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Abstract

Polyvinyl alcohols (PVA) (CAS no. 9002-89-5) are synthetic polymers used in a wide range of industrial, commercial, medical and food applications. The purpose of this review, this critical evaluation of the available information on PVA, is to support the safety of PVA as a coating agent for pharmaceutical and dietary supplement products. All the available information on PVA gleaned from a comprehensive search of the scientific literature were critically evaluated. Orally administered PVA is relatively harmless. The safety of PVA is based on the following: (1) the acute oral toxicity of PVA is very low, with LD(50)s in the range of 15-20 g/kg; (2) orally administered PVA is very poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract; (3) PVA does not accumulate in the body when administered orally; (4) PVA is not mutagenic or clastogenic; and (5) NOAELs of orally administered PVA in male and female rats were 5000 mg/kg body weight/day in the 90-day dietary study and 5000 mg/kg body weight/day in the two-generation reproduction study, which was the highest dose tested. A critical evaluation of the existing information on PVA supports its safety for use as a coating agent for pharmaceutical and dietary supplement products.
... In addition, PEG and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) are used in pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), while polyacrylic acid (PAA) as excipient in cosmetics (Patil and Ferritto, 2013;Penlidis et al., 2018;Rivas et al., 2018;Huppertsberg et al., 2020;Rozman and Kalčíková, 2021). Another well-known WSP, the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA or PVOH), is widely used in the production of textile and industrial fibers, adhesives, binders, water-soluble films for packaging materials, and in detergent pods (DeMerlis et al., 2003;Gaaz et al., 2015). This WSP is produced by polyvinyl acetate (PVAc; FAO, 2004) and its wide use is associated to its theoretical biodegradability, chemical and thermal stability, resistance to organic solvents and high-water solubility (Julinová et al., 2018). ...
... This WSP is produced by polyvinyl acetate (PVAc; FAO, 2004) and its wide use is associated to its theoretical biodegradability, chemical and thermal stability, resistance to organic solvents and high-water solubility (Julinová et al., 2018). Other specific properties, such as biocompatibility, made the PVA useful in the biomedical and pharmaceutical fields, as the production of contact lenses, synthetic tear eye-drops, surgical sponges, and drug delivery (DeMerlis et al., 2003;Muppalaneni and Omidian 2013;Gaaz et al., 2015). ...
Article
Despite the pollution induced by plastics become a well-known and documented problem, bringing many countries to adopt restrictions about their production, commercialization and use, the impact of another emerging category of synthetic polymers, represented by the Water-Soluble Polymers (WSPs), also known as “liquid plastics”, is overlooked by scientific community. WSPs are produced in large quantities and used in a wide plethora of applications such as food packaging, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, cosmetics and detergents, with a consequent continuous release in the environment. The aim of this study was the investigation of the possible toxicity induced by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), one of the main produced and used WSPs, on two freshwater model organisms, the crustacean Daphnia magna and the teleost Danio rerio (zebrafish). We evaluated the effects of solubilized standard PVA powder and PVA-based commercial bags for carp-fishing, at 3 different concentrations (1 µg/L, 0.5 mg/L and 1 mg/L), through the exposures for 14 days of D. magna (daphnids; age < 24 h) and for 5 days of zebrafish embryos (up to 120 hours post fertilization - hpf). As acute effects we evaluated the immobilization/mortality of specimens, while for chronic toxicity we selected several endpoints with a high ecological relevance, as the behavioural alteration on swimming performance, in real-time readout, and the activity of monoamine oxidase (MAO), a neuro-enzyme with a potential implication in the organism movement. The results showed the lack of significant effects induced by the selected substances, at all tested concentrations and in both model organisms. However, considering the wide plethora of available WSPs, other investigations are needed to provide the initial knowledge of risk assessment of these compounds contained in some consumer products.
