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To describe the characteristics of badminton in order to determine the energy requirements, temporal structure, and movements in the game that indicate performance level. To use the findings to plan training with greater precision. Eleven badminton players (mean (SD) age 21.8 (3.26) years) with international experience from four different countries (France, Italy, Spain, and Portugal) were studied. Two of the Spanish players were monitored in several matches, giving a total of 14 samples, all during the 1999 Spanish International Tournament. Blood lactate concentration was measured with a reflective photometer. Maximum and average heart rates were recorded with a heart rate monitor. Temporal structure and actions during the matches were determined from video recordings. All variables were measured during and after the game and later analysed using a descriptive study. The results confirmed the high demands of the sport, with a maximum heart rate of 190.5 beats/min and an average of 173.5 beats/min during matches over 28 minutes long and performance intervals of 6.4 seconds and rest time of 12.9 seconds between exchanges. The results suggest that badminton is characterised by repetitive efforts of alactic nature and great intensity which are continuously performed throughout the match. An awareness of these characteristics, together with data on the correlations between certain actions such as unforced errors and winning shots and the final result of the match, will aid in more appropriate planning and monitoring of specific training.
Analysis of the characteristics of competitive badminton
D Cabello Manrique, J J González-Badillo
Br J Sports Med
Objective: To describe the characteristics of badminton in order to determine the energy requirements,
temporal structure, and movements in the game that indicate performance level. To use the findings to
plan training with greater precision.
Methods: Eleven badminton players (mean (SD) age 21.8 (3.26) years) with international experience
from four different countries (France, Italy, Spain, and Portugal) were studied. Two of the Spanish play-
ers were monitored in several matches, giving a total of 14 samples, all during the 1999 Spanish Inter-
national Tournament. Blood lactate concentration was measured with a reflective photometer.
Maximum and average heart rates were recorded with a heart rate monitor. Temporal structure and
actions during the matches were determined from video recordings. All variables were measured dur-
ing and after the game and later analysed using a descriptive study.
Results: The results confirmed the high demands of the sport, with a maximum heart rate of 190.5
beats/min and an average of 173.5 beats/min during matches over 28 minutes long and performance
intervals of 6.4 seconds and rest time of 12.9 seconds between exchanges.
Conclusions: The results suggest that badminton is characterised by repetitive efforts of alactic nature
and great intensity which are continuously performed throughout the match. An awareness of these
characteristics, together with data on the correlations between certain actions such as unforced errors
and winning shots and the final result of the match, will aid in more appropriate planning and monitor-
ing of specific training.
Previous research has analysed the characteristics of effort
in training and competition in racket sports such as
tennis12and squash.3This has made it possible to create a
profile of the energetic and physiological demands involved,
which has enabled the physical capacity necessary to practise
these sports to be established. However, there are not
sufficient data on badminton to allow a more realistic assess-
ment of energy expenditure in competitive matches.
It is not known which are the most important aspects of
performance in badminton, what should be improved to
increase playing level, and what factors lead to favourable
results when competitors are of a similar level. This is
compounded by ignorance of certain parameters of play that
can be related to performance in competition and their effect
on the final result.
Research4–7 has shown the importance of studying physio-
logical variables such as lactate concentration and heart rate
to determine the energy requirements of physical activity and
Although badminton has increased in popularity since its
inclusion as an official sport in the 1992 Olympic Games in
Barcelona, research on performance capacity (the optimum
performance level players can reach, which should be used as
a point of reference for coaches of top players) is still scarce.
However, we should point out the studies of Carlson et al8and
Alvero9on heart rates obtained for young sportsmen during
competition. Minimum, average, and extremely high maxi-
mum heart rates were reported, and it was found that the
maximum heart rate recorded was close to the theoretical
heart rate maximum. With regard to adults, Hughes10 found
maximum heart rates of 186 beats/min in simulated competi-
Other studies include those by Abe et al11 and Gosh et al,12 13
in which the maximum concentrations of lactate were not
above 5 mmol/l. Similarly, Carlson et al8did not find any large
differences between top class Australian singles and doubles
players, with a mean maximum concentration of 4.6 mmol/l
obtained at the end of the first set of the men’s singles.
Another characteristic of badminton is the execution of
sporadic movements of moderate and high intensity, related to
repetitive actions of short duration but great intensity,14 as
occurs in other sports with similar characteristics (squash,
tennis, and volleyball). These characteristics, together with
highly explosive bursts of play, in the case of badminton tak-
ing place with high speed and technical skill within an 80 m2
court, serve to illustrate the degree of physical exertion in each
match. In terms of data analysis, some authors10 15 16 have
obtained average play values (action intervals) of five seconds
duration, followed by recovery periods of 5–10 seconds. How-
ever, Cabello et al,17 investigating three top class national play-
ers, found action intervals (performance time) closer to eight
seconds, and rest times were double this (16 seconds). This
finding does not agree with data obtained from a larger sam-
ple (n = 8) of younger, medium to top level national players,
for whom an average of 3.6 seconds for action intervals and
9.8 seconds for rest times were found,14 suggesting some vari-
ation in play-rest patterns.
