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Prevalence of Enteric Pathogens in Dogs of North-Central Colorado

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Abstract

To evaluate the prevalence of enteric pathogens in dogs of north-central Colorado, fecal samples were obtained from client-owned dogs presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Colorado State University for evaluation of acute small-bowel, large-bowel, or mixed-bowel diarrhea (n=71) and from age-matched, client-owned, healthy dogs (n=59). Infectious agents potentially associated with gastrointestinal disease were detected in 34 of 130 (26.1%) fecal samples. Agents with zoonotic potential were detected in feces from 21 (16.2%) of 130 dogs and included Giardia spp. (5.4%), Cryptosporidium parvum (3.8%), Toxocara canis (3.1%), Salmonella spp. (2.3%), Ancylostoma caninum (0.8%), and Campylobacter jejuni (0.8%). Positive test results occurred in dogs with or without gastrointestinal signs of disease. Dogs, particularly those in homes of immunocompromised humans, should be evaluated for enteric zoonotic agents.

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... Evaluation of the distribution of C. perfringens strains and assessment of their traits, such as toxin profiles, are important to elucidating the role of C. perfringens in canine diarrhea. Although there have been numerous reports on the prevalence of C. perfringens strains and their toxin profiles in fecal samples from diarrheic dogs (DD) and non-diarrheic dogs (ND) [2,9,10,15,20,22,29,32,34], studies detailing the prevalence of toxin genes, relatedness between DD and ND strains, and their antimicrobial susceptibility profiles have not been conducted in Korea. ...
... The prevalence of C. perfringens found in this study is similar to those reported in other studies, which demonstrated that 61% to 94% DD subjects and 56% to 88% ND subjects had C. perfringens in their feces [2,9,10,15,20,22,29,32,34]. Although some researchers have found a significant difference between C. perfringens prevalence in DD and ND [15,34], it has been reported that a high occurrence frequency of the bacterium is not an indicative or diagnostic sign of C. perfringens-associated disease [9]. ...
... In previous studies, the percentage of C. perfringens strains harboring cpe or related genes was 0% to 34% in DD and 0% to 14% in ND [15,16,34,35]. Although some studies reported non-significant associations between the detection of cpe and the presence of diarrhea [9,10,15,35], the CPE toxin has been strongly implicated as a cause of canine diarrhea [15,32,34]. However, Fig. 1. ...
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Clostridium perfringens causes diarrhea and other diseases in animals and humans. We investigated the prevalence, toxin gene profiles, and antibiotic resistance ofC. perfringensisolated from diarrheic and non-diarrheic dogs in two animal hospitals in Seoul, South Korea. Fecal samples were collected from clinically diarrheic (DD;n=49) and non-diarrheic dogs (ND;n=34).C. perfringenswas isolated from 31 out of 49 DD (63%) and 21 out of 34 ND dogs (62%). All strains were positive for theαtoxin gene, but not for theβ,ε, andιtoxin genes; therefore, all the strains were identified as type AC. perfringens. All the isolates were cpe-negative, whereas theβ2toxin gene was identified in 84% and 62% of isolates from DD and ND, respectively. Most isolates were susceptible to ampicillin (94%), chloramphenicol (92%), metronidazole (100%), moxifloxacin (96%), and imipenem (100%). However, 25% and 21% of isolates were resistant to tetracycline and clindamycin, respectively. Molecular subtyping of the isolated strains was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fifty-two isolates were classified into 48 pulsotypes based on more than 90% similarity of the banding patterns. No noticeable difference was observed between the isolates from DD and ND.
... Much of the treatment of acute canine diarrhea remains empiric and confounded by the selflimiting nature of the condition (1)(2)(3). Helminthic or protozoal infections and primary bacterial or viral enteritis may cause acute diarrhea in dogs, but in the majority of cases a cause is inapparent (2)(3)(4). The relative risk for diarrhea may be influenced strongly by age, breed, gender, environment, and season (5)(6)(7). ...
... The drug's effect on both Giardia and Clostridium spp. make it a theoretically attractive choice as both have been suggested as causative diarrheal pathogens (4,(26)(27)(28)(29). Metronidazole may also have immunomodulatory or anti-inflammatory effects but no difference was detected in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease given prednisone and metronidazole vs. prednisone alone (21,24). ...
... Previous studies suggest that endoparasites do not influence the occurrence of gastrointestinal signs (8,21,27). However, one study identified Toxocara canis, the parasite in the four positive study cases, only in diarrheal dogs and not in control dogs, and another study identified it in an uncontrolled cohort of diarrheal dogs (4,38). The reason for the longer duration of diarrhea in dogs with parasites in the present study remains unclear but could be due to the parasites causing a more variable duration of diarrhea by impacting the gastrointestinal mucosa or microbiome. ...
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Acute diarrhea is a common, often self-limiting, cause of presentation for veterinary care, yet there is a paucity of data on frequently-prescribed treatments. The purpose of this randomized, double blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial was to compare two anecdotally-recommended treatments: a probiotic combination and metronidazole. Sixty dogs without concurrent comorbidities were randomized into three treatment groups. The time to resolution of diarrheal signs was evaluated using owner surveys and fecal scoring charts. Dogs presenting with acute diarrhea achieved acceptable fecal consistency after 3.5 ± 2.2 days when receiving probiotic, 4.6 ± 2.4 days with oral metronidazole, and 4.8 ± 2.9 days with placebo; statistically significant differences were not identified between treatment groups (p = 0.17). These findings failed to provide evidence for the common use of metronidazole in this cohort of dogs with acute canine diarrhea, and a larger study population would be required to identify a statistically significant effect of probiotics.
... Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that is found in fecal samples of both healthy dogs and dogs with diarrhea. 13,14,36 There have been no studies in puppies that investigate whether C. perfringens colonizes at an early age. Our results suggest that C. perfringens does colonize at an early age and that its abundance decreased over time. ...
... ρ, Spearman's rho; BA, bile acid; wks, weeks Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is a virulence factor that is found in both healthy dogs and dogs with diarrhea. 13,14,36 One study suggested that CPE plays no role in acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome. 14 While its presence in adult dogs has been established, it was unknown whether this toxin is expressed in puppies. ...
... Previous studies show a prevalence of C. jejuni of 0.8% to 14.7% in dogs, and suggest that it is more frequently isolated from dogs under 1 year of age. 35,36,[38][39][40][41] However, this is the first study, to our knowledge, that has looked at dogs under 10 weeks of age for C. jejuni. Further studies with a larger number of dogs in this age group could give a more accurate estimation of population prevalence and association with disease. ...
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Background The fecal microbiota, fecal bile acid concentrations, and abundance of Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile are altered in acute and chronic gastrointestinal disease in adult dogs. However, less is known in young puppies. Hypothesis/Objectives To determine composition of the fecal microbiota, assess development of fecal bile acid profiles, and determine the abundance of Clostridial species in puppies, young adult dogs, and adult dogs. Animals Healthy puppies from a whelping kennel (n = 53) and healthy client‐owned dogs <1 year old (n = 20) were separated into 6 age groups, then compared to client‐owned dogs over 1 year of age (n = 13). Methods Prospective observational study. Naturally voided fecal samples were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction to measure bacterial abundances. Fecal bile acids were quantified using gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry. Results Puppies up to 5 to 6 weeks of age had increased Dysbiosis Index (median [min‐max]: 5.39 [1.32‐8.6], P < .001), increased abundance of C. difficile (4.1 [0.01‐4.85] log DNA, P < .001), decreased secondary bile acid concentrations (0.61 [0.28‐5.06] μg/mg, P = .006), and decreased abundance of C. hiranonis (0.84 [0.01‐6.71], P = .005) compared to adult dogs (−4.62 [−8.36 to −0.61], 0.01 [0.01‐0.01], 4.12 [0.32‐8.94], and 6.02 [5.06‐7.00], respectively). Secondary bile acid concentration positively correlated with C. hiranonis abundance (ρ = 0.77; P < .001). Conclusions and Clinical Importance The increase in secondary bile acids and simultaneous decrease of C. difficile and C. perfringens after 5 to 6 weeks of age warrants further investigation into regulatory impacts that secondary bile acids could have on clostridial species in dogs.
... Canine feces have been shown to contain pathogens such as Campylobacter jejuni (Damborg et al., 2004), Salmonella spp., (Hackett and Lappin, 2003), pathogenic E. coli (Johnson et al., 2001), antibioticresistant bacteria (ARB) (LaLonde-Paul et al., 2019), Cryptosporidium parvum (Hackett and Lappin, 2003), Ancylostoma caninum (Hackett and Lappin, 2003), and other human parasites such as Toxoplasma spp. and helminths (Salb et al., 2008;Penakalapati et al., 2017). ...
... Canine feces have been shown to contain pathogens such as Campylobacter jejuni (Damborg et al., 2004), Salmonella spp., (Hackett and Lappin, 2003), pathogenic E. coli (Johnson et al., 2001), antibioticresistant bacteria (ARB) (LaLonde-Paul et al., 2019), Cryptosporidium parvum (Hackett and Lappin, 2003), Ancylostoma caninum (Hackett and Lappin, 2003), and other human parasites such as Toxoplasma spp. and helminths (Salb et al., 2008;Penakalapati et al., 2017). ...
