Prevalence of autism in a US metropolitan area. JAMA

Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio, United States
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 35.29). 02/2003; 289(1):49-55. DOI: 10.1001/jama.289.1.49
Source: PubMed


Concern has been raised about possible increases in the prevalence of autism. However, few population-based studies have been conducted in the United States.
To determine the prevalence of autism among children in a major US metropolitan area and to describe characteristics of the study population.
Study of the prevalence of autism among children aged 3 to 10 years in the 5 counties of metropolitan Atlanta, Ga, in 1996. Cases were identified through screening and abstracting records at multiple medical and educational sources, with case status determined by expert review.
Autism prevalence by demographic factors, levels of cognitive functioning, previous autism diagnoses, special education eligibility categories, and sources of identification.
A total of 987 children displayed behaviors consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified, or Asperger disorder. The prevalence for autism was 3.4 per 1000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.2-3.6) (male-female ratio, 4:1). Overall, the prevalence was comparable for black and white children (black, 3.4 per 1000 [95% CI, 3.0-3.7] and white, 3.4 per 1000 [95% CI, 3.2-3.7]). Sixty-eight percent of children with IQ or developmental test results (N = 880) had cognitive impairment. As severity of cognitive impairment increased from mild to profound, the male-female ratio decreased from 4.4 to 1.3. Forty percent of children with autism were identified only at educational sources. Schools were the most important source for information on black children, children of younger mothers, and children of mothers with less than 12 years of education.
The rate of autism found in this study was higher than the rates from studies conducted in the United States during the 1980s and early 1990s, but it was consistent with those of more recent studies.

Download full-text


Available from: Catherine E Rice, Aug 14, 2014
  • Source
    • "The occurrence of neurodevelopmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, and other cognitive impairments , has been reported to be increased in several countries (Fombonne 2009; Grandjean and Landrigan 2014; Newschaffer et al. 2007; Polanczyk et al. 2007; Tchaconas and Adesman 2013). The estimated prevalence of ASD, a serious and common neurodevelopmental disorder, is 4–5 per 10,000 births (Fombonne 1999), with a drastic increase at least 1–2 per 1,000 births (Chakrabarti and Fombonne 2005; Yeargin-Allsopp et al. 2003). A more recent report estimated an incidence of 14.7 per 1,000 children aged 8 years in 2010, although the lack of a standardized widely accepted indicator of severity was noted (Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network Surveillance Year Principal I, Centers for Disease C, Prevention 2014). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Increased prevalence of mental disorders cannot be solely attributed to genetic factors and is considered at least partly attributable to chemical exposure. Among various environmental chemicals, in utero and lactational dioxin exposure has been extensively studied and is known to induce higher brain function abnormalities in both humans and laboratory animals. However, how the perinatal dioxin exposure affects neuromorphological alterations has remained largely unknown. Therefore, in this study, we initially studied whether and how the over-expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a dioxin receptor, would affect the dendritic growth in the hippocampus of the developing brain. Transfecting a constitutively active AhR plasmid into the hippocampus via in utero electroporation on gestational day (GD) 14 induced abnormal dendritic branch growth. Further, we observed that 14-day-old mice born to dams administered with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; doses: 0, 0.6, or 3.0μg/kg) on GD 12.5 exhibited disrupted dendritic branch growth in both the hippocampus and amygdala. Finally, we observed that 16-month-old mice born to dams exposed to perinatal TCDD as described above exhibited significantly reduced spine densities. These results indicated that abnormal micromorphology observed in the developing brain may persist until adulthood and may induce abnormal higher brain function later in life.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Neurotoxicology and Teratology
  • Source
    • "The reported prevalence of ASD has increased markedly in the last three decades. Autism prevalence rates from studies published from 1966 to 1985 are 4 to 5 per 10,000 children [Yeargin-Allsopp et al., 2003]. Studies conducted in the 1990s suggest the prevalence of ASD to range from 30 to 60 per 10,000 [Fombonne, 2003]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder. Several previous studies have identified preterm birth as a risk factor for ASD but none has studied whether the association between gestational age and ASD has changed over time. This is a Danish population-based follow-up study including live-born singletons born in Denmark between 1980 and 2009, identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry, a study population of 1,775,397 children. We used a Cox regression model combined with spline to study the risk for ASD by gestational age across three decades of birth cohorts. We included 19,020 children diagnosed with ASD. Across all birth year cohorts, we found that the risk of being diagnosed with ASD increased with lower gestational age (P-value: <0.01). Across all gestational weeks, we found a statistically significant higher risk estimates in birth cohort 1980 to 1989, compared to birth cohorts 1990 to 1999 and 2000 to 2009, respectively. No statistically significant difference in risk estimates was observed between birth cohort 1990 to 1999 and 2000 to 2009. The observed time trend in risk of ASD after preterm birth may reflect: (1) a change in the risk profile of persons with ASD due to the broadening of ASD diagnostic criteria over time; or (2) improved neonatal care for low GA infants, which has reduced risk of adverse outcomes like ASD in preterm children. Autism Res 2015. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Autism Research
  • Source
    • "Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) have significant and pervasive support needs across many life domains, including educational , health, and community areas, and many struggle with emotional and behavior problems (Mannion et al. 2014; Simonoff et al. 2008; White et al. 2009). In the most recent CDC (2014) report, 31 % of youth with ASD had intellectual skills in the ID range (with another 23 % in the borderline range), although estimates across studies range widely, from 26 to 68 % (CDC 2012; Fombonne 2005; Yeargin-Allsopp et al. 2003). We also know a great deal about the correlates of these pervasive needs, at individual (e.g., age, sex, diagnosis: Anagnostou et al. 2014), family (e.g., parent stress: Witwer and Lecavalier 2008), and more distal social levels (e.g., socio-economic status: Emerson and Hatton 2007). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Most research on mental health in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) has focused on deficits. We examined individual (i.e., sociocommunicative skills, adaptive behavior, functional cognitive skills) and contextual (i.e., home, school, and community participation) correlates of thriving in 330 youth with ID and ASD compared to youth with ID only, 11-22 years of age (M = 16.74, SD = 2.95). Youth with ASD and ID were reported to thrive less than peers with ID only. Group differences in sociocommunicative ability and school participation mediated the relationship between ASD and less thriving. Research is needed to further elucidate a developmental-contextual framework that can inform interventions to promote mental health and wellness in individuals with ASD and ID.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Show more

We use cookies to give you the best possible experience on ResearchGate. Read our cookies policy to learn more.