Maximum effort tests on a treadmill have shown that top
badminton players have a high oxygen consumption: 60.5 and
49.3 ml/kg/min in men and women respectively of the
Australian national team8and 51.5 ml/kg/min for 13 players in
the British team.10
Our aim was to assess the physiological and metabolic bases
of physical effort during badminton competitions and their
possible relation to performance parameters as effective indi-
cators of the final result. We also aimed to calculate the volume
and intensity of the work rate in a badminton match, measure
the cardiovascular effort in a top level match, describe the
temporal structure of a badminton competition in relation to
the time of action and recovery, extract quantifiable variables
of performance in play, and calculate the relation between the
different variables and the final result of the match.
Eleven badminton players (10 men, one woman, mean (SD)
age 21.8 (3.26) years) with international experience were
See end of article for
authors’ affiliations
Correspondence to:
Mr Cabello, Faculty of
Education, University of
Granada, Campus
Universitario de La Cartuja,
18071 Granada, Spain;
Accepted 7 May 2002
recruited from four different countries (France, Italy, Spain,
and Portugal). Two of the Spanish players were videorecorded
during several matches in the 1999 Spanish International
Tournament, giving rise to a total of 14 samples. Seven players
were members of their national teams (10 samples), with a
minimum weekly training schedule of 12 hours.
The design is descriptive and comprises measurements taken
before and after the match in each sample and various
comparisons between the subjects. Several variables were
measured; some as used by Dias and Ghosh18 are described as
Lactate concentration
This was determined, in blood samples (20 µl) taken from the
earlobe, using reactive strips which were immediately
analysed using the lactate-mediator oxidase colour reaction
technique with an Accusport reflection photometer. This tech-
nique is considered to be highly accurate for lactate
concentrations below 8 mmol/l.19 20 Several blood samples were
taken: at rest, at the end of the match, and at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10
minute intervals during recovery.
Heart rate
Heart rate was recorded every five seconds by telemetry
throughout the match, using Polar Sport Tester 4000 heart rate
monitors and a Polar Interface Unit to introduce the data into
a 486 PC. Polar-HR software was used to determine
parameters such as the maximum and average heart rate of
each subject at different stages of the match. The Polar Inter-
face Unit consists of a belt containing a pair of electrodes and
a wrist receptor. The former is attached to the player’s chest
and sends the information it receives to the wrist receptor.
Total playing time
Total playing time was registered by the heart rate monitor’s
chronometer, as well as by filming each match with VHS-C
video cameras. From the tapes we were able to determine real
time play (total time that the shuttlecock is moving).
Temporal structure
The temporal structure was obtained from subsequent analy-
sis of the videotaped matches by calculation of the average
work interval or performance time, average rest interval or rest
time (both of the latter measured in seconds), and work den-
sity (ratio of performance time to rest time; a non-
dimensional variable).
Performance rates
Performance rates were analysed by watching the video of
each match and summarising them as follows.
Unforced errors: errors committed by the player in a situa-
tion where an error is not expected.
Winning shots: shots that, on account of their effective
execution, score a point.
Number of shots that occur in each point (number of shots
per rally), in each of the sets and matches (total shots).
Maximum actions: actions that require highly demanding
physical execution and therefore maximum effort.
Total number of rallies: number of interventions occurring
throughout the sets and whole match.
Atmospheric conditions (temperature, humidity, and pres-
sure) showed only minimal variations (70–80° humidity and
20–22° outside temperature).
It was necessary to take account of a factor that may have
affected the results obtained—that is, the intensity with
which the match was contested—because, to consider the
results obtained as representative of maximum effort, the
match had to be hard fought with the players performing to
their full capacity. This was controlled by choosing for analy-
sis the matches that a priori were likely to be the most hotly
contested—that is, between players of the same level (using
information obtained from results in other competitions and
from their respective coaches)—as well as the importance of
the result within the competition.
Before the competition, a meeting was held with all those
responsible: club delegates, referee, and members of the com-
petition committee. At this meeting, the bases of the study
were laid out and queries were answered. At the end,
information sheets and agreement forms were handed out to
be filled in by the players who volunteered to take part.
Before the on court warm up, a blood sample was taken for
analysis of basal lactate concentration, and each player was
Table 1 Detailed individual results, after elimination of data that, on account of
abnormal circumstances of play, may have altered the coherence of the result—for
example, three set matches influenced the mean values of some variables, causing
incoherent results
Variable (n=14) Mean SD CV Max Min
Age (years) 21.79 3.26 14.97 28 17
Weight (kg) 67.54 8.70 12.88 84 56
Height (cm) 175.21 6.83 3.90 182 165
Max heart rate (beats/min) 190.57 5.50 2.89 201 186
Average heart rate (beats/min) 173.43 8.86 5.11 187 162
Max lactate (mmol/l) 3.79 0.91 24.11 5.1 2.4
Total time (seconds) (n=12) 1689.33 312.89 18.52 2308 1320
Real time (seconds) (n=12) 548.75 98.62 17.97 696 387
Performance time (seconds) 6.40 1.25 19.61 8.86 4.57
Rest time (seconds) 12.93 2.68 20.76 18.7 9.2
Work density 0.49 0.06 11.42 0.61 0.4
Winning shots (number) 18.85 8.51 45.17 32 8
Unforced errors (n=12) 22.46 7.68 34.18 32 7
Shots per rally 6.06 1.08 17.86 7.82 4.6
Maximum actions 43.42 16.59 38.22 87 24
Total rallies 83.33 11.03 13.24 99 64
Total shots 510.75 109.76 21.49 774 354
Average/max heart rate coefficient 91.00 2.50 2.75 94.44 86.63
Number of shots/real time 0.93 0.11 11.40 1.13 0.69
CV, Coefficient of variation; max, maximum; min, minimum.