... Polyvinyl alcohol is a hydrophilic, biodegradable, and atactic synthetic polymer that exhibits crystallinity. In the early 1920s PVA was discovered and since then it has been used in various industries, like food, textile, paper manufacturing, and in the production of polarizer films [114][115][116]. Mainly due to some important properties like nontoxicity, bioadhesive, significant uni-axial tensile, and surface characteristics [117]. ...
Thesis
Strain-induced/assisted crystallization (SIC) of polymers plays an important role in a variety of industrial applications, such as tires, fibers, and containers. The semi-crystalline structure that is induced by straining is assumed to be the origin of the high tensile strength and resistance against the formation and propagation of cracks in rubber. The process of SIC has been well investigated experimentally and remains a topic of active research. However, some of its aspects, such as the germination of crystallites and how these crystalline domains change under deformation at the scale of crystallites, are still not fully understood. The aim of this thesis is to investigate SIC of polymers at the molecular scale by means of computer simulations.We have used coarse-grained (CG) simulations for two different systems. The first is a CG model for polyvinyl alcohol that is well established in the literature and was developed with the aid of the iterative Boltzmann method. The second CG model is for cis-polyisoprene and was obtained here (Chapter 4) from atomic simulations in combination with a Bayesian optimization method in an approach known as Statistical Trajectory Matching.We investigate two types of crystallization, temperature-induced by continuous cool- ing of a melt system at a constant rate and SIC by means of uni-axial deformation. Both CG models are able to reproduce some measurements, like the transition temperature and density, and qualitatively illustrate the stress-strain behavior in accordance to what is observed experimentally.This work inspires and encourages the development of a more realistic CG model for cis-polyisoprene using the same multi-scale simulation method. These CG potentials can be used to examine much longer time and length scales that are inaccessible by atomistic simulations and provide new insights in the different phenomena that play a role in the process of polymer crystallization.
... Semiconductor quantum dot (QD) in polymer environment has been the focus of new research due to its flexibility, mechanical stability and strength. Our research selected polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) which is 'green' in reactivity with surroundings, transparent in optical behavior, biocompatible, hydrophilic, biodegradable and well investigated [4,5,6]. Shah et al. used a simple chemical approach to synthesize PVAcapped CdSe NPs and investigated the effects of precursor concentration, ageing time, and reaction temperature on the size and optical characteristics of the as-synthesized CdSe NPs [7]. ...
Article
Cadmium Selenide core quantum dots and rods nanoparticles in polyvinyl alcohol matrix were synthesized in a green chemical route using aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, selenium, sodium sulfite and PVA, in the non-stoichiometric ratio of Cd:Se (1: 1.8, 1:2.00 and 1:2.20) at pH near 9 in the three samples thermalized at 110°C,140°C and 160°C. XRD spectra confirmed mostly zinc blende unit cell with lattice parameters determined by Nelson-Riley plots (0.5840 nm, 0.5910 nm and 0.5914 nm for the three samples), along with some Wurtzite unit cells whose parameters were determined by the Cohen method. The micro-strains and mean particle sizes were determined by Williamson-Hall plots and found to agree with structural analysis. For zinc blende contents, these were −0.03814 for 1.72 nm, −0.03748 for 1.75 nm and −0.01712 for 3.02 nm particles respectively. The surface morphology as observed by SEM exhibited nano-rods, dots and their agglomerations. Absorption bands were found in the ultraviolet region with meagre values in the visible range. Tauc plots were traced to get optical band gaps of 5.08 eV, 4.90 eV and 4.84 eV for the three sizes of nanoparticles reflecting its dependency on particle size, which indicated a blue shift arising out of quantum confinement. Photoluminescence spectra indicated strong emissions in the ultraviolet range (at 255 nm, 295 nm and 350 nm) and multiple bands in the visible region near 555 nm, 650 nm and 825 nm. Such micro-structural and optical properties as these are suited for applications in solar, electric, photo-physical and bio-imaging devices.
... Zeta potential with negative value was detected on PVAmagnetic nanoparticles surface by Demerlis et al. It shows that the sample reveal reveals sensible colloidal constancy regarding the electrostatic repulsion [27]. PVA@MNPs samples obtained in this work exhibit more negative values than those reported by others. ...