... Canine feces have been shown to contain pathogens such as Campylobacter jejuni (Damborg et al., 2004), Salmonella spp., (Hackett and Lappin, 2003), pathogenic E. coli (Johnson et al., 2001), antibioticresistant bacteria (ARB) (LaLonde-Paul et al., 2019), Cryptosporidium parvum (Hackett and Lappin, 2003), Ancylostoma caninum (Hackett and Lappin, 2003), and other human parasites such as Toxoplasma spp. and helminths (Salb et al., 2008;Penakalapati et al., 2017). ...
Article
Animal fecal contamination in aquatic environments is a major source of zoonotic diseases in humans. While concerns are focused on livestock, companion animals such as dogs can also be a source of a wide range of zoonotic pathogens. Therefore, detection of dog or canine fecal contamination in aquatic environments is important for mitigating risks. In this study, host-sensitivity and specificity of four canine fecal-associated marker genes were evaluated by analyzing 30 canine and 240 non-canine fecal samples. The application of these markers was also tested in water from an urban river under dry weather conditions. The host sensitivity values of the Bacteroides BacCan-UCD, DogBact, DF113 and DF418 were 1.00, 0.90, 0.83, and 0.90, respectively. The host specificity value of the BacCan-UCD, DogBact, DF113 and DF418 were 0.87, 0.98, 0.83, and 0.41, respectively. The mean concentrations of DF418 were highest (7.82 ± 1.13 log10 gene copies (GC)/g of feces) followed by BacCan-UCD (7.61 ± 1.06 log10 GC/g) and DogBact (7.15 ± 0.92 log10 GC/g). The mean concentration of DF113 (5.80 ± 1.25 log10 GC/g) was 1.5 to 2.5 orders of magnitude lower than the other marker genes. The DogBact marker gene was not detected in any other animal feces other than a small number of untreated sewage samples. The BacCan-UCD marker gene cross-reacted with cat, chicken, and pig fecal samples, while the DF113 marker gene cross-reacted with cat, chicken, cattle fecal and untreated sewage samples. The DF418 marker gene was detected in all sewage and animal feces and deemed not suitable for canine fecal contamination tracking in sub-tropical Australia. Canine fecal contamination was infrequently detected in environmental water samples. Based on the results obtained in this study, we recommend that at least two canine feces-associated marker genes should be used in field studies.
... Se levantó una encuesta para identificar diferentes características de los individuos y se realizó un análisis de riesgos mediante regresión logística. La frecuencia general de perros infectados por Cryptosporidium spp., fue 20.5 % (64/312; IC95% [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25], mientras que en los perros procedentes del CCABA fue 9 % (13/144; IC95% 5-15), y en los asociados a establos fue de 30 % (51/168; IC95% [23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38]. El 70 % de los establos tuvieron animales positivos, mientras que el promedio de perros por establo fue de 5.6, y la densidad fue de 2 a 12 perros. ...
... La literatura reporta que la prevalencia de la infección por Cryptosporidium en perros con dueño y callejeros en áreas urbanas y rurales se encuentra en un rango de 1 a 45 %, y que es más importante en cachorros que en animales adultos (9)(10)(11)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21) . Aunque hay que considerar que cada estudio guarda características únicas en su diseño, prueba diagnóstica, región geográfica y condiciones ambientales. ...
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El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de Cryptosporidium spp, así como llevar a cabo la identificación de algunos factores de riesgo asociados a la infección en perros asociados a establos lecheros en Aguascalientes, México, y en perros procedentes del área urbana de la capital del mismo estado. Se colectaron muestras de excremento de 168 perros domiciliados en 30 establos lecheros distribuidos en diez municipios del estado, y de 144 residentes del Centro de Control, Atención y Bienestar Animal del municipio de Aguascalientes (área urbana), las cuales se procesaron mediante frotis fecal teñido con Kinyoun para identificar la presencia de ooquistes del parásito. Se levantó una encuesta para identificar diferentes características de los individuos y se realizó un análisis de riesgos mediante regresión logística. La frecuencia general de perros infectados por Cryptosporidium spp., fue de 20.5% (64/312; IC95% 16-25), mientras que en los perros procedentes del CCABA fue de 9% (13/144; IC95% 5-15), y en los asociados a establos fue de 30% (51/168; IC95% 23-38). El 70% de los establos tuvieron animales positivos, mientras que el promedio de perros por establo fue de 5.6, y la densidad fue de 2 a 12 perros. Se identificó como como factor de riesgo a la infección por Cryptosporidium a la variable excremento diarreico, tanto en los perros de origen urbano (OR, 3.2; IC95% 1.06-9.79 p<0.03) como en los asociados a los establos (OR, 2.7; IC95% 1.36-5.49 p<0.001). En ninguna de las otras variables analizadas fue posible identificar una asociación estadísticamente significativa.
... among the stray dogs dropped from 23. 5% in 19705% in to 5.5% in 19755% in (Jajere et al., 2014. Hackett and Lappin (2003) performed a study on the prevalence of intestinal diseases among dogs based on the findings from fecal specimens. They indicated that Salmonella species account for 3.2% of factors which cause diarrhea in these animals. ...
... Hackett and Lappin reported that the prevalence of Salmonella spp. among the stray dogs was 12% which was higher than the rate reported in the studies conducted by Tsai et al. (2007), lower than that obtained by Khan (Hackett and Lappin, 2003). Nonetheless, it was very close to the rate indicated by Salehi et al. (2013) who reported that about 10.5% of stray dogs living around Garmsar, Iran, carried Salmonella species. ...
Article
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Salmonellosis as a zoonotic disease in dogs is not fully understood, and various reports have pointed to the transmission of antibiotic-resistant salmonella from dogs to humans. The current study aimed to evaluate the serologic and bacteriologic prevalence of Salmonella spp. in stray dogs placed in animal shelters around Tehran, compare the results to those of asymptomatic dogs, and determine the serotype of isolated species, as well as their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. A total of 100 fecal swab and blood samples were obtained from symptomatic and apparently healthy dogs (clinically) placed in four animal shelters around Tehran, Iran. Fecal and blood culture, as well as dog food culture, tube agglutination test, serotyping, and antibiotic susceptibility testing were performed on the samples. Fever, lethargy, diarrhea, and abdominal pain were observed in all the dogs in the case group, and bloody diarrhea was the least commonly detected symptom in clinical examination. A number of 11 and 4 collected fecal swabs from the case and control groups were positive for Salmonella spp., respectively. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) also confirmed the laboratory tests results. Blood culture on the selective medium was negative for all the cases. Moreover, 60% and 100% of dogs in the case and control groups showed inflammatory markers in their blood test. The tube agglutination test was positive for 12% of the samples from the case group, while it was positive only for 5% of cases in the control group. The highest and lowest antibiotic resistance was observed against gentamicin and ciprofloxacin from the case group, respectively. Salmonella spp. infection in stray dogs placed in animal shelters is a great public health concern. In this regard, it is recommended that these animals be regularly monitored since they serve as Salmonella carriers.
... Unfortunately, although diarrhea is one of the most common problems in dogs and cats, identifying the underlying cause can be frustrating. A number of studies have examined the presence of enteropathogens and associated risk factors in populations of dogs and cats with enteric disease (Hackett and Lappin, 2003;Queen et al., 2012;Paris et al., 2014;Spain et al., 2001). Most of them have found that the presence of putative enteropathogens is often similar in diarrheic and nondiarrheic dogs and cats. ...
... Cryptosporidium spp. Tritrichomonas foetus and Toxoplasma gondii are other protozoal agents that were not detected and have been found with different prevalence in similar epidemiological studies and are associated with diarrhea (Hackett and Lappin, 2003;Queen et al., 2012;Paris et al., 2014). A third limitation was the poor history provided with the submission forms, in particular describing the character of the diarrhea, whether it was acute or chronic (≥3 weeks), or compatible with a small or large bowel origin. ...
Article
Parasitic agents are a common cause of diarrhea in dogs and cats and, thus, determining their prevalence is essential to establish preventive and control measures. This retrospective study examined the fecal tests records from 1111 dogs and 203 cats with diarrhea submitted to a diagnostic laboratory in the city of Medellin between January and May 2018. The detection of parasites was carried out by direct smears and simple flotation methods. Parasitic organisms were detected in feces from 464 (41.7%) dogs and 96 (47.3%) cats. In order of decreasing prevalence, the parasites detected in dogs were: Giardia intestinalis (13%), ancylostomids (12.6%), Entamoeba spp. (6.1%), coccidian oocysts (5.8%), Toxocara spp. (5.6%) and Dipylidium caninum (1.3%). In cats, the prevalence was: Giardia intestinalis (20%), coccidian oocysts (8.9%), Entamoeba spp. (7.9%), ancylostomids (6.4%), Toxocara spp. (2.5%) and Dipylidium caninum (2%). Age, but not gender, was a predisposing factor, as puppies and kittens had significantly higher infection rates that older age categories. The majority of Giardia intestinalis positive cases occurred in puppies (109/145, 75.2%) and kittens (19/36, 52.8%), making this parasite the most prevalent in amongst animals with diarrhea. Out of 117 positive infections in the adult dog population, ancylostomids accounted for 56 cases (47.9%) and was the most common parasite in this age group. In conclusion, although these results do not imply a cause and effect relationship, they are an estimate of the type of parasites that may be most commonly associated with diarrhea in dogs and cats. The lower diagnostic sensitivity of the traditional methods used here as compared to more contemporary techniques like fecal flotation with centrifugation and PCR, may have underestimated the actual prevalence and diminished the detection of co-infections. Future studies should aim to have diagnostic panels that also screen for other enteric pathogens, including bacterial and viral agents.