Badminton characteristics 63
provided with a heart rate monitor and reminded of the pro-
cedure to be adhered to.
Just before the start of the match, the player switched on
the heart rate monitor and so initiated the heart rate register.
At the same time, the video recorder started filming. A blood
sample was taken and heart rate was recorded immediately
after the first set. At the end of the match, blood samples were
taken immediately and at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 minute intervals
during recovery.
Over the next few days the videotaped matches were
watched to determine each player’s temporal structure.
Statistical analysis
We carried out a bivariate correlational statistical analysis
(Pearson’s coefficient) between all the variables using the Sta-
tistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 7.5, and those vari-
ables, such as total time, that could affect correlations were
subject to partial control through this programme. For the
relation between unforced errors or winning shots and the
final result, we used a binomial analysis of ratios for
non-parametric measures with c2contingency tables. The level
of significance used in the statistical analysis was p<0.05.
Table 1 shows the different variables analysed for each player,
as well as their descriptive analysis.
The very high degree of uncertainty in the course of the
game of badminton is clearly shown by the great variability in
the different variables for each player, with performance times
varying between 4.57 and 8.86 seconds and lactate concentra-
tions varying between 2.4 and 5.1 mmol/l. However, some
variables are more constant such as maximum heart rate dur-
ing the match (186–201 beats/min, which is very close to the
real maximum of each player), the average heart rate
(162–187 beats/min), work density (0.4–0.6), and the relation
between the number of shots and real time as a possible indi-
cator of effort (1.1–0.7).
The tendency was for all the players who were analysed to
increase their average heart rate in relation to their maximum
heart rate of the playing interval as the match progressed
(>3% in all cases). This indicates that cardiovascular demand
gradually increased as the game progressed.
It is clear from fig 1 that the most frequently occurring ral-
lies in all the matches analysed are those that have a perform-
ance time of 3–6 seconds, representing 40% of the total moves,
which, together with the rallies of 0–3 seconds (19%) and
Figure 1 Mean percentage of playing intervals (performance time) and recovery (rest time) of all the matches.
Table 2 Summary of the correlational analysis between the studied variables
Value p Value
Positive correlations
Average heart rate & max heart rate 0.91 0.000
Average heart rate & lactate 0.55 0.051
Average heart rate & lactate (controlling total time) 0.48 0.127
Real time & rest time 0.62 0.031
Real time & performance time 0.73 0.007
Performance time & rest time 0.87 0.000
Shots in rally & real time 0.63 0.028
Shots in rally & performance time 0.75 0.007
Real time & total time 0.69 0.013
Negative correlations
Max heart rate & work density 0.57 0.041
Max heart rate & work density (controlling total time) 0.54 0.082
Average heart rate & work density 0.57 0.038
Average heart rate & work density (controlling total time) 0.55 0.079
Max heart rate & maximum actions 0.62 0.028
Max heart rate & maximum actions (controlling total time) 0.66 0.025
Average heart rate & maximum actions 0.59 0.042
Average heart rate & maximum actions (controlling total time) 0.64 0.033
NB some correlations that originally seemed to be significant have stopped being so after controlling total
64 Cabello, González-Badillo
those of more than 6–9 seconds (20.3%), constitute more than
80% of the total rallies. Moreover, there is a progressive
decrease in the frequency with which rallies occur as the per-
formance time of each rally increases, with the rallies that last
more than 21 seconds being less than 1%. However, for the rest
intervals, it is between the third and fifth duration—that is,
between more than 6 and 15 seconds—that 80% of the
matches lie.
Table 2 gives the results of a bivariate correlational statisti-
cal analysis (Pearson’s coefficient) between all the variables
analysed. The goal was to determine the significance of the
relation between pairs of variables by controlling total time in
those cases where this could affect the relation. Most of the
positive correlations were related to the temporal structure:
total and real time; performance and rest time. However, in the
case of the negative correlations, the variables that were found
to be related were the different expressions of heart rate, as
well as temporal structure and playing performance variables.
When the total time was controlled, it was found that the
maximum and average heart rate were no longer significant in
relation to the work density, leaving only the relation between
maximum heart rate, average heart rate, and maximum
actions as significant.
The binomial analysis of ratios for the study of unforced
errors and winning shots with the final study of each set and
match shows us the degree of relation between the different
variables. In most cases, a high number of unforced errors
resulted in loss of the set or match. In six of the 14 matches
analysed using a χ2value of 7.095 and a level of significance of
p<0.01 (0.00773), the difference between the number of
unforced errors and players winning or losing the match was
significant. In these matches, the players with a higher
number of unforced errors were the ones who lost the match.
By analysing the correlations in table 2 and comparing the
results with those from other studies, a specific analysis of
each variable can be made.
