The High-Pathogenicity Island Is Absent in Human Pathogens of Salmonella enterica Subspecies I but Present in Isolates of Subspecies III and VI

Institut für Molekulare Infektionsbiologie, University of Würzburg, Roentgenring 11, D-97070 Würzburg, Germany.
Journal of Bacteriology (Impact Factor: 2.81). 03/2003; 185(3):1107-11. DOI: 10.1128/JB.185.3.1107-1111.2003
Source: PubMed


In this study we tested 74 Salmonella strains of all eight Salmonella groups and were able to demonstrate the presence of two high-pathogenicity island types in strains of Salmonella groups IIIa, IIIb, and VI. Most high-pathogenicity island-positive isolates produced yersiniabactin under iron-limited conditions
and were positive for the high-molecular-weight proteins HMWP1 and HMWP2.

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Available from: Sören Schubert, Jan 24, 2014
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    • "As well as the primary molecule S4, several linear glucosylated hydrolysis products, SX (monomeric), S1 and S5 (dimeric) and S2 (trimeric), analogous to those of enterobactin have also been identified. In addition, some Salmonella strains possess a high pathogenicity island that encodes the catecholate siderophore yersiniabactin and its uptake system (Oelschlaeger et al., 2003). Some strains also make the hydroxamate siderophore aerobactin (Colonna et al., 1985; McDougall and Neilands, 1984; Rabsch and Reissbrodt, 1985). "
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    ABSTRACT: Norepinephrine promotes the growth of Salmonella enterica in vitro in iron-restricted conditions imposed by the iron-binding proteins serum transferrin and egg-white ovotransferrin by facilitating the release of bound iron and subsequent uptake by the bacteria. Moreover, significantly increased colonisation and systemic spread were observed in mouse and chicken models of S. enterica infection following pre-treatment of animals with norepinephrine. Both ent and tonB mutants showed no growth promotion by norepinephrine either in liquid medium containing serum or on plates containing hens' egg-white, indicating that the process is dependent both on the ability to synthesise enterobactin and on TonB-dependent uptake of iron. An entS mutant (formerly designated ybdA) and an iroB mutant behaved as wild type in both assays, showing that neither secretion of enterobactin nor conversion of enterobactin to salmochelin S4 is necessary for the effect. On the other hand, the presence of mutations in fes or iroD resulted in loss of growth promotion by norepinephrine in both assays. Since the fes and iroD genes encode enzymes that hydrolyse enterobactin and salmochelin S4 respectively to monomers, these data suggest that excretion of monomeric forms of these siderophores may be important for the uptake of iron released by norepinephrine from transferrin or ovotransferrin. A similar pattern of behaviour was observed with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium in a mouse model of infection; treatment of animals with norepinephrine before intragastric challenge resulted in increased intestinal colonisation and systemic spread of both wild-type and entS mutant strains, while the fes mutant was significantly attenuated in vivo. This suggests that excretion of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine may be essential for norepinephrine-dependent growth promotion in the iron-restricted environment of the infected host. Unlike the situation in vitro, however, tonB mutants of S. enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis behaved the same as wild type in mouse and chick infection models, respectively, suggesting that norepinephrine-dependent growth stimulation may also occur by TonB-independent uptake of the enterobactin precursor 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · International journal of medical microbiology: IJMM
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    • "The high-pathogenicity island (HPI), first described in Yersinia pestis , Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica IB biotype, displays characteristics of a typical pathogenicity island as: (i) it is a large chromosomal DNA fragment (35–45 kb); (ii) it carries virulence genes, namely the yersiniabactin siderophore system essential for the expression of the high-virulence phenotype in yersiniae; (iii) it is inserted at the 3 ¢ -end of a tRNA gene ( asn tRNA ); (iv) its G + C content is different to that of the remainder of the chromosome, and (v) it is flanked by repeated sequences (Carniel et al ., 1996; Bearden et al ., 1997; Pelludat et al ., 1998). A unique characteristic of the HPI is its wide distribution in various members of the family Enterobacteriaceae , above all in extraintestinal pathogenic isolates of E. coli (ExPEC) (Schubert et al ., 1998; Karch et al ., 1999; Bach et al ., 2000; Schubert et al ., 2000; Oelschläger et al ., 2003). In ExPEC strains, the HPI has been found to be functional and most closely associated with virulence compared to other 'traditional' virulence factors (Johnson and Stell, 2000). "
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    ABSTRACT: Diversification of bacterial species and pathotypes is largely caused by horizontal transfer of diverse DNA elements such as plasmids, phages and genomic islands (e.g. pathogenicity islands, PAIs). A PAI called high-pathogenicity island (HPI) carrying genes involved in siderophore-mediated iron acquisition (yersiniabactin system) has previously been identified in Yersinia pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica IB strains, and has been characterized as an essential virulence factor in these species. Strikingly, an orthologous HPI is a widely distributed virulence determinant among Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae which cause extraintestinal infections. Here we report on the HPI of E. coli strain ECOR31 which is distinct from all other HPIs described to date because the ECOR31 HPI comprises an additional 35 kb fragment at the right border compared to the HPI of other E. coli and Yersinia species. This part encodes for both a functional mating pair formation system and a DNA-processing region related to plasmid CloDF13 of Enterobacter cloacae. Upon induction of the P4-like integrase, the entire HPI of ECOR31 is precisely excised and circularised. The HPI of ECOR31 presented here resembles integrative and conjugative elements termed ICE. It may represent the progenitor of the HPI found in Y. pestis and E. coli, revealing a missing link in the horizontal transfer of an element that contributes to microbial pathogenicity upon acquisition.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2004 · Molecular Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial genomes generally consist of stable regions termed core genome, and variable regions that form the so-called flexible gene pool. The flexible part is composed of bacteriophages, plasmids, transposons as well as unstable large regions that have been termed genomic islands. Genomic islands encoding virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria have been designated "pathogenicity islands". Pathogenicity islands were first discovered in uropathogenic Escherichia coli and presently more than 30 bacterial species carrying pathogenicity islands have been described. This review summarises the current knowledge on bacterial genomic islands and their general features, and discusses their putative role in the evolution of microbes in the light of genomics of pathogenic bacteria.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2003 · Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
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