ArticlePDF AvailableLiterature Review

An approach to the phenomenological analysis of data

Authors:

Abstract

In this paper, Helena Priest describes and justifies a phenomenological research method that may be used to explore complex and nebulous concepts relevant to nursing and health care, for example, the concept of 'caring'. The history and development of Husserlian phenomenology are outlined, followed by an account of the use of phenomenology within nursing research. Tensions inherent in the use of Husserlian phenomenology in nursing research are noted. A phenomenological approach to data analysis, designed to address some of these tensions, is described and compared with several well-established phenomenological analysis strategies. Issues of reliability, validity and generalisability are discussed, as are limitations in the use of the approach, before conclusions relevant to healthcare researchers are drawn.
An approach to the
phenomenological
analysis of data
In this paper, Helena Priest describes and justifies a phenomenological
research method that may be used to explore complex and nebulous
concepts relevant to nursing and health care, for example, the concept of
‘caring’. The history and development of Husserlian phenomenology are
outlined, followed by an account of the use of phenomenology within
nursing research. Tensions inherent in the use of Husserlian
phenomenology in nursing research are noted. A phenomenological
approach to data analysis, designed to address some of these tensions, is
described and compared with several well-established phenomenological
analysis strategies. Issues of reliability, validity and generalisability are
discussed, as are limitations in the use of the approach, before conclusions
relevant to healthcare researchers are drawn.
Keywords: data analysis, Husserl, phenomenology
Introduction and aims
In recent years, a plethora of nursing and allied healthcare research has
been published that claims to use phenomenology as the basis for data
generation and analysis. Upon closer inspection, however, it is clear that
a wide variety of approaches have been employed under the auspices of
phenomenology. This paper, therefore, seeks to review the history and
development of phenomenology and its application to nursing research,
in order to provide a context for the particular methodological approach
developed and described here. The paper describes and justifies a
phenomenological research method that may be used in the exploration
of complex and nebulous concepts relevant to nursing and health care,
such as the concept of ‘caring’.
NURSE RESEARCHER VOLUME 10 NUMBER 2
50
Issues in research
Phenomenology
The term phenomenology, first expressed by Immanuel Kant in 1764,
is derived from the Greek phainein, meaning ‘to appear’. Rooted within
the continental philosophical tradition, its significant origins are generally
attributed to Husserl (1859-1938), a German mathematician and
logician. Husserl’s mission was to discover the nature, goals and
methods of philosophical enquiry. With the publication of his influential
text, Ideas (Husserl 1913/1982), he formalised his attempts to devise a
single system of doctrine, or ‘philosophia prima’ (Bell 1990). Husserl
insisted upon the need for philosophy to be a rigorous science that would
rid itself of all assumptions, and make no claims that could not be
guaranteed (Paley 1997).
Husserl believed that access to the material world was through
consciousness, and that all knowledge was derived from experience. In
effect, he expanded the meaning of the term ‘experience’ to refer to
anything of which a person may be conscious, such as a physical object,
an abstract concept, or a mood state (Stewart and Mickunas 1974). Husserl
aimed to develop a scientific method for finding and guaranteeing the
essential structures of consciousness. This method was phenomenology,
through which he believed that it would be possible to ‘set aside mere
appearances and to deal directly with the reality as it is in itself’ (Bell 1990).
Husserl’s phenomenology is eidetic or descriptive, whereby individuals are
seen as the vehicle through which the essential structure or ‘essence’ of the
phenomenon of interest may be accessed and subsequently described. If
the appearance of essential structures can be described, then it is possible
to arrive at certainty, or ultimate truth (Solomon and Higgins 1996).
Phenomenological method
The aim of phenomenology, then, is to produce a description of a
phenomenon of everyday experience, in order to understand its essential
structure. Specifically, eidetic phenomenology aims to determine the form
and nature of reality as mediated through an individual’s experience of
it. In order to arrive at this essential structure, Husserl’s method suggests
four fundamental processes: intentionality; phenomenological reduction;
description; and essence (Baker et al 1992).
NURSE RESEARCHER VOLUME 10 NUMBER 2
51
Intentionality
Intentionality is the process whereby the mind consciously directs its
thoughts to an object (Holloway and Wheeler 1996). The task of
phenomenology is to distinguish between the ‘natural attitude’, that is, the
set of common sense beliefs and assumptions about the nature and
existence of things in the everyday world, and the phenomenological
standpoint. The phenomenological standpoint focuses not on natural objects
but on conscious ideas of objects. In other words, if a phenomenological
standpoint is adopted, the natural attitude has been transcended.
Phenomenological reduction
Phenomenological reduction is the process that facilitates this
transcendence. Although sometimes described as distinct stages in the
reduction process, Husserl used the terms bracketing, eidetic reduction,
and epoché interchangeably to describe the change of attitude necessary
for philosophical inquiry (Stewart and Mickunas 1974). Bracketing, a
mathematical metaphor, involves putting one’s natural attitude to the
world ‘in brackets’ in order to place it temporarily out of question. In this
way, presuppositions and theorising about the phenomenon are suspended
(Ray 1994). Similarly, epocmeans the deliberate suspension of
judgement, commonly held beliefs, and presuppositions in order to
investigate the phenomenon from a fresh viewpoint and to see the
experience for itself (Patton 1990). A further strategy required to achieve
the transcendence from natural to phenomenological attitude is
‘imaginative variation’ (Giorgi 1985). Imaginative variation involves
asking questions of the phenomenon in order to remove inessential
features and to test its limits, and exploring all possible meanings of the
data (Beech 1999). In this way, it should be possible to see what would
need to change to make the phenomenon under study a different one. For
imaginative variation to occur, intuition and reflection are required in
order to open up the meaning of the experience (Holloway and Wheeler
1996). Imaginative variation, or intuiting, continues until a common
understanding of the phenomenon of interest has been generated
(Streubert and Carpenter 1995).