Lactate concentration
Maximum lactate concentrations showed a mean of 3.8
mmol/l, with a maximum value of 5.1 and a minimum of 2.4,
which are similar to those found by Ghosh et al12 in top level
13–14 year old players. However, they are lower than those
obtained by Cabello et al in three top level senior Spanish play-
ers (mean 7.1 mmol/l17) and eight medium to top level players
(mean 5.7 mmol/l).14 These differences may be explained by
the differences in age, fitness, and training levels of the
subjects. Although there is no correlation between lactate
concentration and the other variables, it is in the matches
where the smallest differences between work and rest (work
density) with longer work intervals occurred that lactate con-
centrations were highest (in four of the cases in which work
density was >0.5, lactate concentration was >3.5 mmol/l,
whereas in three of the cases in which work density was <0.5,
lactate concentration was <3 mmol/l). These lower values may
also be due to a greater aerobic work capacity conditioned by
a higher degree of previous training.10
One noteworthy aspect is the contrast between the low lac-
tate production, with an average over all the samples lower
than 3.8 mmol/l, and the high intensities shown in both
maximum (190 beats/min) and average (173 beats/min) heart
rate. This finding has no obvious explanation.
Heart rate
The high values for maximum and average heart rate obtained
here are similar to those obtained in other studies on heart
rate,91112in most cases approaching the theoretical heart rate
maximum (220age). A possible explanation21 is that they are
due to neurophysiological factors that affect the heart. The
vegetative nervous system (specifically the sympathetic nerv-
ous system) may increase heart beat frequency by acting on
the sinoatrial node. The main neurotransmitter released by
the postganglionic fibres of the sympathetic system during
physical activity is usually norepinephrine (noradrenaline),
which, by means of messages sent by the nervous system to
the heart, increases the heart rate to the limits required by the
activity itself. Certain characteristics of badminton (speed,
reflexes, precision, high level of concentration) produce a high
level of stress, which may give rise to further epinephrine
(adrenaline) secretion at the suprarenal gland level, in
addition to that required by the nervous system. This may
cause the heart to accelerate over and above that provoked by
the actual effort.10 15 16
Playing time
The correlations between the different variables relating to
playing time (total playing time, real time, average work, and
rest interval) may explain the importance of events that occur
throughout a game of badminton, a competitive sport in
which individual differences and the game’s dynamics can
vary greatly from one game to another. However, the total
playing time may modify the relation between work density
and average and maximum heart rate, because a player does
not start playing until he or she feels ready to do so. This may
result in games with a long total playing time but quite a
short real playing time. A work density such as this (0.48)
may explain why maximum lactate concentration is not
obtained at the end of the game, because the rest intervals,
especially those in the second set, may be sufficient to estab-
lish a partial decrease between one point and the next. It is
logical to assume that, in more highly demanding games in
which the variables related to playing times are considerably
greater, the physiological response will also be higher,
because the opponent’s level and the importance of the com-
petition can influence the intensity of the game, as well as the
values obtained. From an analysis of a video of the men’s sin-
gles final at the 1992 Olympic Games in Barcelona, it is inter-
esting to note that, although the final result of the game was
two sets to love, the total and real playing times (55 minutes
and 25 minutes 26 seconds for the first and second set
respectively) are far longer than in the games we studied:
double the total time (28 minutes 9 seconds) and nearly three
times the real time (9 minutes 9 seconds). Moreover, there are
large differences in the work interval (6.4 seconds in our
study compared with 12.3 seconds in the Olympic final) and
rest time (12.9 and 20.4 seconds respectively). The work/rest
ratio (0.62) was more than 20% higher than in our study
(0.49), which means that the chances of recovery are less and
therefore the degree of accumulated fatigue is greater.
Temporal structure
The high positive correlation (r= 0.87) found between
performance time and rest time (p<0.001) confirms that the
longer the point, the greater the time interval required for
recovery, something that is fairly logical and on occasions is
limited by the intervention of the umpire, who is trying to
avoid time wasting.
Similarly, the high correlation between work interval and
the number of shots in a rally shows that the number of shots
that can be played, usually one shot per second, is quite
limited by the shuttlecock flight time. This is borne out by the
correlation (r= 0.75) between the two, as shuttlecock flight
trajectories vary between 0.2 seconds for a short range smash
and 1.5 seconds for a defensive clearance from one end of the
court to the other or a high lob. Thus, the final average result
for average flight trajectories is close to one second, because of
the higher incidence of clearances and lobs.
Badminton characteristics 65
Actions during play
Because there are no studies on these variables, it is difficult to
discuss their importance. However, the results showing the
relation between winning and losing a set and the higher or
lower number of unforced errors and/or winning shots—that
is, between these ratios and the final result—are of great
interest because there is no known case of a player winning a
set with a significantly higher number of unforced errors than
his/her opponent. In this study, there were six matches in
which in 76.9% of the cases the player with the fewer unforced
errors won the set, and in only 23.1% of the cases did the
player with the most unforced errors win. However, the
apparent contradiction implied by these data is not significant
in terms of statistical analysis. With respect to maximum
actions, the negative correlation found between the number of
maximum actions and the average and maximum heart rate (r
=0.59, p<0.05 and r=0.62, p<0.03 respectively) can be
explained because the higher the heart rate the lower the
capacity to perform at maximum intensity and therefore the
maximum actions are fewer, because the decrease in the level
of response does not allow them to be carried out.