... Estimates of faecal Salmonella shedding have varied considerably across studies, depending on the animal population, geographic location and time of sample collection. Among dogs, the prevalence of faecal Salmonella shedding has ranged from approximately 1-20% for pet dogs (Hackett and Lappin, 2003;Leonard et al., 2011;Procter et al., 2014) to 70-90% for racing Greyhounds and sled dogs (Morley et al., 2006;McKenzie et al., 2010). Risk factors for Salmonella shedding among dogs include consumption of a raw meat diet and contact with livestock (Lefebvre et al., 2008;Leonard et al., 2011). ...
... Serial testing of canine faecal samples was not a feasible option for this study, and we recognize that some positive dogs were likely missed by culturing just a single faecal sample per dog. Estimates of prevalence of faecal Salmonella shedding among dogs have varied widely, ranging from approximately 1-90% (Hackett and Lappin, 2003;Morley et al., 2006;McKenzie et al., 2010;Leonard et al., 2011;Procter et al., 2014). Prevalence is generally at the low end of this range for pet dogs and at the high end for racing dogs or dogs that are fed raw meat, suggesting that lifestyle and diet are associated with Salmonella shedding. ...
Article
Estimates of prevalence of faecal Salmonella shedding among dogs in the United States have varied widely. Surveillance among shelter dogs has been limited, although dogs in animal shelters may be at elevated risk of Salmonella infection because of their previous exposure history as well as factors inherent to shelter environments. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella shedding among shelter dogs across Texas, to identify risk factors for shedding and to characterize the isolates. Using a repeated cross-sectional study design, we collected faecal samples from dogs on two or three visits to each of seven Texas animal shelters between May 2013 and December 2014. Standard bacteriologic culture methods were used to isolate Salmonella from samples, and isolates were characterized via serotyping and anti-microbial susceptibility testing. The prevalence of faecal Salmonella shedding among sampled dogs was 4.9% (27/554), and within-shelter prevalence ranged from 1.9% to 8.3%. There was a marginal association (P = 0.09) between watery faecal samples and positive Salmonella status, as estimated by a logistic regression model that controlled for shelter as a random effect. However, over 60% of Salmonella-positive dogs had grossly normal faeces. Salmonella prevalence did not vary significantly by age group or sex. The most common serovars were Newport (22%) and Javiana (15%), both of which were widespread among shelters. Resistance to anti-microbial agents was uncommon. The prevalence of faecal Salmonella shedding among shelter dogs in Texas appears to be comparable to that seen among pet dogs in general.
... Dogs may shed Salmonella at a prevalence range between 1% to 44% depending on location, population and the applied laboratory methodology (Greene et al. 1998, Finley et al. 2007, Reimschuessel et al. 2017. Risk factors including raw food diet, diarrhoea, home-made diets and antibiotics might influence the shedding of Salmonella either in healthy or diarrhoeic dogs (Hackett and Lappin 2003, Marks et al. 2011, Westermarck 2016, Reimschuessel 2017, Leonard et al. 2011, Stavisky et al. 2011. In Africa, recent reports have documented various Salmonella serovars in apparently healthy dogs with previous diarrhoea at a prevalence of 12% expressing a high rate of multi drug resistance (MDR) (Kiflu et al. 2017). ...
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The prevalence of Salmonella in dogs and cats was investigated and further characterized with serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility and risk factor analysis. In total, 151 faecal samples from 103 and 48 healthy and nonhealthy (diarrheic) cat and dogs, respectively were examined. Salmonellae were confirmed by laboratory and biomedical characteristics including serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility tests. Risk factors typically associated with salmonellae shedding were identified using Fisher’s exact tests. Salmonella was detected in 18% (n = 27/151) of pets. Most of the positive samples 85% (n =23/27) were from healthy cats, 7.4% (n = 2/27) from healthy dogs and 7.4% (n = 2/27) from a diarrhoeic cat and diarrhoeic dog. In total, 25 salmonellae (93% of strains) were serotyped as S. Thompson mostly originated form healthy cats (n = 23/25). All isolates were resistant to tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and expressed an overall intermediate susceptibility patterns to ciprofloxacin. Also, multidrug resistant S. Kentucky and S. Minnesota were identified from a diarrhoeic and a healthy dog, respectively. This is the first isolation report of Salmonella from cats and dogs in Libya. It indeed represents a public health concern which requires further monitoring
... Diarrhoea in dogs is a common occurrence with a myriad of causes (Hubbard et al., 2007) which if not promptly and properly treated could have fatal outcome. Canine Parvovirus (CPV) is considered by many researchers as the leading cause of diarrhoea in dogs under 6 months old (Hackett and Lappin, 2003;Prittie, 2004, Yesilbag et al., 2007, Schulz et al., 2008. Other clinical signs associated with CPV include acute vomiting, anorexia, haemorrhagic diarrhoea, dehydration and depression (Mitchell, 2015). ...
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Background Canine Parvovirus (CPV) in dogs has been documented in many countries. However, evidence of the infection is scanty in Ghana. This study was conducted to detect canine parvovirus antigen in dogs presented with diarrhoea to the Government Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Materials and Methods Faecal samples from 72 dogs presented with diarrhoea were tested for the presence of canine parvovirus antigen using commercially available rapid test kit (BIT® Rapid Colour Canine Parvovirus Ag Test Kit, BIOINDIST Co. Ltd, Korea) based on the principle of immunochromatography. Influence of breed, sex, age, vaccination history and the nature of diarrhoea were assessed. Data obtained was analysed with SPSS and subjected to the chi-square test. Significance was at α0.05 Results We found 61.11% tested positive (44/72) for CPV. Based on sex, 61.54% of males (20/33) and 60.61% of females tested positive (24/39). A total of 65.67% of samples from puppies below 6 months were positive. 56.25% of CPV vaccinated dogs and 70.83% of unvaccinated dogs were positive respectively. 69.05% of samples from haemorrhagic diarrhoeic dogs and 50.00% from non-haemorrhagic diarrhoeic dogs were positive of CPV. Conclusion The study is the first documented evidence of the existence of CPV in Ghana. It also revealed that absence of bloody diarrhoea does not necessarily rule out CPV infection.
... Additionally, a study done in our laboratory detected Cryptosporidium parvum (3.8%) and Giardia spp. (5.4%) in client-owned dogs from Colorado [3]. Giardia and Cryptosporidium are important causes of diarrhea in humans and animals worldwide. ...
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The prevalence of intestinal parasites and vector-borne agents of dogs and cats in the Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota were determined. Fecal samples (84 dogs, 9 cats) were examined by centrifugal floatation and by immunofluorescence assay (FA) for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. PCR was performed on Giardia [beta-giardin (bg), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase genes (gdh)] and Cryptosporidium [heat shock protein-70 gene (hsp)] FA positive samples. Cat sera (n = 32) were tested for antibodies against Bartonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and FIV, and antigens of FeLV and Dirofilaria immitis. Dog sera (n = 82) were tested for antibodies against T. gondii, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum and D. immitis antigen. Blood samples (92 dogs, 39 cats) were assessed by PCR for amplification of DNA of Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., haemoplasmas, and Babesia spp. (dogs only). The most significant results were Giardia spp. (32% by FA), Taenia spp. (17.8%) and Cryptosporidium spp. (7.1%). The Giardia isolates typed as the dog-specific assemblages C or D and four Cryptosporidium isolates typed as C. canis. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 15% of the dogs. Antibodies against Bartonella spp. and against T. gondii were detected in 37.5% and 6% of the cats respectively. FeLV antigen was detected in 10% of the cats.
... 10 Por el contrario en investigaciones realizadas en la ciudad de California y Colorado, USA y Zaragoza, España, se han informado prevalencias de 2 al 7%, y en el primero se observó mayor prevalencia en perros con diarrea, en dicho trabajo se utilizó la técnica de inmunofluorescencia para realizar el diagnóstico, mientras que en los demás se utilizaron técnicas similares a la empleada en este estudio. 9,10 Así mismo, en este trabajo se observó que el número de perros diagnosticados por C. parvum es mayor al número de perros diagnosticados por otras parasitosis gastrointestinales. Situación que se ha informado en diversos estudios que mencionan el cambio en la distribución de parásitos en perros y gatos siendo menor la prevalencia de helmintos y mayor la de parásitos como C. parvum. 2 Por este motivo es importante realizar esta técnica de forma rutinaria debido a que la infección por C. parvum en la mayoría de los casos puede cursar de forma asintomática; sin embargo, en animales jóvenes o inmunodeprimidos puede ser un enteropatógeno importante. 2 Debido su carácter zoonótico y la importancia de infecciones por Cryptosporidium en seres humanos, es importante también diagnosticarlo en animales de compañía que pueden actuar como reservorio de este agente, debido a que es una de las principales causas de diarrea intratable en pacientes con SIDA. ...