NURSE RESEARCHER VOLUME 10 NUMBER 2
52
Issues in research
Description and essence
Once reduction has been achieved, the phenomenon of interest may be
described and its essential structure uncovered (Baker et al 1992). The
reductive process, however, should continue throughout the entire
research effort in order to achieve the purest form of description (Streubert
and Carpenter 1995).
Tensions in Husserlian phenomenology in healthcare research
Husserl’s position contrasts with much modern qualitative research, in
which reality and experience are deemed to be socially constructed and
represent but one of many possible truths rather than the absolute truth.
Furthermore, Husserl restricted his focus to individual personal experience
and did not explore how other people might experience a phenomenon.
There are, therefore, some difficulties in using a phenomenological
approach based upon Husserlian principles in nursing and healthcare
research, as this typically draws upon a range of participants and data
sources. A further difficulty becomes apparent when searching for the
‘essence’ of the many nebulous and diversely experienced concepts of
relevance to nursing and health care. Paley (1997) has argued that while
it may be perfectly legitimate to collect and described a range of
participants’ experiences of a phenomenon, it is doubtful whether this can
produce anything that could be described as ‘essence’.
There are counter-arguments however, to both these positions.
Arguing against a focus solely on pure, individual personal experience,
Griffin (1983) suggested that in order to reveal aspects of a
phenomenon that are important but hidden because of familiarity it is
necessary to explore how ideas are used by particular groups of people,
or at particular times. Swanwick and Barlow (1994), too, claimed that
the analysis of several people’s meanings could lead to a greater
understanding of the phenomenon being explored. In relation to the
concept of ‘essence’, Watson (1985) claimed that this need not mean
absolute or definite but ‘more pragmatically represents the deepest
understanding available, established on the basis of inter-subjective
agreement of a given context’ (Watson 1985). Despite the
aforementioned difficulties, researchers should not be discouraged from
NURSE RESEARCHER VOLUME 10 NUMBER 2
53
using a phenomenological approach, but be prepared to tolerate a
degree of tension within their work (Hallett 1995).
Since Husserl, the influence of phenomenology in research generally,
and in nursing research particularly, cannot be overestimated. As
Embree (1997) has noted, ‘in view of its continual development and
its spread into other disciplines as well as across the planet,
phenomenology is arguably the most significant philosophical
movement in the 20th century’. In broad terms, researchers are likely
to have a particular ontological orientation based on their philosophical
understanding, which influences the way in which their study will be
conducted (Ray 1994). Typically, they attribute their stance either to
the Duquesne school, based upon Husserl’s descriptive phenomenology,
and elucidated by Colaizzi (1978), Giorgi (1985) and van Kaam (1969),
or to interpretive phenomenology, or hermeneutics, based upon
Heidegger’s (1962) work, and applied in practice by researchers such
as Benner (1984).
Some nursing research, however, has been criticised for not making
clear the philosophical assumptions underpinning the particular approach
selected. Koch (1995) criticised nurses who appeared to assume that
Husserlian and Heideggerian phenomenology were the same. Crotty
(1996) argued that many nurse researchers had misused phenomenology,
being overly concerned with people’s experience of a phenomenon
rather than with the nature of the phenomenon itself. Equally, Yegdich
(1999) criticised nurse phenomenologists who acted as though
Husserlian phenomenology concerned itself with subjective experience,
rather than, as it actually does, with the essence of phenomena
‘unclouded by subjective opinion’. Crotty (1996) concluded that there
were essentially two phenomenologies drawn upon by nurse researchers:
‘authentic’, linked to traditional Husserlian phenomenology, and ‘new’,
a variant that had undergone transformation through its acceptance and
use in north America and the influence of humanistic psychology.
Crotty’s contention was that both were valid, but that researchers must
be clear about which approach they were adopting, and not conduct and
write about research as though they were one and the same.
NURSE RESEARCHER VOLUME 10 NUMBER 2
54
Issues in research
Phenomenological analysis
A research design utilising a phenomenological approach needs to be
able to collect descriptions while preserving the spontaneity of subjects’
experiences (Jasper 1994). Furthermore, people who have lived the reality
of the subject being investigated provide the only legitimate source of
data through which the researcher can access this reality (Baker et al
1992). The most usual data source, therefore, is verbatim transcripts of
audio-taped interviews, but other sources are sometimes used, such as
group discussions, written accounts or diaries.
While it is true that phenomenologists are sometimes reluctant to focus
on specific steps in the data generation and analysis process because of
the risk that they will become reified as in the natural sciences (Hycner
1985), in practice, many have devised methods that may be followed in
a systematic fashion. Common features of these approaches, notably
those of the Husserlian-influenced Duquesne scholars are: the division
of text into units; the transformation of units into meanings expressed as
phenomenological concepts; and the tying together of transformed
meanings into a general description of the experience (Polkinghorne
1989). An additional feature common to many approaches is
horizontalisation, whereby all elements of the text are deemed initially
to be of equal value (Hycner 1985, Moustakas 1994). Taking these
common features into account, the following sections outline a strategy
developed specifically to explore the concept of psychological care in
nursing, but which could equally be utilised to explore other complex
and nebulous concepts of relevance to nursing and heath care.