From these results, we can conclude that badminton is based
on fast movements, with a great demand on the alactic
anaerobic system and, to a lesser degree, on the lactic anaero-
bic metabolism. The high frequency and intensity of play
throughout a match, together with the high maximum and
minimum average heart rates, indicate that badminton is a
sport that, at competition level, demands a high percentage of
individual aerobic power and that high levels of aerobic power
allow players to maintain this type of effort during a total time
of about 30 minutes. Coaches should therefore base training
on a large number of competitive actions of high intensity but
short duration. Moreover, they should train specific endurance
by means of actions and moves performed at short (15–20
seconds) and very short (6–10 seconds) intervals.
Certain factors, such as the number of unforced errors,
seem to affect the final result and could therefore be used to
predict the outcome of the match and a player’s performance
We wish to acknowledge the following people who assisted in the
translation and revision of this article: Tony Harris, Francisco Javier
Morales Robles, Inmaculada Roldán Miranda, Inmaculada Sanz
Sainz, and Gerald Smith.
Authors’ affiliations
D Cabello Manrique, Faculty of Education, University of Granada,
Granada, Spain
J J González-Badillo, Higher Education Olympic Centre
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Take home message
To improve badminton results, it is necessary to plan train-
ing according to the characteristics of the sport—that is, to
work on specific endurance and highly intensive competi-
tive actions.
66 Cabello, González-Badillo
... Plus spécifiquement, la vitesse des échanges a augmenté de +34% de 1992 à 2012 et la durée de +49% (Laffaye, Phomsoupha, & Dor, 2015). L'une des premières raisons est le changement des trajectoires de volants devenues plus tendues et plus rapides (Cabello & González-Badillo, 2003). Chaque joueur cherche à imposer sa tactique durant les échanges en recherchant des trajectoires descendantes. ...
... Cela implique une capacité aérobie plus importante pour ces joueurs leur permettant de produire de l'énergie et de faciliter la récupération (Liddle et al., 1996). En complément, la haute valeur de la fréquence cardiaque (FC) est un indicateur de la demande énergétique et de l'oxygène dans les muscles (Cabello & González-Badillo, 2003). Au cours d'un match, le rythme cardiaque moyen est stable et est proche de la fréquence cardiaque maximale (FCmax) (≈90%) (Phomsoupha, 2016). ...
... En moyenne, le lactate sanguin est d'environ 7,1 mmol/L de sang au cours d'un match. Toutefois, des disparités peuvent exister entre les joueurs selon l'âge, la capacité, l'aptitude et le niveau d'entraînement (Cabello & González-Badillo, 2003). Afin de limiter son apparition, les joueurs ont développé une grande capacité aérobie à travers une multitude d'entraînement (Chin et al., 1995), à l'aide d'ingestion de carbohydrate (Bottoms, Sinclair, Taylor, Polman, & Fewtrell, 2013) et d'un apport d'oxygène par la myoglobine (Majumdar et al., 1997). ...
... According to the International Federation of Sport for All [18] and the Madison Beach Volley Tour [19], it is also one of the most popular sports in the world, being widely practised worldwide, namely by more than 200 million individuals [20], since its inclusion in the 1992 Olympic Games [21]. This sport is characterised by high-intensity intermittent activity and has five events (men's and women's singles, men's and women's doubles, and mixed doubles), for which specific preparation is required in terms of technique, psychological control and physical fitness [21,22]. ...
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Regular physical activity (PA) engagement has multiple benefits for individual general health at all ages and life stages. The present work focuses on badminton, which is one of the most popular sports worldwide. The aim was to conduct a systematic review focused on examining and analysing this sport and the benefits it brings to the health of those who engage in it. Examination was conducted from the viewpoint of overall health and provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art as presented in published scientific literature. PRISMA 2020 guidelines were adhered to. An exhaustive search was conducted of four electronic databases or search engines: Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE and Google Scholar. The search terms used were “badminton AND health” and “badminton AND benefits”. In total, 27 studies were eligible for inclusion in the systematic review. After analysing the results, it was concluded that badminton engagement may lead to an improvement in all areas, the most studied being those related to physical health, in particular the improvement of cardiac and pulmonary functions and the development of basic physical capacities.
... To improve badminton results, it is necessary to plan training according to the characteristics of the sport that is, to work on specific endurance and highly intensive competitive actions. (Cabello Manrique & González-Badillo, 2003) Information and develop PA in badminton further. Further investigation and expansion of the analysis system will allow for a more detailed analysis of playing patterns. ...