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Frecuencia de Cryptosporidium parvum en muestras fecales de perros remitidas a Patología, sección de Patología Clínica de la FMVZ-UNAM Frequency of Cryptosporidium parvum in fecal samples of dogs remitted to Pathology, clinical pathology area of FMVZ-UNAM Se utilizaron 32 muestras fecales de perros sanos y enfermos, hembras y machos, de edades y razas al azar, remitidas a Patología, sección de Patología Clínica de la FMVZ-UNAM para su análisis coproparasitoscópico, durante los meses de agosto a diciembre de 2004. Se realizaron las técnicas de flotación con solución saturada de NaCl o Sulfato de Zinc al 33% y a todas las muestras se les realizó la técnica de Kyn-Youn (ácido alcohol etílico resistente), así mismo, se registró si las heces eran diarreicas o no. Del total de las muestras remitidas, correspondieron a 43.8% hembras y 56.2% machos con edades entre cuatro meses y 19 años, con un promedio de cinco años y 40.6% presentó diarrea. Del total de las muestras examinadas 21.9% resultaron positivas a C. parvum, mientras que sólo 3.1% resultó positiva para Ancylostoma caninum. Todas las muestras positivas a C. parvum se encontraron en perros entre 10 meses y 12 años de edad con un promedio de cinco años, de los cuales 57.1% presentaba diarrea. ABSTRACT 32 fecal samples were used of healthy and sick, female or male dogs, of random age and breed, remitted to Pathology, clinical pathology area of FMVZ-UNAM for examination, during August to December 2004. Fecal flotation in saturated NaCl solution or 33% zinc sulfate solution were realized and in all the samples was made the Kyn-Youn technique, as soon as were registered if the feces were or not diarrheic. Of all samples 43.8% were females and 56.2% males with ages of 4 months and 19 years, with average of 5 years, 40.6% had diarrhea, 21.9% were positive to C. parvum whereas only 3.1 were positive to Ancylostoma caninum. All of the samples positive to C. parvum were found in dogs between 10 months and 12 years old, with average of 5 years, of this 57.1% were presented diarrhea.
... Dogs act as reservoirs of many parasites of zoonotic potential such as Taenia sp., hydatid tapeworm (Echinococcus sp.), Diphylidium caninum, dog roundworm (Toxocara canis), dog hookworm (Ancylostoma sp.), Giardia sp., and Cryptosporidium sp. (Abo-Shehada & Ziyadeh, 1991;Anene et al., 1996;Hackett & Lappin, 2003;Soriano, 2010). Therefore food and water contaminated with dog faeces and dog meat serve as the major sources involved in the intake of GI zoonotic parasites via oral route into the humans. ...
... In one study, however, the ZSCT was minimally more sensitive than the SNAP ® Giardia test (Costa et al., 2016). In a study by Sokolow et al. (2005), fecal flotation followed by microscopy significantly underestimated the prevalence of G. duodenalis compared to direct fluorescence microscopy and IFA-positive, ZSCT-negative samples were also observed in other studies (Hackett and Lappin, 2003;Rishniw et al., 2010). Previous studies (Zimmer and Burrington, 1986;Decock et al., 2003;Dryden et al., 2006) have also demonstrated that 2-3 consecutive ZSCT are more sensitive than a single ZSCT test, which was performed in this study. ...
Article
Five diagnostic tests were compared for the diagnosis of Giardia duodenalis in fecal samples of young dogs. Fecal samples were collected from 136 healthy dogs < 1 year old and examined using immunofluorescence antibody microscopy (IFA) after sucrose gradient centrifugation, zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation technique (ZSCT), SNAP®Giardia test, and ProSpecT®Giardia EZ Microplate assay. In addition, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the 16S rRNA gene was performed. Kappa (κ) statistic was calculated to assess diagnostic agreement between the IFA and each test. Using the IFA as the gold standard, the relative sensitivity and specificity of each test were determined. Subsequently, a Bayesian approach was used to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of each test in comparison to the IFA results. Giardia duodenalis was detected in 41% of the samples examined by IFA. The ZSCT resulted in 37% of positive samples, with a relative sensitivity and specificity of 86 and 98%, respectively. The SNAP®Giardia test was positive in 40% of the samples, with a relative sensitivity and specificity of 91 and 96%, respectively. The ProSpecT® test was positive in 51% of the samples, with a relative sensitivity and specificity of 100 and 83%, respectively. The relative sensitivity and specificity for PCR were 58 and 56%, respectively, with 55% of samples being PCR-positive. While the sensitivity and specificity estimates of each test in comparison to the IFA changed when using a Bayesian approach, the conclusions remained the same. While the ProSpecT® test was the most sensitive test in this study, it is not designed for dogs and more costly than the other tests. The SNAP®Giardia test performed similar to the ZSCT but may be more favorable because it is fast and easy to perform. Performance of the PCR was poor and the benefit of PCR may be in determining genotypes for evaluating zoonotic transfer between dogs and humans.
... Table 4 Salmonella serotype distribution and frequency of resistance to various antimicrobials Similarly, prevalence in dogs in Iran (13.2%), was comparable to the current finding [2]. However, studies in some developed countries showed much lower rates of Salmonella carriage compared to the present finding, for example, 0% in Canada [17]; 0.2% in UK [18], 1% in Turkey [19], and 2.3% in Colorado, USA [20]. The possible reason for the high prevalence of Salmonella in the current study and other previous studies compared to the ones conducted in developed countries could be due to differences in pet sanitary practices, feeding habit, difference in public awareness about dog zoonosis and socioeconomic status of the owners. ...
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Background The close bond between pet animals and family members poses risk of infection with zoonotic bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella. No data is available on occurrence of Salmonella in dogs in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence, serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from feces of apparently healthy dogs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Results Of the total 360 dogs examined, 42 (11.7%; 95% Confidence limit of 8.5%–15.4%) were positive for Salmonella. Fourteen serotypes were detected and the predominant ones were S. Bronx (n = 7; 16.7%), S. Newport (n = 6; 14.3%), followed by S. Typhimurium, S. Indiana, S. Kentucky, S. Saintpaul and S. Virchow (n = 4; 9.5%) each. Salmonella infection status was significantly associated with history of symptom of diarrhea during the past 60 days (OR = 3.78; CI = 1.76–8.13; p = 0). Highest resistance rates were found for oxytetracycline (59.5%), neomycin (50%), streptomycin (38.1%), cephalothin (33.3%), doxycycline (30.9%), ampicillin (30.9%) and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (26.2%). Thirty eight (90.5%) of the isolates were resistant or intermediately resistant to at least one of the 16 antimicrobials tested. Resistance to two or more antimicrobials was detected in 30 (71.4%) of the isolates. Resistance to three or more antimicrobials was detected in 19 (45.2%) of the isolates. Conclusion This study demonstrated high carriage rate of Salmonella serotypes known for causing human salmonellosis and large proportion of them were resistant to antimicrobials used in public and veterinary medicine for management of various bacterial infections, suggesting the possible risk of infection of human population in close contact with these dogs by drug resistant pathogens. Therefore, it is vital to work on raising public awareness on zoonotic canine diseases prevention measures and good hygienic practices.
... Appropriate development of neonate gut microbiota is likely essential for resistance to pathogens and decreased risk of neonatal mortality. Enteropathogens such as canine parvovirus and Giardia are frequent and serious health concerns for peri-weaning puppies, with clinical outcomes dependent on intestinal environment [20,21]. Limited data is available that uses next-generation sequencing to evaluate the progression of puppy fecal microbiota in the early stages of life. ...
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Limited information is available describing the development of the neonatal fecal microbiome in dogs. Feces from puppies were collected at 2, 21, 42, and 56 days after birth. Feces were also collected from the puppies' mothers at a single time point within 24 hours after parturition. DNA was extracted from fecal samples and 454-pyrosequencing was used to profile 16S rRNA genes. Species richness continued to increase significantly from 2 days of age until 42 days of age in puppies. Furthermore, microbial communities clustered separately from each other at 2, 21, and 42 days of age. The microbial communities belonging to dams clustered separately from that of puppies at any given time point. Major phylogenetic changes were noted at all taxonomic levels with the most profound changes being a shift from primarily Firmicutes in puppies at 2 days of age to a co-dominance of Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, and Firmicutes by 21 days of age. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between puppy microbiota development, physiological growth, neonatal survival, and morbidity. © 2017 Guard et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
... 8 Although puppies in conventional settings are exposed to myriad bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents, those in grouphoused settings are more likely to have diarrhea due to a viral or parasitic etiology. 7,9 In the research colonies we studied, puppies often develop diarrhea shortly after weaning. Pooled fecal samples have variably yielded Cystoisospora spp. on fecal flotation, but no correlation between coccidial colonization and diarrhea has been observed. ...
Article
Frequently just prior to or at weaning (approximate age, 6 to 8 wk), puppies in research settings often develop diarrheal disease, which may be due, in part, to an immature and unstable intestinal microbiota that is permissive to opportunistic pathogens. The overall objective of this study was to assess whether fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) increased the transmission of a stable maternal microbiota to pups and decreased the incidence of postweaning diarrhea. Puppies were designated by litter as treated (FMT) or sham-treated. The FMT group received fecal inoculum orally for 5 consecutive days during weaning (at 6 to 8 wk of age). Diarrhea was evaluated according to a published scoring system for 11 d during the weaning period. Fresh feces were collected from dams and puppies at 3 d before weaning and 3, 10, and 24 d after weaning for analysis of the fecal microbiota by using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. The composition of fecal inoculum refrigerated at 3 to 5 °C was stable for at least 5 d. No diarrhea was reported in either group during the study period, making comparison of treated and control groups problematic. However, 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed microbial variability across time in both groups. Therefore, although the fecal microbiota of neither group of puppies mirrored the dam at any of the designated time points, the data provided fundamental and novel information regarding the dynamic maturation process of the fecal microbiota of puppies after weaning. Copyright 2016 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.
... Greater human population density would, on average, be associated with a greater number of potential infectious contacts. Diarrhoea has been associated with a number of infectious agents (Hackett and Lappin, 2003;Parsons et al., 2010) and one might hypothesise that more of the diarrhoea reports than the vomiting had an infectious aetiology. ...
