Human toxocariasis: A seroepidemiological survey in the municipality of Campinas (SP), Brazil

Associação Cultural e Educational de Garça, Garça, SP, Brasil.
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo (Impact Factor: 1.01). 11/2002; 44(6):303-7. DOI: 10.1590/S0036-46652002000600002
Source: PubMed


The occurrence of human Toxocara infection was evaluated in three neighborhoods of the periphery of the Campinas municipality (Jardim Santa Mônica, Jardim São Marcos and Jardim Campineiro) in 1999. Forty residences and 138 residents were randomly selected by drawing lots and were submitted to a seroepidemiological survey, which included blood collection for the immunoenzymatic detection (ELISA) of anti-Toxocara antibodies and a blood count, and the application of a semi-structured questionnaire for the evaluation of epidemiological data. Significant levels of anti-Toxocara antibodies were detected in 23.9% of the 1999 samples. No significant difference in the frequency of infection according to age was observed. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs was observed in 12.3 and 14.0% of 57 soil samples collected in the same region in December 1998 and July 1999, respectively. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression of the data obtained from the questionnaires and of the results of the serological tests, suggest a significant influence of socioeconomic variables on the frequency of human infection with Toxocara under the conditions prevalent in the study area.

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Available from: Francisco Anaruma Filho, Jun 25, 2014
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    • "R E S U LT S Comparison of simulated and observed anti-Toxocara antibody prevalence estimates Figure 2 compares the simulated overall Toxocara antibody prevalence estimates with the observed antibody prevalences from Argentina (Alonso et al. 2000), Brazil-A (Colli et al. 2010), Brazil-B (Anaruma et al. 2002), the Netherlands (Buijs et al. 1994, 1997; Pinelli et al. 2011) and Poland (Jarosz et al. 2010). The predicted estimates are presented separately for each scenario of seroreversion. "
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Seroprevalence data illustrate that human exposure to Toxocara is frequent. Environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is assumed to be the best indicator of human exposure, but increased risk of exposure has also been associated with many other factors. Reported associations are inconsistent, however, and there is still ambiguity regarding the factors driving the onset of Toxocara antibody positivity. The objective of this work was to assess the validity of our current conceptual understanding of the key processes driving human exposure to Toxocara. We constructed an agent-based model predicting Toxocara antibody positivity (as a measure of exposure) in children. Exposure was assumed to depend on the joint probability of 3 parameters: (1) environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs, (2) larvation of these eggs and (3) the age-related contact with these eggs. This joint probability was linked to processes of acquired humoral immunity, influencing the rate of antibody seroreversion. The results of the simulation were validated against published data from 5 different geographical settings. Using simple rules and a stochastic approach with parameter estimates derived from the respective contexts, plausible serological patterns emerged from the model in nearly all settings. Our approach leads to novel insights in the transmission dynamics of Toxocara.
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    • "There are different results declared by researchers on the relation of the frequency of Toxocara and age. Some of them found no significant change with age, whereas others claimed that Toxocara is more frequent in childhood (Takamoto et al., 1998; Ajayi et al., 2000; Anaruma Filho et al., 2002; Aguiar- Santos et al., 2004). It is known that toxocariasis is transmitted orally by taking the infective eggs which are found in soil contaminated with feces of infected cats and dogs. "
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    ABSTRACT: Toxocariasis is one of the most frequently reported helminth infections worldwide. Eosinophilia is a common finding of parasitic infections. This study assessed the levels of IgG antibodies specific to Toxocara spp. by ES-ELISA method in an eosinophilic (n=350) and non eosinophilic group (n=350). There were IgG antibodies specific to Toxocara spp. in 114 (32.6%) of the eosinophilic group and in 71 (20.3%) of the non-eosinophilic group (p<0.001). Toxocariasis may be an important problem in the region and should be kept in mind for patients with eosinophilia.
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    ABSTRACT: Helminth antigens were investigated in the search for accessible heterologous antigens capable to discriminate different helminthiases, by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the immunoblot assay (IB). Antigens used were: Taenia solium cysticercus total saline (Tso); Taenia crassiceps cysticercus vesicular fluid (Tcra-VF); T. crassiceps cysticercus glycoproteins (Tcra-GP and Tcra-(18-14)-GP); Toxocara canis larva excretory-secretory (TES); Schistosoma mansoni adult total saline (Sm) and Echinococcus granulosus hydatid fluid (Eg). The assayed sera were from patients with: cysticercosis (n = 18); toxocariasis (n = 40); schistosomiasis (n = 19) and hydatidosis (n = 50) with proven clinical and laboratory diagnosis, and sera from rabbits immunized with Tso, Tcra-VF, TES and Eg. Cross-reactivity occurred mostly between infections caused by Taenia and Echinococcus or in immunized rabbits, by ELISA. Moreover, the cross-reactivity among helminthiases was found with the use of antigens belonging to phylogenetically related parasite species, Eg, Tso and Tcra-VF, by sharing same antigenic components. Lower cross-reactivities were obtained by IB technique, when only peptides were considered as antigens, and the use of T. crassiceps purified glycoproteins demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of human cysticercosis, similarly to that using homologous antigen (Tso) by the same technique.
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