Marine Benthic Microalgae Cylindrotheca closterium (Ehremberg) Lewin and Reimann (Bacillariophyceae) as a Tool for Measuring Toxicity of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate in Sediments

Marine Sciences Institute of Andalucía (CSIC), Campus Río San Pedro, s/n, Apartado Oficial, 11510, Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain.
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology (Impact Factor: 1.26). 03/2003; 70(2):242-7. DOI: 10.1007/s00128-002-0183-6
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Available from: Ignacio Moreno-Garrido, Nov 03, 2014
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    • "j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w. e l s ev i e r. c o m / l o c a t e / s c i to t e n v et al., 2000). The diatom Cylindrotheca closterium is a benthic species found in many parts of the world; it presents fast growth in laboratory conditions, high sensitivity to various toxicants, and its utilisation as a test organism is considered promising (Stauber and Florence, 1989; Moreno-Garrido et al., 2003a,b, 2007; Araújo et al., 2009). Many different approaches have been proposed for quantifying the inhibitory effect of contaminants on algae, including microscopic analysis by cell counting, absorbance measurements, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) quantification, electronically by Coulter Counter (cell counting and size analysis), fluorometrically (Eisentraeger et al., 2003), and dissolved oxygen production (Moreno-Garrido et al., 1999). "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study checked the suitability of Cylindrotheca closterium (Bacillariophyceae) as a test species for ecotoxicology studies. To date, only limited use has been made of microphytobenthos in ecotoxicology, and C. closterium has been employed as a target organism in this study because the biological group is considered to be very relevant ecologically. The main objective was to assess the response of C. closterium to a contaminant-type (copper) using three different test endpoints (esterase activity, chlorophyll fluorescence and population growth) and two different test methods (Erlenmeyer flasks and microplates), to evaluate which combination of test conditions would provide the most sensitive approach for assessment of effects. Regardless of the endpoints, the response of C. closterium to copper was very similar; however lower sensitivity (EC50 of 27.8 ± 0.7 µg Cu L− 1) was observed when tests were carried out in microplates. Chlorophyll fluorescence measured by flow cytometry as total FL3 was slightly more sensitive (EC50 of 4.7 ± 0.1 µg Cu L− 1) than the other parameters measured, probably because it takes into account the effect on chlorophyll fluorescence and cell density simultaneously. The test method (Erlenmeyer flask or microplate) was the determining factor for the observed differences in sensitivity. These differences found for the two methods are explained by the higher metal adsorption capacity of microplate vessel walls (more than 40%), which decreases the available copper. C. closterium was demonstrated to be a suitable organism for adoption in ecotoxicological studies, given the reliability of the three endpoints and also of the two test methods evaluated here.
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines the influence of the detergents “Obychnyi poroshok” and “Ariel” (at 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/l) on the growth and physiological state of the benthic marine microalga Attheya ussurensis. Cell number, growth rate, and oxygen productivity turned out to be the most sensitive characteristics for evaluation of toxic effects, while the pH of the culture medium and the contents of chlorophyll a and carotenoids were more tolerant to detergent. Toxicants in concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg/l had a weak inhibitory effect on the microalga A. ussurensis; at 10 mg/l, the detergent Ariel exerted a greater inhibitory effect on the microalga than Obychnyi poroshok did.
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