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Dogslife collects data directly from owners of Labrador Retrievers across the UK including information regarding signs of illness irrespective of whether the signs precipitated a veterinary visit. In December 2015, the cohort comprised 6084 dogs aged up to six years and their owners had made 2687 and 2601 reports of diarrhoea and vomiting respectively. The co-occurrence of vomiting and diarrhoea with other signs was described and the frequencies and durations of the two signs were examined with reference to veterinary visitation. Age-specific illness rates were described and Cox Proportional Hazards models were used to estimate risk factors. Just 37% of diarrhoea reports were associated with a veterinary visit and the proportion was even lower for vomiting at 28%; indicating that studies of veterinary practice data miss the majority of signs of gastrointestinal upset. In terms of frequency and duration, diarrhoea typically needed to last two days before the dog would be taken to the vet but if the dog vomited at least every six hours, the owner would be more likely to take the dog to the vet after one day. The illness rates of both signs peaked when the dogs were aged between three and six months. There was also a seasonal pattern to the incidents with the lowest hazards for both in May. Diarrhoea incidents peaked in August-September each year but, while vomiting appeared to be higher in September, it peaked in February. Having another dog in the household was associated with a lower hazard for both vomiting and diarrhoea but having a cat was only associated with a reduced hazard of vomiting. In addition to the distinct seasonal patterns of reporting, there were clear differences in the geographic risks for the two signs. The hazard of diarrhoea was positively associated with human population density within Great Britain (according to home post code) whereas no significant geographical association was found with vomiting. This study is particularly relevant for dog owners because it highlights the wealth of gastrointestinal illnesses in dogs that are dealt with by owners but never seen by veterinarians. The risk factor analyses make use of owner-reported demographic information, highlighting the differences between vomiting and diarrhoea. The analyses give rise to the possibility that the presence of other pets in households may affect rates of illness and indicate new avenues for investigations of these distinct, and oft-suffered conditions.
... Despite the high prevalence of parasitic infections, most animals were healthy with no obvious signs of suffering probably due to the low parasitic burden, as at least suggested by the low number of egg/(oo)cyst output recorded in most cases (even if usually there is not a clear correlation between numbers of eggs/(oo-)cysts and clinical signs). It was not statistically proven that recent records of diarrhoea were correlated to parasitism as also shown previously [54,55] although there was evidence that anthelmintic treatment had a positive effect on reducing such records. A supporting argument for the absence of clinical disease could be that the majority of animals were adults at the time of sampling. ...
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Background The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and infection intensity of intestinal parasites in different dog and cat populations in Crete, Greece, estimate the zoonotic risk and identify risk factors. Methods Faecal samples from shelter, household and shepherd dogs and shelter and household cats were analyzed using sedimentation/flotation techniques. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected by a quantitative direct immunofluorescence assay (IFA). PCR and sequencing was performed to evaluate the zoonotic potential of Giardia and Cryptosporidium positive samples. ResultsTotals of 879 dog and 264 cat faecal samples were examined. In dogs, the overall prevalence was 25.2% (CI: 22.4–28.1) for Giardia spp.; 9.2% (CI: 7.3–11.1) for Ancylostoma/Uncinaria spp.; 7.6% (CI: 5.9–9.4) for Toxocara spp.; 5.9% (CI: 4.4–7.5) for Cryptosporidium spp.; 4.6% (CI: 3.2–5.9) for Cystoisospora spp.; 2.7% (CI: 1.7–3.8) for Toxascaris leonina; 1.7% (CI: 0.9–2.6) for Capillaria spp.; 0.8% (CI: 0.2–1.4) for taeniid eggs; 0.2% (CI: 0–0.5) for Dipylidium caninum; and 0.1% (CI: 0–0.3) for Strongyloides stercoralis. In cats, the prevalence was 20.5% (CI: 15.6–25.3) for Giardia spp.; 9.5% (CI: 5.9–13.0) for Cystoisospora spp.; 8.3% (CI: 5.0–11.7) for Toxocara spp.; 7.6% (CI: 4.4–10.8) for Ancylostoma/Uncinaria spp.; 6.8% (CI: 3.8–9.9) for Cryptosporidium spp.; 4.2% (CI: 1.8–6.6) for Capillaria spp.; 0.8% (CI: 0–1.8) for taeniid eggs; and 0.4% (CI: 0–1.1) for Hammondia/Toxoplasma. Concerning the risk factors evaluated, there was a negative association between age and Giardia infection and between age and T. leonina infection intensity for dogs. Sequencing results revealed the presence of mainly animal-specific G. duodenalis assemblages C and D in dogs and assemblages F, C and BIV-like in cats, with only a limited number of (co-)infections with assemblage A. As for Cryptosporidium, the dog-specific C. canis and the pig-specific C. scrofarum were detected in dogs and the cat-specific C. felis was detected in cats. Conclusions High levels of parasitism in both dogs and cats were recorded. Giardia was the most prevalent parasite in all dog and cat populations except for shepherd dogs. Genotyping results suggest a limited zoonotic risk of Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections from dogs and cats in Crete. Taeniid eggs were more prevalent in shepherd dogs suggesting access to carcasses and posing a threat for cystic echinococcosis transmission. Infection rates of Toxocara spp. in both dogs and cats show that companion animals could be a significant source of infection to humans.
... Firstly, puppies are frequently infected by different agents (Table 1) but the presence of an enteropathogen is not always associated with signs of a gastrointestinal problem. In fact, 18-54% of dogs can excrete parasites or viruses without developing clinical signs (5,10,11). ...
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... For instance, overall sub-clinical Salmonella shedding in our study (5.5%) is in line with the report of Amadi et al. [44] and Leahy et al. [20] from Grenada (5.6%) and USA (4.9%), respectively. In contrary to our finding, studies showed lower sub-clinical carriage, such as: 0% [45]; 2.3% [46]; 1% [26]; 1.2% [47]; and 0.2% [48] from New Zealand, USA, Turkey, Canada, and United Kingdom, respectively. This indicates the fact that owners in developed countries may be more focused on the importance of hygiene and make use of the available [15]; and 17.1% [38] from USA, Iran, Northeastern Nigeria, Thailand, Addis Ababa, and Holeta town of Ethiopia, respectively. ...
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Background Dogs are one of the important asymptomatic carriers of antimicrobial resistant and potentially pathogenic strains of Salmonella. They can harbor large bacterial load in the intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes which can be shed in their feces with the possibility of transmission to humans. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted with the objectives of estimating the prevalence of non-typhoidal Salmonella, assessing the risk factors for dog’s Salmonella carriage, and profiling the antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella isolates among housed dogs in Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia. A total of 415 rectal swab samples were collected from randomly selected dogs. Samples were examined for non-typhoidal Salmonella using standard bacteriologic culture and biochemical tests. The disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test) was employed to evaluate the isolates for their susceptibility against five antimicrobials. Results Non-typhoidal Salmonella were isolated from 26 (6.3%) of the rectal swab samples, with significantly higher occurrence in diarrheic (15.2%) than non-diarrheic (5.5%) dogs. The risk of Salmonella harboring was significantly higher in female dogs than in male dogs (OR = 2.5, p = 0.027). Dogs fecal shedding of Salmonella was relatively higher in households who used offal as a main feed type for their dogs (23.1%; 95% CI = 5–53.8) than those who used leftover food (10.1%; 95% CI = 5.7–16.1) and practiced mixed feeding system (17%; 95% CI = 7.6–30.8). Salmonella isolates showed higher resistance to ampicillin (41.7%), while all isolates were fully susceptible to gentamicin. Moreover, 58.3% of Salmonella isolates showed resistance to at least one of the tested antimicrobials. Majorities (72.7%) of the dog owners had no awareness on the risk of zoonotic salmonellosis from dog and all of the respondents use bare hand to clean dog kennel. Conclusion Our study reveals the importance of both diarrheic and apparently healthy housed dogs in the harboring and shedding of antimicrobial resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella. The risk of non-typhoidal Salmonella spread among pet owners is not negligible, especially in households who use offal as main feed type. Therefore, an integrated approach such as: proper dog handling practices; continuous evaluation of antimicrobial resistance; and rational use of antimicrobials in the field of veterinary sector are necessary to tackle the problem.
... Prevalence adjusted test agreement was calculated using the following formula: agreement = prevalence × sensitivity + (1prevalence) × specificity. In this calculation, we used the prevalence (5.4%) found for client-owned symptomatic dogs presented to a veterinary hospital as determined by a monoclonal antibody-based immunofluorescent antibody assay [12]. ...
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Background: We examined the performance of four in-clinic Giardia diagnostic tests by comparing results to three laboratory methods for detection of Giardia. A set of 177 fecal samples originally submitted to a commercial laboratory by veterinarians for routine ova and parasite (O&P) testing was used. Specimens were examined by direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA) for presence of Giardia cysts which served as the gold standard. Fecal samples were tested using a Giardia-specific cyst wall antigen microtiter plate format enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and each of the in-clinic assays adhering to the package insert for each kit. Results: Evaluated were four in-clinic antigen test kits: VetScan® Canine Giardia Rapid Test (Abaxis), Anigen® Rapid CPV-CCV-Giardia Antigen Test (BioNote), SNAP® Giardia Test (IDEXX) and Witness® Giardia Test (Zoetis). In the comparison of the in-clinic tests to the DFA standard test sensitivity ranged between 70.0-87.1%, and specificity ranged between 71.1-93.4%. Conclusion: Of the tests evaluated here, the SNAP test had the highest sensitivity and specificity. The SNAP test had the highest percent positive and percent negative agreement when compared to the microtiter plate format ELISA and the O&P assay.