Article
Full-text available
One of the main challenges in hyperthermia treatment is how to improve the heating performance of nanoparticles with high specific loss power (SLP). To tackle this challenge, magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and coated magnetite nanoparticles with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA@MNPs) were fabricated via ultrasonic-assisted coprecipitation technique. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by using FT-IR, TEM, TGA, XRD, ICP-OES, DLS, zeta potential, VSM and UV–Vis spectroscopy. The self-heating properties of the MNPs and PVA@MNPs were studied under alternating magnetic strength, frequency and induction time. MNPs and PVA@MNPs showed that the nanoparticles have a nearly spherical shape ranging between 12.3 ± 3.2 and 10 ± 2.5 nm, respectively. The higher value of zeta potentials of PVA@MNPs (− 11.49 mV) implies that the nanoparticle may show good stability in aqueous solutions. The magnetization saturation values were 41.98 and 45.08 emu g ⁻¹ for MNPs and PVA@MNPs, respectively. The prepared nanoparticles showed small coercivity and a remanence magnetization due to the soft magnetic nature of the prepared nanoparticles. The highest SLP value was 163.81 W g ⁻¹ for PVA@MNPs, while the lowest SLP value was 4.84 W g ⁻¹ for MNPs under the same magnetic field condition. The presence of PVA shell improved the particle stability and the magnetization for PVA@ MNPs. This successfully caused an improvement in the heating performance and magnetic hyperthermia as well. These features make the prepared PVA@MNPs in this study applicable as hyperthermic agents for biomedical applications.
... It exhibits various properties such as putrefiability, water-solubility, thermal stability, film-forming, gas barrier property, and adhesiveness [29]. USDA has approved its usage in packaging products like meat and poultry [30]. A lot of research work on antimicrobial PVA films is reported [29,31] None of these researches mentioned the usage of waste garlic peel extract (GPE) as an antimicrobial. ...
Article
Full-text available
Garlic peel is considered waste in the food industry; if not discarded properly, it may cause environmental pollution. In this research work, we aim to use the discarded garlic peels and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to develop an active food packaging film. The garlic peel extracts (GPE) help incorporate valuable properties like antimicrobial, UPF, and increase in other properties essential for packaging film. The films’ antimicrobial activity was checked against the most common infection causing gram-positive and negative bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The antibacterial activity of blank PVA film in reducing bacteria for both positive and negative types was around 55%, whereas, for 6% GPE/PVA film, it was 91–92%. It was found that the incorporation of GPE enhanced the ultraviolet–visible-light barrier property of the films; its UPF value went from 1.022 for blank PVA to 79.058 for 6% GPE/PVA. Compact surfaces of the GPE infused PVA films are revealed through Scanning electron microscopy. Increasing GPE concentrations led to improved opacity and thermal stability, and mechanical property. The films showed good antioxidant and cell biocompatibility properties. Results suggest that the GPE/PVA films can find extensive commercial application as a food packaging material by being a substitute for the traditionally used petrochemical plastics. Graphical Abstract
Article
The emulsion electrospinning has gained interest in the fabrication of collagen-poly (vinyl) alcohol (PVA) nanofiber scaffold as it enables the production of a non-woven fibrous membrane with a similar organization of extracellular matrix. Fish collagen (FC) along with poly (vinyl) alcohol and rhamnolipids (biosurfactant) was utilized to produce beadless and smooth nanofiber mat. Rhamnolipid biosurfactants were incorporated into FC-PVA polymer solution and fabricated through emulsion electrospinning. The influence of biosurfactants on the physical and morphological features of nanofiber mat was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, UTM, TGA-DSC, and FE-SEM. The addition of biosurfactant on nanofiber results in the enhancement of the spin ability, stability towards degradation, and reduction in the diameter of the fiber (254.89 ± 6.42 nm) with high conductivity (14.43 ± 2.45 mS/cm) of a polymer solution. The incorporation of biosurfactant rhamnolipid into the polymer mixture of FC-PVA enhanced its antibacterial properties to 63.23 ± 3.23% in the case of E.coli ATCC-25922 and 57.32 ± 4.19% towards B.cereus ATCC-11778. Hence by the addition of biosurfactant rhamnolipid in an emulsion, a fiber diameter was reduced without ant beads in it and leads to the enhancement of the bactericidal properties of electrospun nanofiber mat.