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Abstrak Berdasarkan kondisi dilapangan, masih rendahnya penguasaan teknik pegangan cara Inggris pada pukulan forehand dan backhand. Maka perlu dilakukannya studi refleksi penggunaan metode keseluruhan dari setiap pembelajarannya, karena studi refleksi bertujuan untuk mengatasi setiap kelemahan yang muncul pada siswa dan guru, sehingga mempermudah dalam memberikan materi selanjutnya. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimen. Populasi siswa kelas VII SMPN 2 Majalengka yang berjumlah 407 orang dengan pengambilan sampling purposive dengan jumlah sampel 40 orang yaitu kelas VII H. Instrument yang digunakan adalah penilaian rubrik dengan 4 norma penilaian. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan dengan uji chi kuadrat dengan taraf signifikansi 1%. Berdasarkan analisi data ada peningkatan sekitar 57% dengan hasil hitung uji chi kuadrat ternyata X2 hitung = 70,7 ≥ X2 tabel = 18,47 yang artinya hasil penelitian penggunaan metode keseluruhan mempunyai pengaruh terhadap penguasaan pegangan cara Inggris pada pukulan forehand dan backhand. Hasil penelitian yang signifikan juga dari penerapan refleksi dari setiap pertemuannya yang mampu memperbaiki setiap kelemahan yang muncul. Dari hasil perhitungan dan analisis statistik diperoleh simpulan bahwa: Bahwa studi refleksi mempunyai pengaruh pada penggunaan metode keseluruhan terhadap penguasaan teknik pegangan cara Inggris pada pukulan forehand dan backhand dalam permainan bulutangkis Abstract Based on field conditions, the mastery of English grip techniques is still low on forehand and backhand strokes. So it is necessary to do a reflection study using the overall method of each lesson, because a reflection study aims to overcome any weaknesses that arise in students and teachers, making it easier to provide further material. This research is using experimental method. The population of class VII students of SMPN 2 Majalengka, amounting to 407 people with purposive sampling with a sample of 40 people, namely class VII H. The instrument used was a rubric assessment with 4 assessment norms. The data analysis technique used was the chi square test with a significance level of 1%. Based on data analysis, there is an increase of about 57% with the results of the chi square test, it turns out that X2 count = 70.7 X2 table = 18.47, which means that the results of the research using the overall method have an influence on mastery of the English grip on forehand and backhand strokes. Significant research results are also from the application of reflections from each meeting which is able to correct any weaknesses that arise. From the results of calculations and statistical analysis, it is concluded that: That the reflection study has an influence on the use of the overall method on the mastery of the English grip technique on forehand and backhand strokes in badminton.
... Manrique & Badillo, [14] has mentioned the relationship between unforced errors and winning shots in badminton singles between winners and losers. They have indicated that it is more probable to lose a match as the number of unforced errors per rally increases and players have more chances to win a match for performing more winning shots than the opponents. ...
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Point difference in individual sports for performance or match analysis is a very niche area. The purpose of the present study was to compare the point difference between the winners and losers in three different phases of international badminton women's singles matches. The data were only restricted to the 2019 World Championship matches of the women's singles category for which the data of 105 games were used. The variables that were selected for analyzing the performance were maximum point difference and maximum consecutive points. The points for each game were divided into three different phases and accordingly the data were collected for all the games. In all the phases, the winners were found to be significantly (p < .05) ahead of the losers and the difference kept on increasing significantly over the phases with medium to large effect size. All the players who were ahead in the first phase of the game have won 70.47% of the matches. Similarly, players who were not ahead at any point of time in the first phase of the game, 75% had lost the game. Winners also had significantly (p < .05) higher consecutive points than the losers (ES = .65). On average, the winners were 6 points ahead of the losers in the second and the third phase of the game. In badminton, the first seven points are most crucial as they significantly increase the chances of winning. In this study, compared to the losers, winners kept on increasing the point difference in every phase. Whereas, in losers, the point difference reduced from phase 1 to phase 3. The results are helpful in enhancing the winning chances by tracking players' performance, developing strategies and tactics based on point difference.
... Furthermore, similar research reported a mean heart rate (HR) of between 140-160 beats/min (70-80% of maximal HR) [41,42]. These values are lower compared to other racket sports, such as tennis [43], squash [44], or badminton [45]. The intensity patterns may change according to players' performance levels in padel. ...
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Benefits of regular exercise for health are beyond any doubt. However, adherence to regular physical activity is an ongoing challenge. Among the options for exercise engagement, racket sports, and particularly padel, stand as emerging practices for children and adults to have fun, improve physical fitness, and potentially develop motor and cognitive skills. In the last decade, the literature on padel is increasing exponentially. However, there is a need for further experimental research. To design safe and effective sport-base physical activity promotion interventions, it is essential to have a deep understanding of the physical requirements, technical complexity, injury risks, and strength and conditioning programs. To assist researchers to conduct effective padel-based interventions for health, this review summarizes the state-of-the-art evidence about padel, identifies key topics to be addressed in the future, and discusses the potential role of padel as a physical fitness and health promotion strategy. A narrative review is presented, summarizing the results of padel articles from three different databases: Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Studies written in Spanish and English were the inclusion criteria. The studies had to be published from 2000 onwards and be original, as well as peer-reviewed.
... 5 Badminton requires vigorous movements, jumps, and rapid changes of direction that are intermittent but intensive, with short recovery times, and they impose severe physiological demands on the player. 6 Several previous studies have conducted injury surveillance on badminton players. [7][8][9][10] The injury incidence rate has been reported to range from 0.1 per 1000 hours playing 10 to 5.04 per 1000 playing hours, 7 with the most common injury being 22% of the injuries to the knee. ...