... Despite the high prevalence of parasitic infections, most animals were healthy with no obvious signs of suffering probably due to the low parasitic burden, as at least suggested by the low number of egg/(oo)cyst output recorded in most cases (even if usually there is not a clear correlation between numbers of eggs/(oo-)cysts and clinical signs). It was not statistically proven that recent records of diarrhoea were correlated to parasitism as also shown previously (Hill et al., 2000;Hackett et al., 2003) although there was evidence that anthelmintic treatment had a positive effect on reducing such records. ...
... 32,42 However, it has also commonly been isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of asymptomatic individuals. 7,8,27,45 The Campylobacter in this case was not speciated, therefore, it is not known if the strain present was considered pathogenic or non-pathogenic. However, it was ruled out as the cause of disease in these cases as the intestinal pathology was consistent with a viral aetiology. ...
... The frequency and severity of clinical disease varies greatly with the parasite species involved, host age, nutritional condition, and immunity [7,9]. However, infected dogs with no clinical signs remain an important contributor and relevant risk factor for environmental contamination and further transmission to other susceptible hosts [4,10,11]. Therefore, annual fecal analysis for GI parasite infections should be standard even in dogs showing no clinical signs and/or on routine parasite preventive products [12]. Several methods are available to diagnose parasitic infections in companion animals. ...
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Background Companion animal endoparasites play a substantial role in both veterinary medicine and public health. Updated epidemiological studies are necessary to identify trends in occurrence and distribution of these parasites, and their associated risk factors. This study aimed to assess the occurrence of canine endoparasites retrospectively, using fecal flotation test data available through participating academic veterinary parasitology diagnostic laboratories across the United States of America (USA). Methods Canine fecal flotation records from ten veterinary diagnostic laboratories located in nine states in the USA acquired from January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2018, were included. Results A total of 4692 fecal flotation test results were obtained, with a majority comprised of client-owned dogs (3262; 69.52%), followed by research dogs (375; 8.00%), and shelter dogs (122; 2.60%). Samples from 976 (20.80%) dogs were positive for at least one parasite, and co-infections of two or more parasites were found in 3.82% (179/4692) of the samples. The five most commonly detected parasites were: Giardia sp., (8.33%; 391/4692), Ancylostomatidae (5.63%; 264/4692), Cystoisospora spp. (4.35%; 204/4692), Toxocara canis (2.49%;117/4692), and Trichuris vulpis (2.43%; 114/4692). Various other internal parasites, including gastrointestinal and respiratory nematodes, cestodes, trematodes, and protozoans were detected in less than 1% of samples. Conclusions These data illustrate the importance of parasite prevention, routine fecal screening, and treatment of pet dogs. Additionally, pet owners should be educated about general parasite prevalence, prevention, and anthelmintic treatment regimens to reduce the risks of environmental contamination and zoonotic transmission. Graphical Abstract
... In southern Italy, Cinquepalmi et al. [38] did not isolate salmonellae in the feces of 418 dogs, and Tarsitano et al. [49] did not find Salmonella spp. in 152 canine fecal samples collected in different public spaces. Moreover, other surveys carried to verify the occurrence of Salmonella spp. in healthy dogs found low prevalences [50][51][52]. No dogs were found positive for Campylobacter sp. in our investigation. ...
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Off-leash dog parks are designated public spaces where dogs can move freely, under their owners’ supervision. These areas, allowing animals to socialize and move freely, are fundamental for dogs’ welfare. However, different pathogens, even zoonotic, may be excreted by the attending animals and contaminate the environment. The aim of the present study was to verify the occurrence of bacterial, fungal and parasitic pathogens in off-leash dog parks located in Florence (central Italy). Between March and May 2019, 83 fecal samples, 43 soil samples and 23 water samples (from fountains and puddles) collected from 26 off-leash fenced areas were examined. Fecal samples scored positive for Yersinia spp. (n=7), Listeria innocua (n=4), Toxocara canis eggs (n=2) and Ancylostoma caninum/Uncinaria stenocephala eggs (n=1). Keratinophilic geophilic fungi (mostly Microsporum gypseum /A. incurvatum) were recovered from 43 soil samples belonging to 23 out of 26 parks, along with Microsporum canis in a single case. Prototheca spp. was never isolated from water samples, while Trichosporon sp. was cultured in two cases, alone and in association with Geotrichum candidum. These results show that dogs did not act as important carriers for the investigated bacterial and parasitic pathogens, although examined areas may represent a risk for the spreading of some dermatophytoses to both pets and their owners. Periodical examinations to assess the main bacteriological, parasitological and mycological pathogens in different samples collected in off-leash dog parks should be carried out in a One-Health perspective.
... (B). Service animals (e.g., dogs) may occasionally be colonized or infected with pathogens such as S. aureus, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Salmonella, or Campylobacter jejuni (50,64). While enteric pathogens have been recovered from feces of dogs, it is not clear how often such organisms would be found on the fur/coat of dogs. ...
Article
Suboptimal food worker health and hygiene has been a common contributing factor in foodborne disease outbreaks for many years. Despite clear U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Model Food Code recommendations for hand washing and glove use, food worker compliance with hand washing recommendations has remained poor for >20 years. Food workers' compliance with recommended hand washing guidelines is adversely impacted by a number of barriers, including complaints of time pressure, inadequate number and/or location of hand washing sinks and hand washing supplies, lack of food knowledge and training regarding hand washing, the belief that wearing gloves obviates the need for hand washing, insufficient management commitment, and adverse skin effects caused by frequent hand washing. Although many of the issues related to poor hand washing practices in food service facilities are the same as those in health care settings, a new approach to health care hand hygiene was deemed necessary >15 years ago due to persistently low compliance rates among health care personnel. Evidence-based hand hygiene guidelines for health care settings were published by both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2002 and by the World Health Organization in 2009. Despite similar low hand washing compliance rates among retail food establishment workers, no changes in the Food Code guidelines for hand washing have been made since 2001. In direct contrast to health care settings, where frequent use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHSs) in lieu of hand washing has improved hand hygiene compliance rates and reduced infections, the Food Code continues to permit the use of ABHSs only after hands have been washed with soap and water. This article provides clear evidence to support modifying the FDA Model Food Code to allow the use of ABHSs as an acceptable alternative to hand washing in situations where heavy soiling is not present. Emphasis on the importance of hand washing when hands are heavily soiled and appropriate use of gloves is still indicated. Highlights:
... However, many canine Salmonella infections remain subclinical. The prevalence of Salmonella shedding among dogs is extremely variable, ranging from approximately 1%-20% for pet dogs (Hackett & Lappin, 2003;Leonard et al., 2011;Procter et al., 2014) to 70%-90% for racing Greyhounds and sled dogs (McKenzie et al., 2010;Morley et al., 2006). Risk factors for canine Salmonella shedding include ingestion of a raw meat diet, receipt of an antibiotic or probiotic, living in a rural environment and contact with livestock (Lefebvre, Reid-Smith, Boerlin, & Weese, 2008;Leonard et al., 2011;Reimschuessel et al., 2017). ...
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Dogs are a potential source of zoonotic Salmonella transmission. We had previously estimated the prevalence of Salmonella shedding among shelter dogs throughout Texas using a repeated cross‐sectional study design. Our current objectives were to fully characterize the Salmonella isolates and to assess their relatedness, using whole‐genome sequencing. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes were detected in 4/27 (15%) of the isolates. The fosfomycin resistance gene fosA7 was identified in two isolates; to our knowledge, there are no published reports of this gene in canine Salmonella isolates. The biocide resistance gene qacEdelta1, conferring resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds, was detected in an isolate that had four additional AMR genes. The most frequently identified serotypes were Newport (6/27, 22%) and Javiana (4/27, 15%), both of which were widespread among animal shelters. For these serotypes, there was evidence of both transmission of Salmonella within the shelter environment and separate introductions of Salmonella into a shelter. Several canine Salmonella isolates were closely related to human clinical isolates (four canine isolates within 10 SNPs and six more within 20 SNPs), suggesting a shared pathogen population. Educational outreach programmes targeting animal shelter workers would be useful for optimizing knowledge of Salmonella and other canine‐associated zoonotic pathogens. The objectives of this study were to fully characterize Salmonella isolates obtained from shelter dogs throughout Texas and to assess their relatedness, using whole‐genome sequencing. We found evidence of both transmission of Salmonella within the shelter environment and separate introductions of Salmonella into a shelter. Several canine Salmonella isolates were closely related to human clinical isolates, demonstrating the overlap between canine and human pathogens.
... A total of 114 papers were included based on the results of the systematic review, which are described in the appendix (S3 and S4 Tables). Of these, 50 of the papers were from the USA [19][20][21][22][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64], 26 were from the UK [16,25,, 19 were from other European countries [15,[90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99], 15 were from Canada [100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108][109][110][111][112][113][114][115][116][117][118][119], two were from Australia [120,121], and one was from New Zealand [122] (S4 Table). The populations investigated were most frequently veterinary patients, of which there were 45 studies, and animals in contact with the public, which were the population of interest in 44 studies. ...