Thesis
A multitude of human tissues, such as bones, tendons, or muscles, are characterized by a hierarchical and highly ordered structure. In many cases, the loss of these tissues requires reconstruction using biocompatible replacement materials. In the field of bone replacement, the pore structure of the material has a crucial influence. Anisotropic porosity would have the advantage of facilitating the ingrowth of cells and newly formed blood vessels as well as the transport of nutrients. In this thesis, scaffolds with a highly ordered and anisotropic pore structure were fabricated using unidirectional freezing. Systematic investigations were carried out on biopolymer solutions (alginate and chitosan) to gain a deeper understanding of the freeze-structuring process. The knowledge gained was then applied to the development of anisotropically structured bone substitute materials. Here, the previously existing material platform for anisotropically structured calcium phosphates was extended to low-temperature phases such as calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) or the secondary phosphates monetite and brushite. After the implantation of a biomaterial, the inevitably triggered initial immune response plays a key role in the success of a graft, with immune cells such as neutrophils or macrophages being of particular importance. In this thesis, the influence of anisotropically structured alpha-TCP and CDHA scaffolds as well as their unstructured references on human monocytes/macrophages was investigated. Macrophages produced extracellular traps (ETs) due to mineral nanoparticles formed by the binding of phosphate and calcium ions to human platelet lysate. In particular, incubation of alpha-TCP samples in lysate containing cell culture medium resulted in pronounced particle formation and enhanced release of ETs.
Article
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) is extensively used in agricultural, pharmaceutical, textile, and food industries. A new high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) was developed for the quantitative analysis of PVOH products. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) was employed for method verification. The HPLC-ELSD method exhibited acceptable linearity (R2 > 0.99), with limits of detection and quantitation of 19.43 and 58.88 μg/mL, respectively. Accuracies of 91.16-102.30% were estimated based on recoveries of the intra- and inter-day tests of PVOH. Repeatability and intermediate precision (%RSD) of 1.23-4.45 and 2.18-6.95, respectively, were obtained. The presence of PVOH in the HPLC peaks was further verified using typical indicators of PVOH in Py-GC/MS analysis, such as acetaldehyde, 2,5-dihydrofuran, benzaldehyde, and crotonaldehyde. This novel HPLC method with Py-GC/MS-based verification can be successfully applied for analyzing PVOH in dietary supplement tablets.
Article
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-xanthan gum (XG) composite films with good degradation properties were prepared by casting method. The effects of the amount of XG on thickness, moisture content, water solubility, water vapor transmission (WVP), transmittance and mechanical properties of the composite film were investigated. All composite films produced uniform and transparent films and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) had proven the formation of hydrogen bonds and subsequently compatibility of the two polymers. In general, addition of XG in PVA was able to decrease moisture content, water solubility and WVP more than the pure PVA films, with sample PX30 demonstrated the best performance. This sample also had the best mechanical properties. It also demonstrated food packaging and capability better than that of commercial plastic bag. More importantly, our sample can be fully decomposed in soil and water within 12 h, which was not only significantly shorter the commercial plastic bag, but also other biodegradable materials. Therefore, PVA/XG-based food packaging material has demonstrated huge potential to be commercialized and replaces commercial plastic bag as an alternative packing material which is renewable, sustainable and environmentally friendly.
