Effect of Smoking on Arterial Stiffness and Pulse Pressure Amplification

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Trinity College Dublin, and the Hypertension Clinic, St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
Hypertension (Impact Factor: 6.48). 01/2003; 41(1):183-7. DOI: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000047464.66901.60
Source: PubMed


The brachial artery pressure waveform is abnormal in smokers, but the effect of smoking on the aortic pressure waveform in both smokers and nonsmokers, particularly in the younger population, is unknown. We compared the acute and chronic effects of smoking on large-artery properties in 185 healthy young smokers and nonsmokers (mean+/-SD, 22+/-5 years). We matched 41 chronic smokers for age, height, weight, and gender with 116 nonsmokers. The augmentation index, a measure of arterial wave reflection in the aorta, was measured by applanation tonometry (Sphygmocor). We also compared augmentation index, aortic pulse wave velocity (Complior), and blood pressure in 28 subjects (11 chronic smokers) before and for 15 minutes after smoking 1 cigarette (nicotine content, 1.2 mg). Although brachial blood pressure was not different, the aortic systolic blood pressure (101+/-8 versus 97+/-9 mm Hg) and augmentation index (0.7+/-13 versus -5.7+/-14) were higher (P<0.01) in chronic smokers than in nonsmokers, whereas aortic-brachial pulse pressure amplification was reduced (13.7+/-8 versus 17.7+/-5 mm Hg, P<0.01). These effects were seen in both male and female subjects. Acutely in both groups, smoking significantly increased (P<0.01) both brachial and aortic blood pressure, augmentation index, and pulse wave velocity. No changes were seen after sham smoking. This study shows an acute increase in arterial stiffness after smoking 1 cigarette in chronic smokers and nonsmokers. Higher aortic systolic blood pressure and greater arterial stiffness, in part due to reduced pulse pressure amplification and increased arterial wave reflection, suggest that the adverse hemodynamic effects have hitherto been underestimated in young chronic smokers.

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    • "The result of this study expands the existing literature to demonstrate that the quality of one's diet is also positively associated with mental health. Numerous studies have found that smoking is detrimental to physical and mental health (Bandiera, Richardson, Lee, He, & Merikangas, 2011; Degenhardt & Hall, 2001; Karban & Eliakim, 2007; Mahmud & Feely, 2003). Specifically, Vogl and colleagues (2012) examination of the relationship between smoking status and health-related quality of life found that individuals who never smoked experienced high levels of positive components such as mobility, self-care, and activity engagement compared to heavy smokers. "
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    ABSTRACT: Researchers show that healthy behaviors play an important role in improving physical and mental health. However, there is a little research that explores which healthy behavior factors would be more associated with physical and mental health. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among three intensity levels of physical activity (e.g., walking, moderate exercise, and strenuous activity), smoking, the quality of sleep, and diet, and physical and mental health. The 2004 Survey of Texas Adults was used to investigate factors that influenced the relationship between healthy behaviors and self-rated physical health and mental health for this study. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine the contribution of health behavior variables on self-rated physical health and mental health. The results of this study show that quality of sleep, strenuous activity, moderate exercise, tobacco use, and age were positively associated with physical health. In addition, quality of sleep, strenuous activity, tobacco use, and demographic factors (e.g., age and gender) served as predictors of mental health. This study indicates that healthy behaviors can serve as an important vehicle for improving physical and mental health. It also suggests that individuals who pursue and engage in healthy behaviors may maintain and develop health and wellbeing.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
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    • "autonomic) mechanisms were implicated in these vascular changes. Previous studies reported arterial rigidity (Kool et al., 1993; Mahmud & Feely, 2003) attributed to reduced nitric oxide bioavailability (Nuttall et al., 2002; Tsuchiya et al., 2002), endothelium dysfunction (Karatzi et al., 2007a) and compromised vasodilatory capacity (Karatzi et al., 2007b; Winniford et al., 1986) immediately after smoking a cigarette. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Tobacco cigarette smoking is a global health problem that kills millions each year. Recently, tobacco smoking using a waterpipe (WP) has become popular worldwide. However, unlike cigarettes, the cardiovascular (CV) risks associated with WP smoking are uncertain. In this study, the immediate effects of WP smoking on central and peripheral CV indices were evaluated in 53 young healthy smokers. Materials and methods: Strain-gauge plethysmography was used to measure forearm blood flow (Bf), vascular resistance (Vr), and venous capacitance (Vc) and outflow (Vf) at rest (R) and after occlusion (Oc), whereas heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured using standard automated auscultatory methods immediately before and after a 30-min WP smoking session. Results: Smoking resulted in HR, diastolic BP, mean arterial BP, rate pressure product and OcVr increases (p < 0.05) 6.6, 3.6, 2.5, 8.0 and 16%, respectively, whereas OcBf and OcVf decreased (p < 0.05) 8.8 and 14.3%, respectively. Additionally, smoking-induced changes in the central CV components correlated (p < 0.05) with changes in the periphery. Conclusion: These results demonstrated changes in the CV central and peripheral components immediately after WP smoking. The correlations between the changes in these components suggest that the periphery is controlled, at least partially, by the same mechanism(s) affecting the central CV components during WP smoking.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Inhalation Toxicology
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    • "Smoking behaviour exhibits both chronic and acute effects on the vasculature. Specifically, vascular stiffening has been observed in chronic smokers (Failla et al. 1997; Kim et al. 2005; Kool et al. 1993; Lekakis et al. 1997; Mahmud and Feely 2003; Rehill et al. 2006) and immediately following 1 cigarette (Failla et al. 1997; Kim et al. 2005; Kool et al. 1993; Kubozono et al. 2011; Wiesmann et al. 2004). The transition from acute changes in vascular stiffness to vascular pathology has not been determined. "
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    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism
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