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Animal contact is a potential transmission route for campylobacteriosis, and both domestic household pet and petting zoo exposures have been identified as potential sources of exposure. Research has typically focussed on the prevalence, concentration, and transmission of zoonoses from farm animals to humans, yet there are gaps in our understanding of these factors among animals in contact with the public who don't live on or visit farms. This study aims to quantify, through a systematic review and meta-analysis, the prevalence and concentration of Campylobacter carriage in household pets and petting zoo animals. Four databases were accessed for the systematic review (PubMed, CAB direct, ProQuest, and Web of Science) for papers published in English from 1992-2012, and studies were included if they examined the animal population of interest, assessed prevalence or concentration with fecal, hair coat, oral, or urine exposure routes (although only articles that examined fecal routes were found), and if the research was based in Canada, USA, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Studies were reviewed for qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis by two reviewers, compiled into a database, and relevant studies were used to create a weighted mean prevalence value. There were insufficient data to run a meta-analysis of concentration values, a noted study limitation. The mean prevalence of Campylobacter in petting zoo animals is 6.5% based on 7 studies, and in household pets the mean is 24.7% based on 34 studies. Our estimated concentration values were: 7.65x103cfu/g for petting zoo animals, and 2.9x105cfu/g for household pets. These results indicate that Campylobacter prevalence and concentration are lower in petting zoo animals compared with household pets and that both of these animal sources have a lower prevalence compared with farm animals that do not come into contact with the public. There is a lack of studies on Campylobacter in petting zoos and/or fair animals in Canada and abroad. Within this literature, knowledge gaps were identified, and include: a lack of concentration data reported in the literature for Campylobacter spp. in animal feces, a distinction between ill and diarrheic pets in the reported studies, noted differences in shedding and concentrations for various subtypes of Campylobacter, and consistent reporting between studies.
... Canine parvovirus infection is considered an important problem affecting dogs at an early stage of life and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, it causes fever, diarrhea, vomiting and severe dehydration which predisposing to acute kidney injury (Nan et al., 2018). It is considered the main cause of diarrhea in dogs less than 6 months of age (Hackett and Lappin, 2003;Prittie, 2004;Yesilbag et al., 2007;Schulz et al., 2008). It usually affects dogs at any age, although puppies are more susceptible between 6 weeks and 6 months of age (Godsall et al., 2010;Iris et al., 2010). ...
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To evaluate the effect of canine parvovirus infection on hematological and biochemical parameters in dogs, forty-two dogs aged 2 - 9 months admitted to the Veterinary Hospital at Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University and private clinics at Sharqia governorate between August 2018 and August 2019 were included in the present study. The canine parvovirus infected dogs (n=32) were positive for the rapid CPV Ag test kit with clinical signs of fever, diarrhea, vomiting, depression and anorexia. Hematological examination in canine parvovirus infected dogs showed decreased hemoglobin, RBCs, PCV% and leukocytes due to lymphopenia and neutropenia compared to healthy control dogs (n=10). The ALT, AST, globulin, alkaline phosphatase and serum creatinine significantly increased. After treatment of infected dog with intravenous fluid therapy, antibiotics, anti-emetics, hematological and biochemical parameters were improved after recovery. We concluded that, canine parvovirus infection has an effect on the hematological and biochemical findings dogs.
... A criptosporidiose é uma zoonose de caráter cosmopolita, sendo relatadas formas sintomática e assintomáticas em cães (GREENE et al., 1990;El-AHRAF et al., 1991), o que assume grande importância, pois podem constituir uma potencial fonte de infecção humana (HACKETT et al., 2003). Relativamente poucos são os estudos referentes a esta protozoose em cães, principalmente porque muitos desses animais são aparentemente saudáveis (HUBER et al., 2005). ...
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Parasitas intestinais em cães provenientes dos biomas do nordeste brasileiro: aspecto zoonótico e ambiental O papel do cão como um hospedeiro definitivo de parasitoses intestinais com potencial zoonótico tem sido largamente reconhecido como um problema de saúde pública. Este trabalho analisou a prevalência e distribuição de enteroparasitas em fezes de cães de rua de oito cidades dos diferentes biomas nordestinos, com interesse de investigar a contaminação ambiental por enteroparasitas zoonóticos. 340 amostras fecais foram coletadas nos municípios de João Lisboa e Raposa (Maranhão), Piripiri e Domingos Mourão (Piauí), Fortaleza (Ceará), Petrolina (Pernambuco), Paulo Afonso e Salvador (Bahia). Deste total 43,2% resultaram positivas para alguma espécie de parasita intestinal. Maiores prevalências foram encontradas por ancilostomídeos com 43,5%, seguidos por Toxocara canis com 15%, Neospora sp. com 10,2% e Cryptosporidium sp. com 8,2%. Analisando a porcentagem de positividade por enteroparasitas nos quatro biomas da região Nordeste, o bioma Mata Atlântica foi o que apresentou maior prevalência (54,9%), seguido da Amazônia (54,3%), Caatinga (40,2%) e Cerrado (31,8%). O estudo da ocorrência e distribuição desses parasitas contribui com a vigilância epidemiológica das doenças enteroparasitárias e na aplicação de programas de saúde pública e veterinária para minimizarem a possibilidade de infecção e reinfecção dos animais e a transmissão para seres humanos. Intestinal parasites in dogs from northeast brazilian biomes: zoonotic and environmental aspects The role of the dog as a definitive host of intestinal parasitic diseases with zoonotic potential has been widely recognized as a public health problem. This study analyzed the prevalence and distribution of enteroparasites in feces of street dogs from eight cities of the different northeastern biomes, with the aim to study the environmental contamination by zoonotic enteroparasites. Fecal samples were collected in the municipalities of João Lisboa and Raposa (Maranhão), Piripiri and Domingos Mourão (Piauí), Fortaleza (Ceará), Petrolina (Pernambuco), Paulo Afonso and Salvador (Bahia). Of these samples, 43.2% for some kind of intestinal parasite were positive. Higher prevalences by hookworms with 43.5% were found, followed by Toxocara canis with 15%, Neospora sp. with 10.2% and Cryptosporidium sp. with 8.2%. Analyzing the percentage of positivity by enteroparasites in the four biomes of the Northeast region, The Atlantic Forest biome was the most prevalent (54.9%), followed by the Amazon (54.3%), the Caatinga (40.2%) and the Cerrado (31.8%). The study of the occurrence and distribution of these parasites contributes to the epidemiological surveillance of enteroparasitary diseases and to the application of public and veterinary health programs to minimize the possibility of infection and reinfection of the animals and the transmission to humans.
... 11 La publicación local sobre la prevalencia de toxocariasis en perros es escasa o ninguna, comparada con publicaciones similares de otros países. 5,6,[12][13][14][15] La prevalencia de T. canis puede determinarse examinando la materia fecal de perros en diferentes situaciones, ya sea perros domésticos, de perreras comerciales, de clínicas veterinarias, perros utilizados para objetivos militares y en la policía de fronteras, de autopsias, recogiendo heces frescas de la calle; o bien examinando muestras de tierra de parques, lugares públicos frecuentados por perros o patios de casas donde conviven perros o por una combinación de enfoques. Para crear estrategias de prevención efectivas, se necesitan conocimientos epidemiológicos y biológicos peculiares al lugar, así como determinar factores de riesgo para adquirir toxocariasis en cada lugar geográfico. ...
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RESUMEN. Antecedente. Un caso de toxocariasis humana motivó investigar toxocariasis y otras zoonosis en perros en Honduras. Objetivo. Documentar prevalencia de Toxocara canis y otras zoonosis en perros mascotas, de una perrera comercial y de la calle. Metodología. Durante 12 meses no consecutivos (marzo 2012-octubre 2013) un parasitólogo y alumnos de medicina colaboraron en obtener muestras de heces de mascotas (n= 82), de una perrera comercial (n= 69) y de perros ambulantes (n= 56) de Tegucigalpa, Tatumbla, Zambrano y Danlí. Una preparación directa, un método de concentración por flotación pasiva con solución salina hipertónica en todas y coloración ácido resistente en 18 muestras fueron examinadas al microscopio en el Servicio de Parasitología del Hospital Escuela Universitario Resultados. En 34.7% (72/207) de las muestras se identificaron parásitos intestinales, mayor porcentaje entre perros de la calle (36/56, 64.2%) que en la perrera comercial (44.9%, 31 casos) o en mascotas 18.2% (15 casos). La prevalencia general de toxocariasis fue 3.8% (8 casos): cinco (8.9%) en perros de la calle, 2 en perros con dueño (2.4%) y uno en la perrera (1.4%). Ancilostomiasis (42/207, 20.2%) prevaleció en perros de la calle (28 casos, 50%), en mascotas (14.6%, 12 casos) y dos casos (2.8%) en la perrera. En 5.9% (11 muestras) había quistes de Giardia duodenalis; huevos de Trichuris vulpis, ooquistes de una especie de apicomplexa y una especie de tricomonas representaron 0.9%, 5.9% y 3.3% de infección, respectivamente y dos cestodiasis (0.9%). Conclusión. El hallazgo de toxocariasis en perros en Honduras crea la necesidad de mejorar la capacidad diagnóstica clínica y laboratorial de toxocariasis humana y estimular mayor participación veterinaria en el control de zoonosis en animales domésticos. Palabras clave. Honduras, perros, Toxocara canis, toxocariasis, zoonosis. ABSTRACT. Background. A case of human toxocariasis prompted a study of Toxocara canis and other zoonosis in dogs in Honduras. Objective. Document the prevalence of T. canis in pets, in a commercial dog kennel and free-roaming dogs in Tegucigalpa, Tatumbla, Zambrano and Danli. Methodology. During 12 non consecutive months (March 2012-Oct 2013) a parasitologist and medical students collaborated in the collection and examination of fresh fecal samples of dogs from owners (n=82), a commercial kennel (n= 69) and street dogs (n= 52). Stools were transported to and examined microscopically at the Parasitology Service of the University Hospital by a direct smear, and concentration by passive hypertonic saline flotation in all and stained by acid resistant modified method in 18 samples. Results. A total of 34.7% (72/207) feces were positive for different parasitic infections, street dogs more infected (36, 64.2%) than kennel dogs (31, 44.9%) or domestic pets (15, 18.2%). Overall T. canis infection prevalence was 3.8%, with 8.9% (5 cases) in street dogs, 2.4% (2 cases) in pets and 1.4% (one case) in the kennel. Ancylostomiasis (42 /207, 20.2%) was more prevalent in street dogs (28 cases, 50%) and pets (14.6%, 12 cases), than the kennel (2.8%, 2 cases). Giardia duodenalis cysts were recognized in 11 samples (5.9%) as were Trichuris vulpis eggs (0.9%), apicomplexan oocysts (5.9%) and a trichomonad species (3.3%), as were two cestode infections (0.9%). Conclusion. First documented T. canis cases and other zoonotic infections in dogs in Honduras exposed the need to develop better clinical and laboratory capacity to diagnose and treat human toxocariasis and stimulate veterinary participation for the control of zoonosis in dogs in Honduras. Keywords. Dogs, Honduras, toxocariasis, Toxocara canis, zoonosis.