Reflection, intuition and production of first textual description
In order to produce an initial descriptive account of the concept a period
of reflection and intuition is undertaken (de Rivera 1981, Moustakas
1994). Foci for this reflection can be personal experience, knowledge of
the relevant literature, and data generated in previous studies. It has been
noted that such reflection ‘provides a logical, systematic and coherent
resource for carrying out the analysis and synthesis needed to arrive at
essential descriptions of experience’ (Moustakas 1994). This process of
preliminary reflection upon personal experience and literature sensitises
NURSE RESEARCHER VOLUME 10 NUMBER 2
55
the researcher to the phenomenon and to his/her own preliminary ideas
around it, and enables an initial written description of the phenomenon
to be produced. This initial description can serve to heighten awareness
of presuppositions, assumptions, and bias, and act as a template against
which all data subsequently generated may be compared. In this way, the
researcher is a legitimate participant in the research process.
Consideration and management of the data
This involves intensive engagement with the data (e.g. listening to audio-
taped interviews; reading and re-reading verbatim transcripts, written
accounts or diaries), followed by examination of transcribed data
generated from the first participant in the study. All statements that appear
relevant to the concept under study are identified, adhering as far as
possible to the principle of horizontalisation. This process may be
facilitated using the ‘highlight’ function available within popular word-
processing packages. Each highlighted statement from the first participant
is then compared with the initial textual description, remaining alert to
prejudices and presuppositions in order not to reject statements that do
not readily fit into the initial account. Selected statements are integrated
into relevant sections of the initial description. In practical terms, this
may be facilitated by the ‘copy-and-paste’ facility available within word
processing packages, following which the description is re-written to
incorporate the highlighted statements. Separate consideration must be
given to statements that cannot readily be integrated into the initial
description, and the description must be extended to accommodate these
as appropriate. In this way, a second textual description is created out of
the initial description plus integrated statements and additional elements.
These steps are repeated with data from all other participants, and a
new written account of the phenomenon is produced each time. Once
data from all participants have been considered, and a final written
account produced, this is sent to participants to judge whether it resonates
with their experience of the phenomenon. Any amendments can be
incorporated into the written description. Ultimately, a final written
account is produced which, having considered a wide range of data
NURSE RESEARCHER VOLUME 10 NUMBER 2
56
Issues in research
sources and personal experiences, aims to have arrived at a description
of the essential structure of the phenomenon of interest.
This strategy shares many features with other phenomenological
approaches, and Table 1 (see over) provides an overview of a selection
of phenomenological data generation and analysis strategies alongside,
for comparison, the strategy described in this paper (column six).
It may be seen that the strategy described in column six has elements
in common with others. The process of initial reflection on the
phenomenon, for example, shares similarities with Moustakas’s (1990)
method of heuristic inquiry, in that it seeks to answer the question:
‘What is my experience of this phenomenon and the essential
experience of others who also experience this phenomenon intensely?’
(Patton 1990). In that it adopts, as far as possible, the principle of
horizontalisation, it bears similarities to Hycner’s (1985) method and
to Moustakas’s (1994) modification of van Kaam’s method.
Furthermore, in that it relies upon constant movement between the
developing textual descriptions and the data, it bears similarities to the
methods of Colaizzi (1978) and Moustakas’s (1994) modification of
van Kaam’s method. However, in taking as its starting point the first
textual description produced following reflection, before comparison
with the data, this method is different from the other methods with
which it has been compared.
Methods of ensuring rigour
In considering rigour in any qualitative research, including
phenomenological approaches, there is a need to determine whether the
study is believable, accurate, and right, and whether it is useful to people
beyond those who participated in it. This necessitates a consideration of
the concepts of validity, reliability and generalisability.
Validity
Methods of increasing validity, or trustworthiness of the interpretations
of the data, can include:
making explicit presuppositions and acknowledging subjective
judgements (Ashworth 1997)
NURSE RESEARCHER VOLUME 10 NUMBER 2
57
NURSE RESEARCHER VOLUME 10 NUMBER 2
58
1. Van Kaam (1969) 2. Moustakas (modification of 3. Colaizzi (1978)
Van Kaam) (1994)
Horizontalisation: listing every relevant
expression and perform preliminary
grouping
Classification of data Extraction of phrases or sentences
into categories pertaining to the experience
Reduction and linguistic Reduction: testing each expression Transforming phrases into
transformation of the – does it contain a necessary and own words, resulting in a
selections into more sufficient moment of the experience? list of ‘meaning’ or
precisely descriptive terms Can it be abstracted and labelled? ‘significant’ statements
Elimination of reduced Elimination: remove expressions not
statements not inherent meeting the above requirements
in the experience
Clustering remaining
invariant constituents
Applying thematic labels to the Clustering of individual themes
invariant constituents to produce a further reduction
First hypothetical Production of hypothetical
identification and description ‘exhaustive’ lists
of the experience
Application of description to Checking invariant constituents and Moving back and forth between
randomly selected protocols their theme against the complete record meaning statements and successive
to test necessary and of the research participant for explicit hypothetical lists until themes
sufficient constituents expression and compatibility are accurately reflected in the clusters
Valid identification and Construction of Individual textual Essential structural
description of the experience description; individual structural description description
based on ITD and imaginative, variation and
textual-structural description incorporating
invariant constituents and themes
Repeat above step for each co-researcher
Return of description to subjects.