Previous studies involving injury surveillance in badminton players have used nonstandardized injury definitions and data collection methodologies. The purpose of this study was to apply a Delphi method to (1) reach a consensus on an injury definition in badminton and (2) develop a standardized badminton injury report form. An Injury Consensus Group was established under the auspices of the Badminton World Federation, and initial injury definitions and injury report form were developed. An internal panel was formed from the Injury Consensus Group, and an external panel was selected based on a combination of profession, experience in the field, sport-specific knowledge/expertise, and geographical location to obtain a widely representative sample. Through 2 rounds of voting by the external panel, consensus was reached on both the definition of an injury in badminton and a standardized injury report form. The agreed injury definition was "Any physical injury sustained by a player during a match or training regardless if further diagnostic tests were done or if playing time was lost" and the injury report form contained the following 7 sections: Injury record, Diagnosis, Injury mechanism, Regarding pain, Pain and return to play/training after injury, Grade of severity, and Recurrence. We recommend the use of the definitions and methods presented in this consensus statement for the reporting of injury in all international and domestic badminton players. This should make future injury surveillance reports directly comparable and hence more informative in recognizing trends over time and differences between countries.
... Badminton is one of the most popular and most technical sport played (1) (2) worldwide. It is a complex physically enduring sport that requires excessive amount of core strength as well as upper and lower body (3) strength Along with proper racquet movement, the players need good (4) lower limb strength. While playing badminton the players need to hit the shuttlecock with force thus rapid and repetitive badminton lunges and jumps, jerky and drift movements have been suggested to produce strenuous impact loading on the lower extremities of players, resulting (5) in overuse knee injuries. ...
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Background: Badminton is one of the most active recreational sports played worldwide. The quick and repetitive movements while playing leads to strenuous impact loading on the lower extremities. This further leads to knee pain, reduction in muscle strength. Objective:To nd out the effectiveness of ballistic exercises and strengthening exercises to reduce knee pain and increase lower limb strength. Methods: In a 6-weeks intervention study, 30 participants with knee pain were studied. The participants were divided into 3 groups Group A (Ballistic Exercises), Group B (Strengthening Exercises), and Group C (Control Group) by lottery allotment method. A proper warm-up and cooldown regime was also given to the participants. Pre and post-treatment data were collected and analyzed using SPSS 22.0. Paired t-test and a oneway ANOVA test were used to nd out the signicance of the treatment. Results: A signicant improvement in pain and muscle strength was found in Group A and B (p<0.05). Greater statistically signicant improvement was seen in Group A as compared to B and C. Conclusion: The study concluded that Ballistic Exercises are more effective as compared to Strengthening Exercises in order to reduce knee pain and increase lower limb strength in young badminton players.
Abstract Background/Purpose Since badminton has emerged as a frequently played non-contact recreational sport in India, it is essen- tial to document the injury patterns and incidence. However, there is no existing literature on this topic among Indian players. Materials and Methods A web-based questionnaire was circulated among recreational badminton players across North India, enquiring about demographic details, injury characteristics, and factors associated with an injury like BMI, warm-up practice, and physical training. Results Data of 237 eligible participants revealed an injury incidence rate of 57.1%. The ankle and dominant-side shoulder were the most common anatomical regions affected. The most common injury types were ligament sprain and muscle/tendon strain. Factors like age, frequency, duration of play, type of footwear, BMI, prior warm-up, court surface, and physical train- ing were significantly associated with injury incidence on univariate logistic regression analysis. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found male gender, a lack of prior warm-up, inadequate physical training, and age group between 26 and 30 years to be four independent risk factors for injury. Conclusion The recreational badminton player of India had a relatively higher incidence of injury compared with the lim- ited published data from other countries. Modifiable factors like a proper warm-up before the game, regular physical fitness training, and injury awareness programs can reduce the injury rates. Keywords Badminton - Racquet sports • Recreational players • Sports injury . Warm-up• Physical training
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Ten junior national level (13-14 years of age) female badminton players having 3-6 years of training were studied to investigate the demands of the game on heart rate and blood lactate during competition. The mean V̇(O2max) and the anaerobic threshold level were 48.3 ml/kg/min and 66.3% of the V̇(O2max). Game analysis revealed that heart rates were higher in the second and third games than in the first game, whereas no difference was found in blood lactate concentration. Anaerobic threshold, heart rate, and total duration of the game indicated an anaerobic-aerobic time domain ratio of 3:1. We conclude that junior national level female badminton players attained optimum aerobic capacity and anaerobic threshold levels that could be improved later through further training, and dissimilar strain on the cardiovascular and anaerobic metabolic systems is possible due to the intermittent nature of the game.
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El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue estudiar el esfuerzo físico realizado por jugadores de squash de nivel regional, a través de la cuantificación y clasificación del los golpes realizados, del conocimiento del tiempo de juego y del tiempo de pausa y de la determinación de la frecuencia cardíaca (FC) durante el partido. Para ello se analizaron 31 partidos de categoría provincial. En 22 partidos se registró el tiempo de duración de cada juego (TJ), el tiempo de pausa entre cada juego (TEJ), el tiempo de duración de cada tanto (TT), y el tiempo de pausa entre cada tanto (TET). En otros 10 partidos se midió la FC cada 5 s. Finalmente, en 6 partidos se registró el tipo de golpe, distinguiendo entre revés, drive, globo, dejada y mate. Los resultados muestran que los TT y los TEJ tienen una duración entre 9 y 10 s a lo largo de todo el partido. La FC media durante los Ti fue de 169,3 ± 5,6 lat.min-1 y durante los TEJ de 144,1 ± 3,8 lat-min-1. Los Ti oscilaron entre 7 y 10 min, con TEJ cercanos a los 3 min. Los tipos de golpe más utilizados fueron el drive y el revés. Por tanto, un entrenamiento que se asemeje a la realidad del juego debería basarse en sistemas de ejercicio intermitente, que alterne fases de actividad y de pausa de similar duración.
