( n =577) answered a postal survey with the sense of coherence scale and questions about socioeconomic and health-related conditions. The results showed that very good/rather good self-rated health was associated with high sense of coherence and good economic situation, and these factors can be seen as a health resource. Poor self-rated health was most strongly associated with perceived symptoms of tension, weak sense of coherence, treatment for depression, treatment for chronic disease, and difficult economic situation, and these factors can be seen as health limitations. In conclusion, only 29% of the women rated their health as very good and 41% of the women had symptoms of tension but they were not sick-listed. It is of major public health interest to improve the understanding of self-rated health and to develop health promotion for women and methods to prevent symptoms of tension and sick-listing.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2003 · Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim was to analyse any associations between socio-demographic and psychosocial factors and different features of the metabolic syndrome in a geographically well-defined population of middle-aged women. A population of 10 766 Caucasian women aged 50-59 years was investigated regarding biological and socio-demographic conditions, physical activity, dietary habits, aspects of quality of life, and subjective physical and mental symptoms. The screening instrument was used to discriminate subjects as positive or negative on one or more of a total of eight variables considered to be linked to the metabolic syndrome. The cut-off values for positive screening were non-fasting capillary blood glucose >/= 8.0 mmol/l and serum triglycerides >/= 2.3 mmo/l, BMI >/= 30 kg/m2, WHR >/= 0.90, blood pressure >/= 160 and/or 95 mmHg, a family history of diabetes, and pharmacological treatment for hypertension or hyperlipidaemia. Altogether 6805 women (63.2%) participated: 3535 with positive and 3270 with negative screening. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that comprehensive (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.41-1.87) and upper secondary (1.40, 1.24-1.57) school, low physical quality of life (1.41, 1.23-1.61) and high sum of subjective physical symptoms (1.06, 1.04-1.08) were positively associated with one or more features of the metabolic syndrome, while high leisure-time exercise and healthy diet (0.84, 0.71-0.99), and low (</= 83 g/week) (0.71, 0.63-0.81) and moderate (84-167 g/week) (0.78, 0.65-0.93) alcohol consumption were negatively associated. To identify middle-aged women with cardiovascular risk factors and high risk for diabetes, it is important to consider not only biological, but also socio-demographic and psychosocial conditions.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2003 · Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism
Show more