Revision of description, if necessary
Develop composite description of
meanings and essences of experience
for group as a whole
Table 1: Comparison of steps in the phenomenological generation and analysis of data
NURSE RESEARCHER VOLUME 10 NUMBER 2
59
4. Hycner (1985) 5. Moustakas (1990) 6. Strategy described in this
Heuristic enquiry paper (Priest 2001)
Bracketing and phenomenological Immersion: centring whole life Reflection and intuition, sensitising
reduction – openness to meanings on the experience. Incubation: researcher to the phenomenon and
and suspension of own meanings withdrawing and waiting for to preliminary ideas, presuppositions,
and interpretations insights assumptions and bias
Delineating units of
general meaning
Delineating units of meaning Illumination: themes and patterns
relevant to the research question emerge, forming clusters
Training independent judges to
verify units of relevant meaning
Eliminating redundancies
Clustering units of
relevant meaning
Determining meaning Explication: adding other
from clustering of themes dimensions of meaning,
refining emergent patterns
Arrival at a description of the Production of initial description of
experience and a portrayal the phenomenon against which data
of the individuals in the study may be compared
Examination of data from first
participant; highlighting all statements
relevant to the phenomenon,
adhering to horizontalisation
Comparison of each selected statement
from the first participant with the initial
textual description and integration of
these into initial description
Creative synthesis: bringing Creation of second textual description
together pieces; showing out of the initial description plus
relationships integrated statements and additional
elements
Repetition of steps with data for
each participant
Return summary and themes to Return of accounts to participants
participants/second interview for checking, amending and feedback
Modification of themes and summary
Identifying general and unique themes
Contextualisation of themes
Composite summary of all interviews Production of final textual account
capturing essence of phenomenon. of the phenomenon
Note significant individual differences
prolonged engagement with the data (Erlandson et al 1993, Lincoln
and Guba 1985)
• verification with the source/participant feedback (Johnson 1997)
using low inference descriptors, such as extracts from participants’
verbatim accounts (Johnson 1997)
• peer debriefing, whereby ongoing analysis and findings are regularly
presented to others for peer evaluation (Robson 1993).
Reliability
Strategies to increase the reliability of the procedures and data generated
can include:
• providing evidence of an audit trail (Koch 1994)
disclosing personal orientation and context (Ashworth 1997,
Stiles 1993)
• having intensive engagement with the material and iteration between
data and interpretation (Erlandson et al 1993, Stiles 1993)
• grounding interpretations within the data through the use of verbatim
illustration (Johnson 1997)
ensuring technical accuracy in recording and transcribing (Peräkylä 1997).
Generalisability
Generalisability is the extent to which findings are transferable to, or
fitting for, other situations (Conway 1998). Qualitative research is
generally considered weak in its generalisability across populations, to
different settings, and across times (Johnson 1997), particularly as
participants are often selected purposively in order to fulfil the needs of
a particular study. However, it has been suggested that the concept of
generalisation should be reclaimed for qualitative inquiry (Sandelowski
1996), and that it need not be a problem if comparisons are made with
similar people, settings and times (Johnson 1997). Therefore, it is
necessary in the written account of the study to provide detailed
information regarding participants, selection methods, context, and data
generation and analysis methods in order for readers to decide how far
and to whom the findings may be generalised.
NURSE RESEARCHER VOLUME 10 NUMBER 2
60
Issues in research
Limitations and conclusions
Although the aforementioned strategies can enhance the rigour of a
phenomenological research study, it nevertheless remains the case that,
because of the ‘difficulty and painstaking nature of getting back to, and
re-encountering, the phenomena of immediate experience’ (Crotty 1996),
phenomenological research is challenging Thus, the extent to which a
novice phenomenological researcher can claim to have convincingly
devised and implemented a novel and untested approach to data
generation and analysis must be questioned.
While the intention within phenomenological research is not to generate
theory but to describe and understand the essence of a concept, there
remains always the option to compare the findings with those achieved
through alternative methods. Any similarities might lend weight to the
validity of the method developed and described here.
Utilisation of the approach developed and described in this paper
resulted in the production of a written account of the phenomenology of
psychological caregiving in nursing. It is suggested that the approach has
remained faithful to the ideas of Husserl while at the same time adopting
a rational and pragmatic strategy for dealing with multiple participants
and multiple data sources. Furthermore, in utilising Moustakas’s (1994)
and de Rivera’s (1981) recommendations that phenomenological inquiry
should commence with a period of reflection and intuiting, in order to
produce an initial phenomenological account, this study made transparent
its starting point for the comparison of the data subsequently generated.
In this way, difficulties inherent within the strict Husserlian use of
bracketing were to some extent overcome. It is suggested that, while other
approaches may be equally useful, the approach devised may facilitate
an understanding of nebulous and diversely experienced concepts that
are of relevance to nursing and health care.
