Use of patient age and anti-Ro/La antibody status to determine the probability of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and sicca symptoms fulfilling criteria for secondary Sjogren's syndrome

University of Birmingham, Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
Rheumatology (Impact Factor: 4.48). 02/2003; 42(1):189-91. DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/keg048
Source: PubMed
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    • "SjS can exist in one of two forms, either primary or secondary [7]. pSjS affects salivary and/or lacrimal glands in the absence of other rheumatic diseases, while its more common secondary form occurs in the presence of other rheumatic diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) [8], rheumatoid arthritis (RA) [9], scleroderma [10], and primary biliary cirrhosis [11]. The degree of glandular destruction is related to the progressive development of lymphocytic infiltrations which are composed primarily of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells [12], B cells [13], macrophages, and dendritic cells [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) is a complex chronic autoimmune disease of unknown etiology which primarily targets the exocrine glands, resulting in eventual loss of secretory function. The disease can present as either primary SjS or secondary SjS, the latter of which occurs concomitantly with another autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, or primary biliary cirrhosis. Current advancements in therapeutic prevention and treatment for SjS are impeded by lack of understanding in the pathophysiological and clinical progression of the disease. Development of appropriate mouse models for both primary and secondary SjS is needed in order to advance knowledge of this disease. This paper details important features, advantages, and pitfalls of current animal models of SjS, including spontaneous, transgenic, knockout, immunization, and transplantation chimera mouse models, and emphasizes the need for a better model in representing the human SjS phenotype.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · BioMed Research International
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    ABSTRACT: Ocular manifestations of lupus are fairly common, may be the presenting feature of the disease and can be sight-threatening. Almost any part of the eye and visual pathway can be affected by inflammatory or thrombotic processes. Ocular pain and visual impairment require urgent assessment by an ophthalmologist. Infection should be excluded. Optic neuritis and ischaemic optic neuropathy may be difficult to distinguish. Scleritis and severe retinopathy require systemic immunosuppression but episcleritis, anterior uveitis and dry eyes can usually be managed with local eye drops. Vaso-occlusive disease, particularly in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, requires treatment with anticoagulation and proliferative retinopathy is treated with laser therapy. Hydroxychloroquine rarely causes ocular toxicity at doses under 6.5mg/kg/day. When this has occurred, it has been associated with more than 5 years of drug exposure.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · Rheumatology (Oxford, England)
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the ophthalmic manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus and to review recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of this condition. Significant vision loss and associated ocular morbidity are possible in systemic lupus erythematosus, particularly in cases of retinal or central nervous system involvement. Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the immunologic mechanisms of disease. Approaches to treatment include the use of systemic immunosuppressive medications. Biologic agents are being developed to target specific aspects of the immune response. Ocular involvement is not uncommon in systemic lupus erythematosus. Aggressive systemic therapy is often needed to control the disease. Several new immunomodulatory treatment strategies are being developed which may show great promise in the future.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2008 · Current opinion in ophthalmology
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