A Pelleted Combination of Raw Soyhulls and Condensed Corn Steep Liquor for Lactating Dairy Cows
Department of Animal Sciences and Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan 66506, USA.Journal of Dairy Science (Impact Factor: 2.57). 01/2003; 85(12):3403-10. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74428-7
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of a pelleted combination of raw soyhulls and condensed corn steep liquor on performance and plasma metabolites when fed to replace a portion of the grain and forage in diets for lactating dairy cows. The raw soybean hull-corn steep liquor pellet (SHSL) contained 24.2% crude protein, 8.7% rumen undegradable protein, 28.9% acid detergent fiber, 36.7% neutral detergent fiber, and 2.5% ether extract (% of dry matter, [DM]). Eighteen multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to one of three diets in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Cows were blocked by pretreatment body weight and energy-corrected milk (ECM) and assigned to control, SHSL (20.7% of diet DM), or pelleted raw soybean hulls ([PSH] 14.3% of diet DM). The SHSL product replaced 6.2% alfalfa hay, 3.7% corn silage, 6.6% corn, and 3.3% soybean meal (SBM), and 1.7% expeller SBM replaced solvent SBM in order to maintain dietary levels of rumen undegradable protein. PSH replaced 6.2% alfalfa hay, 3.7% corn silage, and 5.1% corn. Diet crude protein (%) and energy density (Mcal/kg NEL) were 16.6 and 1.64, 16.3 and 1.65, 17.1 and 1.63 for control, SHSL, and PSH, respectively. Cows fed PSH consumed more DM than cows fed control, with the intake of cows fed SHSL being intermediate. SHSL and PSH increased ECM, milk protein, and solids-notfat and showed higher concentrations of milk and plasma urea N and total alpha-amino N in plasma than the control diet. Furthermore, feeding SHSL tended to improve the ratio of ECM to DM intake. There was no effect of diet on concentrations of total essential and nonessential amino acids in plasma. These production data suggest SHSL can replace a portion of the forage, grain, and SBM in diets for lactating dairy cows without decreasing lactational performance.
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ABSTRACT: We evaluated effects of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) and a novel product (SHSL) containing raw soybean hulls and corn steep liquor on performance and digestion in lactating dairy cows. In Experiment 1, 46 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to control (C), WCGF (20% of diet DM), or SHSL (20% of diet DM). Diets were fed as a total mixed ration beginning after calving. The C diet contained (dry matter [DM] basis) 30% alfalfa hay, 15% corn silage, 32% corn, 9.3% whole cottonseed, 4.4% solvent soybean meal (SBM), and 3.3% expeller SBM. The WCGF replaced 10% alfalfa hay, 5% corn silage, and 5% corn grain, while expeller SBM replaced solvent SBM to maintain diet rumen undegradable protein. The SHSL replaced 10% alfalfa hay, 5% corn silage, 3% solvent SBM, and 2% corn. Dietary crude protein averaged 18.4%. Milk, energy-corrected milk (ECM), DM intake (DMI), and ECM/DMI were similar among diets during the first 13 wk of lactation. During wk 14 through 30 postpartum, WCGF and SHSL improved milk, ECM, milk component yield, and ECM/DMI. In Experiment 2, 6 cows were used to evaluate digestibility and rumen traits. Dry matter intake and total tract digestibilities of DM, fiber, and crude protein were not different among diets. Diets did not affect ruminal liquid dilution rate, pH, or concentrations of total volatile fatty acids or ammonia, but acetate:propionate was higher for C (3.38) than for WCGF (2.79) or SHSL (2.89). The WCGF and SHSL products can serve as alternative feedstuffs in diets fed to lactating dairy cattle.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of replacing coastcross hay NDF by soybean hull (SH) NDF on the lactation performance and eating behavior of ewes and also on the performance of their lambs. Fifty-six Santa Inês lactating ewes (56.1 +/- 6.8 kg of initial BW; mean +/- SD) were penned individually and used in a randomized complete block design with 14 blocks and 4 treatments. Diets were formulated to provide similar concentrations of NDF (56%) and CP (16%). The SH NDF replaced 33 (SH33), 67 (SH67), or 100% (SH100) of the NDF contributed by coastcross hay in a 70% forage-based diet (SH0), resulting in SH inclusion rates of 0, 25, 54, and 85% of the dietary DM. Once a week, from the second to the eighth week of lactation (weaning time), ewes were separated from their lambs, stimulated by a 6-IU i.v. oxytocin injection, and hand milked to empty the udder. After 3 h, milk production was obtained after the same procedure. Quadratic effect for milk production (142.4, 179.8, 212.6, and 202.9 g/3 h) and cubic effect for DMI (2.27, 2.69, 3.25, and 3.00 kg/d) were observed as SH inclusion increased from 0 to 85% of the dietary DM. Milk fat (7.59, 7.86, 7.59, and 7.74%), protein (4.53, 4.43, 4.40, and 4.55%), and total solids (18.24, 18.54, 18.39, and 18.64%) did not differ among the 70% forage-based diet and diets with SH NDF replacing 33, 67, or 100% of the NDF. A linear increase in lactose concentration was observed with SH inclusion. Ewe BW gain during the trial showed a cubic response (0.37, 0.03, 4.80, and 2.80 kg) with SH inclusion. The preweaning ADG of lambs increased linearly, and ADG of lambs after weaning decreased linearly with SH inclusion. Final BW of lambs (2 wk after weaning) did not differ among treatments. Eating behavior observations were conducted with 44 ewes. The same facilities, experimental design, dietary treatments, and feeding management were used. Observations were visually recorded every 5 min for a 24-h period when ewes were 46 +/- 6.8 d in milk. Eating time (min/d, min/g of DMI, and min/g of NDF intake) and time expended in rumination and chewing activities (min/g of DMI and min/g of NDF intake) decreased linearly with the addition of SH in the diets. The inclusion of SH improved DMI and milk production, also reflecting on the BW of lambs at weaning. Milk performance was not affected when SH NDF replaced 100% of hay NDF.
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ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of pelletizing a portion of concentrate, and additional supplementary methionine (Met) and lysine (Lys) and choline on milk performance of periparturient cows. Animals were allocated to one of four treatments: basal unpellitized concentrate diet (control) and three diets in which a portion of the concentrate in the basal diet (6.72% DM prepartum; 15.7% DM postpartum) was pelletized and amino acids were added as follows: basal pellet (PEL), PEL plus lysine and methionine (PAA), and PAA plus choline (PAC). Pelletizing a portion of the diet (PEL) results in a significant increase in milk yield compared with the unpellitized control and addition of Lys and Met (PAA) but not choline (PAC) increased the yield further. Milk composition did not differ among treatments, but their yields increased by inclusion of Lys and Met-containing pelletized concentrate. Feeding Lys and Met-containing pelletized concentrate resulted in higher N conversion and fat content of milk compared with control and PEL. Cows on pelletized concentrate containing Lys and Met with or without choline tended to have lower serum non-esterified fatty acid, but no differences were observed in other parameters. It is concluded that pelletizing of a portion of concentrate can improve milk production and there is an additional beneficial effect of Lys and Met supplementation on yield and N and fat content of milk, but no additional effect of adding choline was observed.
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