Helena Priest PhD, MSc, BA, RN, Dip N, Dip N Ed is Lecturer, Keele
University, Keele, Staffs, UK
NURSE RESEARCHER VOLUME 10 NUMBER 2
61
NURSE RESEARCHER VOLUME 10 NUMBER 2
62
References
Ashworth P (1997) The variety of
qualitative research. Part one: Introduction
to the problem. Part two: Non-positivist
approaches. Nurse Education Today.
17, 215-224.
Baker C et al (1992) Method slurring: the
grounded theory/phenomenology example.
Journal of Advanced Nursing.
17, 1355-1360.
Beech I (1999) Bracketing in
phenomenological research. Nurse
Researcher. 6, 3, 35-50.
Bell D (1990) Husserl. London, Routledge.
Benner P (1984) From Novice to Expert.
Excellence and Power in Clinical Practice.
Menlo Park, Addison-Wesley.
Colaizzi PF (1978) Psychological research
as the phenomenologist views it. In Valle R
and King M (Eds) Existential-
Phenomenological Alternatives for
Psychology. New York, Oxford Press.
Conway J (1998) Evolution of the species
‘expert nurse’. An examination of the
practical knowledge held by expert nurses.
Journal of Clinical Nursing. 7, 75-82.
Crotty M (1996) Phenomenology and
Nursing Research. South Melbourne,
Churchill Livingstone.
de Rivera J (1981) Conceptual Encounter: A
Method for the Study of Human Experience.
Washington, University Press of America.
Embree L (1997) Tendencies and stages
within philosophical phenomenology thus
far. In Centre for Advanced Research in
Phenomenology. What is Phenomenology?.
Available online:
http://www.phenomenologycenter.org/pheno
m.htm
Erlandson D A et al (1993) Doing
Naturalistic Enquiry. A Guide to Methods.
Sage, Newbury Park.
Giorgi A (Ed) (1985) Phenomenology and
Psychological Research. Pittsburgh,
Duquesne University Press.
Griffin A (1983) A philosophical analysis of
caring in nursing. Journal of Advanced
Nursing. 8, 289 – 295.
Hallett C (1995) Understanding the
phenomenological approach to research.
Nurse Researcher. 3, 2, 55-65.
Heidegger M (1962) Being and Time.
Oxford, Basil Blackwell.
Holloway I, Wheeler S (1996) Qualitative
Research for Nurses. Oxford, Blackwell
Science.
Husserl E (1982) Ideas Pertaining to a Pure
Phenomenology and to a Phenomenological
Philosophy (Kersten F, Trans.). The Hague,
Nijhoff. (Original work published 1913.)
Hycner RH (1985) Some guidelines for the
phenomenological analysis of interview
data. Human Studies. 8, 279-303.
Jasper M (1994) Issues in phenomenology
for researchers of nursing. Journal of
Advanced Nursing. 19, 309-314.
Johnson RB (1997) Examining the validity
structure of qualitative research. Education.
118, 2, 282-292.
Koch T (1994) Establishing rigour in
qualitative research: the decision trail.
Journal of Advanced Nursing. 19, 976-986.
Koch T (1995) Interpretive approaches in
nursing research: the influence of Husserl
and Heidegger. Journal of Advanced
Nursing. 21, 827-836.
Lincoln YS, Guba EG (1985) Naturalistic
Inquiry. Thousand Oaks, Sage.
Moustakas C (1990) Heuristic Research.
Design, Methodology and Applications.
Newbury Park, Sage.
Moustakas C (1994) Phenomenological
Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, Sage.
Paley J (1997) Husserl, phenomenology and
nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing.
26, 180-186.
Patton M Q (1990) Qualitative Evaluation
and Research Methods. 2nd Edition.
Newbury Park, Sage.
Peräkylä A (1997) Reliability and validity in
research based on tapes and transcripts. In
NURSE RESEARCHER VOLUME 10 NUMBER 2
63
Silverman D (Ed) Qualitative Research.
Theory, Method and Practice.
Thousand Oaks, Sage.
Polkinghorne DE (1989) Phenomenological
research methods. In Valle RS and Halling
S (Eds) Existential-Phenomenological
Perspectives in Psychology. Exploring the
Breadth of Human Experience.
New York, Plenum Press.
Ray M (1994) The richness of
phenomenology: philosophic, theoretic and
methodologic concerns. In Morse JM (Ed)
Critical Issues in Qualitative Research
Methods. Thousand Oaks, Sage.
Robson C (1993) Real World Research:
A Resource for Social Scientists and
Practitioner Researchers. Oxford,
Blackwell Science.
Sandelowski M (1996) One is the liveliest
number: the case orientation of qualitative
research. Research in Nursing and Health.
19, 525-529.
Solomon RC, Higgins KM (1996) A Short
History of Philosophy. Oxford, Oxford
University Press.
Stewart D, Mickunas A (1974) Exploring
Phenomenology. A Guide to the Field
and its Literature. Chicago, American
Library Association.
Stiles WB (1993) Quality control in
qualitative research. Clinical Psychology
Review. 13, 593-618.
Streubert H, Carpenter D (1995)
Qualitative Research in Nursing:
Advancing the Humanistic Imperative.
Philadephia, Lippincott.
Swanwick M, Barlow S (1994) How should
we define the caring role? Broadening the
parameters of the concept of care.
Professional Nurse. May 1994, 554-559.
Van Kaam A (1969) Existential
Foundations of Psychology.
New York, Doubleday.
