Lead Phytoextraction from Contaminated Soil with High-Biomass Plant Species
In this study, cabbage [Brassica rapa L. subsp. chinensis (L.) Hanelt cv. Xinza No 1], mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata cv. VC-3762], and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Altas 66) were grown in Pb-contaminated soils. Application of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (3.0 mmol of EDTA/kg soil) to the soil significantly increased the concentrations of Pb in the shoots and roots of all the plants. Lead concentrations in the cabbage shoots reached 5010 and 4620 mg/kg dry matter on Days 7 and 14 after EDTA application, respectively. EDTA was the best in solubilizing soil-bound Pb and enhancing Pb accumulation in the cabbage shoots among various chelates (EDTA, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid [DTPA], hydroxyethylenediaminetriacetic acid [HEDTA], nitrilotriacetic acid [NTA], and citric acid). Results of the sequential chemical extraction of soil samples showed that the Pb concentrations in the carbonate-specifically adsorbed and Fe-Mn oxide phases were significantly decreased after EDTA treatment. The results indicated that EDTA solubilized Pb mainly from these two phases in the soil. The relative efficiency of EDTA enhancing Pb accumulation in shoots (defined as the ratio of shoot Pb concentration to EDTA concentration applied) was highest when 1.5 or 3.0 mmol EDTA/kg soil was used. Application of EDTA in three separate doses was most effective in enhancing the accumulation of Pb in cabbage shoots and decreased mobility of Pb in soil compared with one- and two-dose application methods. This approach could help to minimize the amount of chelate applied in the field and to reduce the potential risk of soluble Pb movement into ground water.