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As far back as the 1930s exercise physiologists recognised the existence of critical levels of work intensity above which lactate accumulation increased drastically and energy production was affected. Investigation of these transition points (thresholds) both invasively and non-invasively has led to much recent controversy. Respiratory exchange variables such as Ve, Ve/VO2, VCO2, excess CO2 and blood lactate have been monitored for simple, double and exponential breakaway points to elucidate these critical work intensities. A number of studies have produced high correlations between endurance performance and anaerobic threshold calculations, further demonstrating the potential existence of critical work intensities. Much of the controversy surrounding these phenomena has centered on mechanisms and nomenclature. The term 'anaerobic threshold' has been severely criticised because in addition to the tissues being oxygen insufficient, an imbalance in the energy systems may have resulted. The anaerobic condition or lactate accumulation may be due to changes in lactate production and removal. Muscle fibre type and the fibre type recruitment patterns may also be important factors in threshold transitions. Further examination is made in this review of non-invasive measures for determining transition thresholds and protocols for elucidating the critical points.
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The present study investigated the heart rate response to playing tennis with special reference to the skill levels and ages of the participants. Data obtained in a similar manner during earlier studies of badminton and squash players were compared with that obtained during tennis. The number of rallies, mean rally time and actual playing time in 30 minutes of play was also compared for the different skill levels and sports. Results showed that playing tennis raised the players' heart rates to 68-70% of their predicted maximum heart rate (PMHR). Playing squash and badminton could raise heart rates to 80-85% of the players' PMHR which was significantly higher than the values obtained for tennis. The actual skill level of the participants within their chosen sport did not have a significant effect in predicting the physical demands of squash or tennis but was important in predicting the heart rate response of badminton players. The more skillful the badminton player the greater the cardiac response as a result of game play. Analysis of time spent in actual play revealed that tennis players were involved in play for only five of the thirty minutes of game play, compared to 15 and 10 min respectively for squash and badminton. Skill level within each sport was only a significant factor in predicting length of play for squash players in which the medium and highly skilled groups played significantly longer than those of a lower level of skill.
Ante el creciente número de practicantes del tenis, impulsado en gran medida por un cada vez mayor número de jugadores que alcanzan el nivel profesional y por la popularidad que de ello deriva a través de los medios de comunicación, hemos creído interesante definir el perfil fisiológico del tenista, profundizando en la fisiología del ejercicio aplicada este deporte. Hemos realizado un análisis de las vías implicadas en el aporte de energía durante el entrenamiento y la competición, así como de otras cualidades físicas no menos relevantes como son la fuerza muscular (en sus diferentes modalidades) y la flexibilidad, mediante la aplicación de tests tanto en el laboratorio de fisiología como en el propio terreno de juego, en un intento de mayor aproximación a las condiciones reales de competición. De todo ello se desprenden unos resultados con los que pretendemos complementar la valoración de la evolución y adaptación al entrenamiento de cada jugador, así como para la selección de los jugadores más jóvenes durante su fase de formación mediante la predicción de la evolución de las cualidades analizadas, evidentemente nunca de forma aislada, sino en estrecha colaboración con el nivel técnico y táctico del individuo en cuestión, evaluado por sus respectivos preparadores y entrenadores.
La validité et la fidélité de l'appareil portatif de marque Accusport™ (Boehringer Mannheim) sont déterminées grâce à la comparaison des résultats avec ceux de l'analyseur de lactate portatif YSI 1500. Des solutions standard et du sang complet prélevé lors de différentes intensités d'exercice sont évalués au moyen des deux appareils, certains dosages étant doublés. Le coefficient de corrélation Accusport-YSI 1500 est de 0,971 et l'erreur type de l'estimé de 1,53 mM. Le coefficient de corrélation test-retest est de 0,998 et l'erreur type de l'estimé de 0,34 mM. Le volume minimal de sang requis pour assurer une lecture maximale stable de l'Accusport™ est de 16 μL.
The close balance between the O2 requirement to perform exercise and the O2 supply was analyzed. A non-uniform capillary PO2 can result in anaerobic metabolism in some muscle fibers despite an apparently adequate mean capillary PO2. The pattern of lactate increase for constant work rates and incremental exercise is described. Lactate increases without an increase in pyruvate at a threshold work rate above which the lactate/pyruvate ratio increases. The latter decreases immediately at the start to recovery. From simultaneous measurements of arterial lactate and pyruvate during exercise and recovery, we conclude that the lactate increase at the lactate threshold is consequent to a change in redox state rather than a mass action effect.
I have proposed an explanation of lactic acid production and output by red and white skeletal muscle during repetitive contractions. The proposal does not require O2 lack to slow oxidative phosphorylation. In this proposal lactic acid production is due to the fact that activation of glycolysis is more rapid than activation of oxidative phosphorylation. This results in a transient elevation of NADH in the cytoplasm and net lactic acid production. Once oxidative phosphorylation is fully activated and the activation of glycolysis wanes, balance is again achieved. Lactic acid production decreases and may become net utilization.