Watson J (1985) Nursing: Human Science
and Human Care. A Theory of Nursing.
New York, National League for Nursing.
Yegdich T (1999) On the phenomenology
of empathy in nursing: Empathy or
sympathy? Journal of Advanced Nursing.
30, 1, 83-93.
... Husserl's method suggests 4 important stages in the phenomenological research process, including intentionality, reduction, description, and essence (Baker et al., 1992; cited by Priest, 2002). Moustakas and Martirano have previously mentioned these 4 stages. ...
... Moustakas and Martirano have previously mentioned these 4 stages. Priest (2002) further stated that most data sources in phenomenological research are obtained through audio recordings during interviews, while others are the results of group discussions and notes. ...
... According to Moustakas (1994), some reflections provide logical, systematic, and coherent sources to produce the analysis and synthesis needed to describe essential experiences. This is followed by consideration and data management, which is used to record and read transcripts of interview results (Priest, 2002). At this stage, all participant statements related to the meaning being studied need to be identified or highlighted. ...
Article
Vernacular architecture is a modest style of building used to maintain the balance of human relations with nature. This architectural style is specific to a region and passed down from one generation to another to embody cultural values. However, its development is currently facing globalization and modernization challenges, thereby leading to a gradual shift of this ancestral heritage to modern buildings. Change is unavoidable due to continuous evolution, however, the meaning inherent architecture buildings need to be maintained because it contains the cultural and social values of the associated local community. Furthermore, vernacular building space is a place for social activities and contains historical meaning applicable to modern buildings. Its functionality responds to changes and the needs of times while maintaining the local essence. Therefore, this research aims to determine the suitable method needed to reveal the meaning of vernacular architectural space. Data were collected from the conscious mind of space users through in-depth interviews by applying epoche, which were further reduced, categorized, and integrated to determine its meaning. The data collected through a literature review were analyzed using the content analysis method. The results showed that transcendental phenomenology is the right method to determine the meaning of vernacular architectural space. Based on the results, it is concluded that the meaning passed down from one generation to another could be expressed through the conscious experience of space users. Furthermore, transcendental phenomenology helped reveal the meaning without the intervention of the author’s knowledge, therefore it is unbiased and applicable in modern buildings.
... Basically, the aim of phenomenology is to capture description of lived experience of a phenomenon from individuals' perspectives in order to reveal the essential quality of such a phenomenon (Priest, 2002;Finlay, 2011). In the main, phenomenology does not aim to classify behaviour or generate theory, but to unveil the nature of human being (Finlay, 2011). ...
... A very basic categorisation views it as either descriptive (eidetic) or hermeneutic (Lopez & Willis, 2004). Edmund Husserl, founder of a descriptive type known as transcendental phenomenology, believed in the concept of 'intentionality', where people enter the material world through their consciousness and gain knowledge from experience through their consciousness (Priest, 2002). It is the process where human thought is brought to connect to an object or an event within a particular experience (Holloway & Wheeler, 1996). ...
... It is believed that a new understanding of phenomena will be unveiled if people review their immediate experience while also 'bracketing' preconceptions and biases, in order to let the phenomena review themselves (Gray, 2004). Bracketing is placing natural attitudes in 'brackets', temporarily placing those attitudes away from attention (Priest, 2002). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Initial attempts to more deeply understand what architecture means to people as they go about their everyday activities revealed that relevant bodies of knowledge such as environmental psychology (including environmental perception and cognition) did not adequately satisfy, either singularly or collectively, the need expressed in environmental psychology and design theory for a more contextualized and a holistic conceptual framework. The research described in this thesis addresses this shortfall by responding to the question: What is the architectural experience in the everyday context? In other words, the research aimed to identify the various ways in which people make sense of buildings that are part of their everyday context in order to develop a conceptual framework that captures the holistic and contextual role of architecture in people’s everyday lives. As an overarching methodology Grounded Theory (GT) was used to guide research in a systematic inductive way augmented by Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) to reveal the idiographic, contextual nature of architectural experience through building engagement. To facilitate exploring their experiences in semi-structured interviews, participants were asked to photograph buildings that they encountered and experienced on a regular basis in the Brisbane CBD as a pedestrian while walking along the street and as a visitor. A third stage of the project involved interviewing participants in the building in which they work, that is, as occupants. In the first two instances, participants were asked to bring their photographs to the interview with the photo-elicitation method found to be successful in taking participants back to their actual experience and in the encouraging revelation of emotive and existential sense-making as well as conceptual and perceptual sense-making. Analysis of the data from the three stages produced four super-ordinate themes: (1) building in urban (text), (2) building in (text), (3) building in human (text), (4) and building in time (text) which, with their sub-themes, constitute an original conceptual framework representative of the multifaceted way in which people make sense of building in the everyday. The framework was also found to be useful in accommodating specific environmental psychology theories about selective aspects of person-environment engagement. Through this framework, the research makes a substantial original contribution to environmental psychology, particularly from a transactional perspective, as well as to architecture and design, educationally and professionally. Specifically, it identifies the general community’s contextual sense-making in relation to the everyday experience of buildings, producing a comprehensive theoretical framework that acknowledges a person’s relationship with a building as dynamic and unfolding, as opposed to static and constant; as emotive and existential as well as conceptual and perceptual. As well as contributing methodologically through the integrated use of GT and IPA, at a practical level, this thesis extends our knowledge of the relationship between people and architecture (in this case buildings) to help inform and enhance the design of more responsive buildings, interior environments and the urban context.