Article
Polyvinyl Alcohol is a synthetic alcohol used as a binder, film former, and viscosity increasing agent in a wide range of cosmetic formulations at concentrations up to 13%. Typical molecular weights range from 25,000 to 300,000. The acute oral LD50 in rats is reported to be >10 g/kg in one study and >21.5 g/kg in another. Dermal exposures of 5 and 13 weeks (the latter using 13% Polyvinyl Alcohol) produced no significant effects in rats. Various organ lesions and hypertension were noted in rats following repeated subcutaneous or intravenous dosing. Central nervous system depression and anemia, followed by renal damage, was seen in beagle dogs given daily intravenous injections of Polyvinyl Alcohol for a week. Several studies tested the carcinogenicity of subcutaneous implants of Polyvinyl Alcohol sponges or powder. Although the majority of these studies were positive, tumors were localized to the site of implantation. In another study in which Polyvinyl Alcohol was used as the vehicle for another agent and tested itself as the vehicle control, Polyvinyl Alcohol had no effect on the incidence of histiocytic sarcoma. Although no data were available assessing the reproductive or developmental toxicity, these endpoints were not considered to be likely with external exposure to this polymer. Polyvinyl Alcohol was not an ocular irritant in animal or clinical studies, nor was it a sensitizer. Some evidence of dermal irritation in animal and clinical studies was seen, but in the clinical studies it was not considered clinically significant. Based on these data, it was concluded that Polyvinyl Alcohol is safe as used in cosmetic formulations.
Article
A comparison was made between the granulation tissue formation in two different synthetic sponge types, Visella and Ivalon, of different sizes. The granulation tissue formed in the two sponge types did not differ qualitatively, and had the character of wound tissue and inflammatory tissue in man. The rate of tissue formation in the Visella sponges was faster and the tissue was more homogenous than in the Ivalon sponges. Fourteen-day-old Visella implants of either size contained more granulation tissue than Ivalon sponges, probably owing to the smaller pore size of the former material. This may also account for the more frequent occurrence of giant cells in the Visella inplants. In contrast to the Visella sponges, the trabeculae of the Ivalon polymer showed calcification and positive staining properties with histological staining procedures, and deformation was frequent among the Ivalon implants. Thin sponges of either type closed in about 21 days, thick ones after about 42 days of implantation. Calculated per 2 cm3 of implant, thin sponges produced more tissue after 14 days of implantation than thick ones. It is concluded that the Visella sponge type is best suitable for this experimental model of inflammation.
Article
Twenty-two eyes affected with keratoconjunctivitis sicca have been subjected to double trials using the double-blind randomized cross-over technique. Polyvinyl alcohol in a 5% concentration improved the condition whereas liquid paraffin aggravated it, as estimated subjectively, and by the measurement of the break up time of the corneal film, and, finally, by the scoring of rose bengal vital staining of exposed cornea and conjunctiva. The conclusion is drawn that oil is contraindicated in keratoconjunctivitis sicca, and that rose bengal scoring (modified Bijsterveld method) is a valuable aid in control of the sicca syndrome.
A comparison was made between the granulation tissue formation in two different synthetic sponge types. Visella and Ivalon, of different sizes. The granulation tissue formed in the two sponge types did not differ qualitatively, and had the character of wound tissue and inflammatory tissue in man. The rate of tissue formation in the Visella sponges was faster and the tissue was more homogenous than in the Ivalon sponges. Fourteen-day-old Visella implants of either size contained more granulation tissue than Ivalon sponges, probably owing to the smaller pore size of the former material. This may also account for the more frequent occurrence of giant cells in the Visella implants. In contrast to the Visella sponges, the trabeculae of the Ivalon polymer showed calcification and positive staining properties with histological staining procedures, and deformation was frequent among the Ivalon implants. Thin sponges of either type closed in about 21 days, thick ones after about 42 days of implantation. Calculated per 2 cm3 of implant, thin sponges produced more tissue after 14 days of implantation than thick noes. It is concluded that the Visella sponge type is best suitable for this experimental model of inflammation.
