Osteonecrosis in HIV disease: Epidemiology, etiologies and clinical management

Department of Medicine, Cornell University, Итак, New York, United States
AIDS (Impact Factor: 5.55). 02/2003; 17(1):1-9. DOI: 10.1097/01.aids.0000042940.55529.93
Source: PubMed


Osteonecrosis has been increasingly associated with HIV disease throughout the 1990s, and the incidence appears to be rising. The hip is most commonly involved and often bilaterally. Although anecodotal reports suggest an association between osteonecrosis and highly active antiretroviral therapy, controlled epidemiologic studies do not support a direct link. Many patients with osteonecrosis have established risk factors, some of which may be related to HIV disease or its therapy, including corticosteroid use and hyperlipidemia. Alcoholism, hypercoagulability, megesterol acetate use, immune reconstitution, and other factors may also contribute. Plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging are the cornerstones of diagnosis. Management is dependent on the stage of bone disease and ranges from observation to total joint arthroplasty. Clinicians may help to prevent HIV-associated osteonecrosis by encouraging patients to limit their exposure to the established risk factors for the disease.

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    • "In addition, it has been noted that HIV-infected patients have an increased risk for osteonecrosis of the hip [41]. Keruly et al. reported 15 cases of avascular hip necrosis in HIV-infected patients and suggested that the incidence of osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients was higher than the general HIV-negative population [42]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Currently infection with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is in most instances a chronic disease that can be controlled by effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, chronic use of ART has been associated with a number of toxicities; including significant reductions in bone mineral density (BMD) and disorders of the fat metabolism. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) transcription factor is vital for the development and maintenance of mature and developing adipocytes. Alterations in PPARγ expression have been implicated as a factor in the mechanism of HIV-1-associated lipodystrophy. Both reduced BMD and lipodystrophy have been well described as complications of HIV-1 infection and treatment, and a question remains as to their interdependence. Interestingly, both adipocytes and osteoblasts are derived from a common precursor cell type; the mesenchymal stem cell. The possibility that dysregulation of PPARγ (and the subsequent effect on both osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis) is a contributory factor in the lipid- and bone-abnormalities observed in HIV-1 infection and treatment has also been investigated. This review deals with the hypothesis that dysregulation of PPARγ may underpin the bone abnormalities associated with HIV-1 infection, and treats the current knowledge and prospective developments, in our understanding of PPARγ involvement in HIV-1-associated bone disease.
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    • "Osteoporosis is characterised by a severe loss of bone mass with consequent reduction in bone strength, leading to an increased fracture risk. Osteopenia is the lesser reduction of bone mass which precedes osteoporosis [1]. Recent studies have suggested an association between bone abnormailites, including osteoporosis, ostepenia, and osteolysis, and HIV infection [1,2]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A high incidence of decreased bone mineral density (BMD) has been associated with HIV infection. Normal skeletal homeostasis is controlled, at least in part, by the maturation and activity of mature osteoblasts. Previous studies by our group have demonstrated the ability of HIV proteins to perturb osteoblast function, and the degree of osteogenesis in differentiating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). This study attempts to further dissect the dynamics of this effect. MSCs were cultured under both osteogenic (cultured in commercially available differentiation media) and quiescent (cultured in basal medium) conditions. Both cell populations were exposed to HIV p55-gag and HIV rev (100 ng/ml). Time points were taken at 3, 6, 9, and 15 days for osteogenic conditions, while quiescent cells were treated for 1 week. Cell function (alkaline phosphatase [ALP] activity, calcium deposition, and lipid levels) and the activity of the key MSC transcription factors, RUNX-2 and PPARgamma were determined post-exposure. Also, in cells cultured in differentiating conditions, cellular levels of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were analysed using whole cell ELISA, while BMP-2 secretion was also examined. In differentiating MSCs, exposure to HIV proteins caused significant changes in both the timing and magnitude of key osteogenic events and signals. Treatment with REV increased the overall rate of mineralization, and induced earlier increases in CTGF levels, RUNX-2 activity and BMP-2 secretion, than those observed in the normal course of differntiation. In contrast, p55-gag reduced the overall level of osteogenesis, and reduced BMP-2 secretion, RUNX-2 activity, CTGF levels and ALP activity at many of the timepoints examined. Finally, in cells cultured in basal conditions, treatment with HIV proteins did not in and of itself induce a significant degree of differentiation over the time period examined. These data demonstrate that the effect of HIV proteins on bone is dependent on the differentiation status of the cells that they are in contact with. The effect on bone cell signalling provides insights into the mechanism of HIV induced decreases in bone mineral density.
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