... The aim of the study was to gather data of patients' experience of exercising regularly. The methodological approach, phenomenology, is congruent with this aim as the approach does not attempt to explore hypotheses or causalities, but only attempts to understand [41] 5. Outsider/expert check An outsider (DN), who was not involved in prior stages of the study, reviewed if the results were theoretically sound 6. Critical friends N.K. served as the critical friend for the data collected by R.G., M.P., and B.B. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background. Adherence to cardiac rehabilitation remains a challenge despite established evidence that engaging in regular exercise is a strong preventive measure to experiencing a second cardiac event. A recent study found a six-month cardiac rehabilitation program to be effective for facilitating regular exercise behavior among patients diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome. The purpose of this study was to conduct a phenomenological investigation using Colaizzi’s descriptive technique to understand mechanisms responsible for behavior change. Methods. Data were collected and analyzed among patients with acute coronary syndrome at a cardiac rehabilitation using semi-structured interviews that were conducted over the phone across three months. Conclusion. Thematic analysis of 15 semi-structured interviews resulted in 124 statements that were analyzed. The data yielded seven themes that included “motivation to follow prescribed exercise program”, “volitional decision”, “capability of performing exercise”, “connectedness to peers”, “planning”, “habit formation”, and “adopting healthy behaviors beyond exercise”. The emerged themes align with construct definitions of the self-determination theory, which include the three psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), in addition to autonomous motivation, which represents internally driven reasons to participate in exercise. Planning and habit formation themes support contemporary research that identifies these constructs responsible for behavioral maintenance. While these themes help explain exercise participation, the final theme, adopting healthy behaviors beyond exercise, reflects the impact of the program on having a change towards a healthier lifestyle. The findings highlight the complexity of exercise behavior, and that long-term participation is likely explained by amalgamating the self-determination theory.
... By using this methodology we can understand the "essence" of being a naturebased tourism stakeholder in a coastal tourism destination experiencing and reacting to the effects of climate change (Sloan & Bowe, 2014). Phenomenology assumes that individuals are the vehicle through which the essence of a phenomenon can be accessed and described and that researchers can access that essence through interviews or written descriptions (Giorgi, Giorgi, & Morley, 2017;Priest, 2002). ...
Article
Tourism is an increasingly important global industry. Coastal and nature-based tourism destinations are especially vulnerable to climate change. Trends in visitation are expected to shift under changing climate conditions, influencing tourist travel behaviors related to destination selection, timing of visits, and activity participation. Tourism suppliers’ adaptation and mitigation behaviors have the potential to alleviate negative shifts in visitation and respond to negative climate change impacts, while also enabling suppliers to take advantage of emerging opportunities. The purpose of this dissertation is to understand how tourism stakeholders, including tourism suppliers (i.e., business owners, managers) and consumers (i.e., visitors), perceive their risk from climate change and how that impacts their behavioral responses. Applying theories of risk perceptions and community resilience, we used a mixed methods approach to understand factors that influence destination resilience and stakeholder climate change risk perceptions and actions. We employed in-depth interviews, archival evidence, and a visitor survey to gather data from study participants. In chapter 2, we used a phenomenological methodology to examine how tourism stakeholders in Machias, Maine are experiencing and adapting to climate change. Findings indicate that social networks centered around shared values, beliefs, and sense of place, as well as engaged local governance, active knowledge sharing, and a sense of self-efficacy all contributed to agency in addressing coastal flooding. In chapter 3, we used a survey to measure drivers of visitors’ climate change risk perceptions in Acadia National Park, Maine. Significant predictors included identifying as female, having higher belief in climate change, having more first-hand experience with climate change impacts, and having a higher altruistic values orientation. In chapter 4, we used a case study methodology to understand the influence of supplier and visitor climate change risk perceptions and behavioral responses on destination resilience. Our findings show where areas of overlap between tourism supplier and visitor experiences, perceptions of threats, and behavioral responses can contribute to destination resilience. The ability of Maine’ tourism industry to assess their risk from climate change, adapt to impacts, and anticipate socio-ecological changes will influence system resilience to respond to climate change and potentially other shocks and stressors.
... The most common form of data collection in phenomenological research is audio-recorded interviews (Priest 2003), and accordingly, five interviews were conducted throughout the two years. These interviews lasted from 45 min to 110 min, except for the first one, which lasted 19 min, and where notes were taken; the other four were all audio-recorded and transcribed for analysis. ...
Article
Full-text available
This 2-year case study is a phenomenology of belief-change resulting from a specific curricular re-configuration. It follows Álvaro, a Master of Arts in Teaching Spanish student, from the first week of classes until graduation, as he completed a 4-semester program. Seeking to stimulate a move toward conscientização, the pilot curriculum included a translanguaging approach to three graduate courses, readings and group discussions on translinguistics, and shadowing an undergraduate Spanish class (for ‘heritage speakers’) that adopted a translanguaging approach. Additionally, opportunities for professional development (e.g. preparing and presenting an original paper at a national bilingual education conference) were provided. Following an iterative approach, data were collected via interviews and written reflections throughout the program; datasets were transcribed (when necessary) and analyzed after collection. Manen’s (1990) guidelines for phenomenological analysis were adopted, and member checking was used for validation of findings. Results chart out a baseline of beliefs held by Álvaro prior to entering the program, and three types of belief-shift he experienced during his studies; these regard the dynamic nature of Spanish, the link between race and language, and the value of multilingual practices in society and education. Critical awakening/despertar crítico is introduced as a metacategory.