Article
Sponges of the same size made of collagen (CS), polyurethane (PU), polyvinylalcohol (PVA) and acetylcellulose (AC) were inserted for 10 days in the vaginas of 22 rabbits. Light and scanning electron microscopy of the vaginal wall and its mucosal lining showed signs of cytotoxicity only with PU and AC while CS and PVA picture did not differ from sham controls. In order to explain the reasons for the toxic effects, all sponges were extracted into aqueous or organic solvent media and analyzed by gas liquid chromatography. Only several minute peaks in organic solvents were found. Extracts of all sponges tested for cytotoxicity in fibroblast cultures showed significant inhibition of H3-thymidine uptake. Nevertheless, extract of collagen sponge was significantly less cytotoxic than the extracts of all other sponges.
Article
The unusual nature of hemangiosarcomas of the liver associated with vinyl chloride exposure prompted intensive epidemiologic investigation of highly-exposed groups and re-examination of earlier animal studies. This report describes the case of a 40 yr old man with a hemangiopericytoma of the bladder following intensive exposure to polyvinyl alcohol. During 1962-1964, while trying to develop a new type of surgical glove he dipped his hands into a solution of polyvinyl alcohol and allowed it to dry to a film. The film remained on his hands up to 8 hr each workday. The solution consisted of polyvinyl alcohol in water without plasticizers, stabilizers, or other solvents. Some early studies on polymer carcinogenesis are reviewed and recent work on vinyl chloride as a mutagen and potent carcinogen is cited. The present case was diagnosed in 1965. In 1975 metastases were found. The need for epidemiologic and animal studies of other monomers is presented.
Article
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is a polymer with a wide range of molecular weights and uses. Recently, low molecular weight formulations of PVA have been used as components of contraceptive products designed for intravaginal administration in human females. Previous studies in animals have determined that little or no absorption of PVA occurs from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, there is some concern that PVA of lower molecular weights might be absorbed across membranes of the reproductive tract. Consequently, this work has investigated the absorption of low molecular weight PVA across biological membranes of the reproductive and GI tracts of Fischer 344 rats. Oral administration of ten consecutive daily doses of 14C PVA resulted in little apparent absorption of the dose from the GI tract. In contrast, intravaginal administration of 14C PVA resulted in increasing concentrations of PVA-derived radioactivity in major tissues following one, three or ten daily doses of the estimated human dose of 3 mg/kg. PVA-derived radioactivity was concentrated mainly in the liver, reaching a peak greater than 1750 ng equivalents/g tissue 24 hours following ten daily doses. Over 300 ng equivalents/g tissue were still present in the liver 30 days following the last dose.
Article
The mutagenicity of ST-film and its components polyoxyethylenenonylether (NP-10) and polyvinylalcohol (PVAL) were studied by a reverse mutation test in S. typhimurium (Ames test), a chromosome test in cultured Chinese hamster V 79 cells and a micronucleus test in female mice. The results obtained from these test systems were all negative. Thus, it may be concluded that ST-film is not mutagenic either in vitro or in vivo mutagenicity testing systems.
Article
We used light microscopy to examine, at autopsy, bronchial arteries in three patients with cystic fibrosis who died, respectively, 10, 16, and 28 months after bronchial artery embolization with barium sulfate-impregnated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to control hemoptysis. PVA was not identified beyond the midsegmental bronchus in any patient. Persistent focal fibrovascular occlusion was noted in two patients, and recanalized and/or partially obstructed vessels were associated with PVA in all. The histologic reaction to PVA included fibrosis, mild chronic inflammation, localized foreign body reaction, and, in two patients, focal calcification of PVA spicules. Within the inflammatory milieu were numerous macrophages containing BaSO4. Extensive vascular mural destruction and fibrosis associated with PVA were also observed. Both PVA and BaSO4 were also frequently present in the perivascular connective tissue. These findings indicate that, although longterm occlusion persists after therapeutic arterial embolization with PVA, focal recanalization also occurs. The extent of vascular mural injury following PVA embolization in humans has been previously underestimated by animal experiments. Finally, perivascular deposition of PVA represents a common reaction to diverse foreign body emboli in both systemic and pulmonary arteries.