... This mixed-method approach will help researchers categorize the personalities of individuals with breast cancer in the real world and to quantitatively study the correlation between specific personality types and BCS compliance. 21,22 ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify personality types that can influence breast cancer screening (BCS) compliance among Korean women with breast cancer using a mixed-method approach. Methods: The participants consisted of 93 women who underwent surgery for breast cancer between July 2010 and March 2012. The demographic and medical characteristics of the participants were evaluated through structured interviews. To identify personality types, in-depth interviews were performed and the transcribed interviews were evaluated using interpretive phenomenological analysis. The participants were categorized into two groups (compliance and non-compliance) based on compliance with the Korean Breast Cancer Society recommendations for BCS. Results: Five personality types were identified through phenomenological analysis. There were significant differences in the chi-square test results for the BCS compliance and non-compliance groups according to age (p=0.048), cancer stage (p<0.001), and personality types (p=0.018). Logistic regression showed that the odds ratio for compliance with BCS was 9.35 (p=0.01) for individuals with a cautious-organized personality type, 9.38 (p=0.02) for those with a cautious-dependent personality, and 10.58 (p=0.04) for those with a sensitive-downcast personality compared to those with a cautious personality type. Conclusion: Participants with cautious-organized, cautious-dependent, and sensitive-downcast personality types were less likely to follow the BCS recommendations than those with a cautious personality type. This study provides a basis for the future development of an effective questionnaire to investigate the personality types of individuals with breast cancer in order to predict compliance with BCS.
... This was a qualitative study, designed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), a paradigm centred on the works of Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) and is based on the belief that knowledge is derived through experience. 15 setting In accordance with international guidance, paramedics in the UK are trained in the use of epinephrine as part of standard protocols for OHCA. NEAS was involved in the Paramedic-2 trial from April 2015 to October 2017, during which time all paramedics received mandatory training in the Paramedic-2 trial protocol. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Objective:Human dignity is an important issue in Islamic culture and preserves many divine-human values that may be of interest to managers and employees of organizations. Although studies on human dignity have been conducted, but a human dignity management model is still lacking in the administrative system based on Islamic teachings. Therefore, the present study aimed to design a human dignity model based on Islamic teachings.Methods:Descriptive phenomenology was applied as a qualitative research method. The statistical population of the study was all faculty members of theology and Islamic sciences departments of Zahedan universities with the academic rank of assistant professor and higher and with a teaching and research experience in the field of human dignity in the academic year 2018-19. 13faculty members were selected using purposive sampling method until theoreticalsaturation was achieved. The data collection instrument included semi-structured interview. Strauss and Corbincoding was used in three levels: open, axial and elected to analyze the interview data. In this study, all ethical considerations were observed and no conflict of interest was reported by the authors. Results:The results of interviews showed that the model of human dignity applying Islamic approach consisted of 21 axial codeis. The Identified axial codes were categorized into seven elected codes of being law-abiding, compensating for services, justice, meritocratic selection, social responsibility, building trust and participatory decision making.Conclusion:Organizational managers can maintain and enhance employee dignity by observing the indicators of being law-abiding, compensation for services, justice, meritocratic selection, social responsibility, building trust and participatory decision making
Article
Surgical patient safety remains a concern worldwide as, despite World Health Organization recommendations and implementation of its Surgical Safety Checklist, adverse events continue to occur. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the views and experiences of perioperative nurses regarding the factors that impact surgical patient safety. Data were collected through five focus groups involving a total of 50 perioperative nurses recruited from four public hospitals in Spain. Content analysis of the focus groups yielded four main themes: personal qualities of the perioperative nurse, the surgical environment, safety culture, and perioperative nursing care plans. One of the main findings concerned barriers to the exercise of leadership by nurses, especially regarding completion of the Surgical Safety Checklist. Some of the key factors that impacted the ability of perioperative nurses to fulfil their duties and ensure patient safety were the stress associated with working in the operating room, time pressures, and ineffective communication in the multidisciplinary team. Targeting these aspects through training initiatives could contribute to the professional development of perioperative nurses and reduce the incidence of adverse events by enhancing the surgical safety culture.
Article
Caregiving can be a lifelong responsibility for parents of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined coping strategies and barriers experienced by parents of adult children with ASD. The 51 parents who participated in this study were at least 50 years old and had an adult child (18+) with ASD. Semistructured, one-on-one interviews were conducted with parents to understand their experiences of having an adult child with ASD. Using a qualitative, phenomenological approach, thematic analysis revealed seven themes related to parents’ coping strategies or lack thereof. Themes discussed include faith/spirituality, physical activity/fitness, self-focused coping, work, acceptance, reliance on social support, and barriers to coping. Most parents discussed having at least one coping strategy, with some sharing multiple strategies.
Article
In this paper, Christine Hallett considers the ways in which phenomenology may he used to guide nursing research and discusses some of the difficulties and benefits associated with its adoption in interpretive studies.
Article
This article explicates, in a concrete, step-by-step manner, some procedures that can be followed in phenomenologically analyzing interview data. It also addresses a number of issues that are raised in relation to phenomenological research.