... This virus may infect all age groups of dogs but high affinity among puppies of 3 month of age and unvaccinated puppies (Behera et al., 2015, Godsall et al., 2010. Canine Parvovirus (CPV) is considered by many researchers as the leading cause of diarrhoea in young dogs (6 week to 6 month), unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated dogs are most susceptible (Hackett and Lappin 2003, Prittie 2004, Yesilbag et al., 2007, Folitse et al., 2017. ...
... was the infection rate with T. canis (Hackett and Lappin, 2003). Also, Nobel et al. (2004) found that the infection rate with T. canis eggs was 8.5% when they examined 224 faecal samples from dogs in Natherland. ...
Thesis
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Chapter One of this thesis, includes a general introduction that covers all the sources associated with Toxocara canis distribution in the world, the distribution of toxocariasis and prevalence in animals hosts, the main environmental source of Toxocara , and the conditions that determine its distribution. Those sources, also, show various immunodiagnostic methods of toxocariasis and refer to previous studies of parasite in Iraq, in general, and in Basrah, in particular. Chapter Two outlines the results of an epidemiological study from the period of January 2003 till December 2004 which includes killing and dissecting of 117 stray dogs to detect their infection with T. canis in three main stations at Basrah city: the northern station includes Garmat Ali and University of Basrah, the southern station includes Al-Saraji and the central station includes the city center, Basrah Veterinary Hospital, gas stations and some public gardens. Then, the mean intensity of infection and the percentage of infection were measured monthly in the three stations under study. Chapter Three consists of T. canis worms collection and preparation of T. canis antigens from adult worms (crude and purified on Sephadex G–200 colunm chromatography), and eggs crude antigen. Moreover, preparation and purification of larval antigens from second stage larvae (purifed excretory/ secretory antigens E/S and partially purified tegumental antigens TES) were done. First, larvae in eggs were collected and then cultured in RPMI 1640 media. After that, second stage larvae were collected and cultured. The protein concentration of the above antigens was measured. In Chapter Four, an immunological study was carried out by using indirect haemagglutination test (IHAT) for diagnosis of T. canis infection in a definitive host, i.e. dogs and paratenic host (mice) by using antigens which were Summary [II] prepared in Chapter Three. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive value were measured. Chapter Five aimed at a sero-immunological survey to detect the infection with human toxocariasis by using a sample collected from two different regions in Basrah city (Garmat Ali and Al-Saraji) in which the existence of the parasite in the intestine of examined stray dogs was mentioned. IHAT was used as an immunodiagnostic test which gave a high positive value in people at these regions, especially those who keep dogs in their houses. Chapter Six was conducted on to detect of infection by using mice as murine model which were experimentally infected with 2 nd stage larvae of T. canis. Two different doses were used for infection during two different periods. Larvae in the organs of infected mice (liver, spleen, lung and other organs) were recovered and enumerated. Besides, the weight of liver, spleen as well as the weight of the total body were recorded. The liver and spleen indices as a sign of immunological response, were measured. Eosinophil counts from infected and control groups of mice were determined. In Chapter Seven, other parasitic helminths, which are found in the dog’s intestine, were recorded with new record of some kinds of them. The monthly percentage and mean intensity of infection with cestodes, nematodes and mixed infection were measured according to the stations of collection which were mentioned in Chapter Two. Chapter Eight dealt with the concluding discussion that this thesis outlined.
... In animals with diarrhea the prevalence of Salmonella spp. ranges from 0 to 3.5% in dogs (Van Duijkeren and Houwers, 2002;Hackett and Lappin, 2003) and from 0 to 8.6% in cats (Immerseel et al., 2004). The prevalence of Salmonella spp. in stray or shelter dogs and cats is 0-51.4% (Spain et al., 2001;Kocabiyik et al., 2006). ...
Article
Dogs and cats play an important role in modern soci ety, enhancing the psychological and physiological well-being of many people. However, there are well- documented health risks associated with human animal interactions. More specifically, enteric pat hogens of zoonotic risk which are transmitted by fe ces of dogs and cats can be grouped as follows: (a) Par asites such as Toxocara canis , T. cati , Ancylostoma sp, Uncinaria sp, Strongyloides stercoralis , Echinococcus granulosus , E. multilocularis and Dipylidium caninum (b) Protozoa including Toxoplasma gondii, Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. (c) Bacteria of the genera Clostridium , Campylobacter, Salmonella, Escherichia, Yersinia and Helicobacter and (d) Viruses mainly Rotaviruses and Coronaviruses . Among them, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Rotaviruses , Toxoplasma gondii, Echinococcus have been reported to be of considerable importanc e for many countries including Greece. Even though offici al records of the cases in humans and livestock in Greece continuously decline, cystic echinococcosis is considered to be a serious problem for public health and livestock economy. Regarding other paras ites, the overall prevalence of parasitism was 26% in owned shepherd and hunting dogs examined in Serres. Furthermore, seroepidemiological studies revealed the presence of antibodies against T. gondii in a considerable percentage of hospitalized child ren. Rotaviruses were confirmed as a major cause of acute gastroent eritis in children. Finally, bacterial zoonotic enteropathogens were identified in a notab le number of pediatric cases. Most of these zoonose s are associated with the exposure of immunodeficient people or children to pets and/or conditions of po or hygiene. Studies on the presence of all these patho gens in animals are required to identify the extent of problem, to define control strategies and evaluate their effectiveness.
Chapter
The knowledge of canine and feline intestinal microbiota is relatively scarce and based mainly on data from laboratory animals, on responses to dietary interventions, or on animals suffering from chronic intestinal disorders believed to be of bacterial nature. Most of the studies are performed on quite low numbers of animals that were often sacrificed and samples of intestinal material collected post-mortem (1,2).
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Los parásitos zoonóticos intestinales que parasitan al perro constituyen un problema de salud pública en diferentes países. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la presencia de infección por Cryptosporidium spp., y otros enteroparásitos zoonóticos en perros domiciliados de la Ciudad de México. Se analizaron 183 muestras de materia fecal mediante extendido fecal coloreado con Ziehl Neelsen modificada y se realizaron CPS por el método de Faust. Para definir la asociación entre variables se emplearon las pruebas de chi-cuadrado y exacta de Fisher. El nivel de infección alcanzó 21,3% (n = 39), con uno o más parásitos. La frecuencia y porcentaje de la infección por Cryptosporidium spp., T. canis y Ancylostomideos fue de 21 (11,5%), 11 (6%) y 7 (3,8%), respectivamente. El nivel de infección de Cryptosporidium spp. fue significativamente mayor en razas de pelo largo. T. canis se detectó en 6% y Ancylostoma spp. en 3,8%. La asociación de Cryptosporidium spp. y T. canis fue P < 0,05. Esta misma asociación se observó en la delegación de Contreras con P < 0,012 y en Tlalpan P < 0,0000. El nivel de infección de Cryptosporidium spp. y T. canis fue significativamente mayor en perros jóvenes que en adultos (P < 0,016). Se concluye que se comprobó la presencia de Cryptosporidium spp. y geohelmintos en perros domiciliados de la Ciudad de México. La convivencia con animales parasitados es un riesgo de adquirir zoonosis. Los perros, especialmente de pelo largo, en hogares de personas inmunodeficientes, deben ser evaluados frecuentemente en búsqueda de parásitos intestinales zoonóticos. El nivel de infección de Cryptosporidium spp., T. canis y Ancylostomideos es un indicador de la contaminación del suelo y del riesgo de adquirir estos parásitos.
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Background: Fecal calprotectin and immunoglobulin A (IgA) are markers of intestinal inflammation and immunity in adult dogs. Hypothesis: Fecal calprotectin and IgA concentrations in puppies are not influenced by fecal moisture in puppies but by enteropathogen shedding. Animals: Three hundred and twenty-four puppies. Methods: Fecal consistency was assessed by gross examination. Fecal moisture was evaluated before and after lyophilization. Canine parvovirus and coronavirus were detected in feces by qPCR and qRT-PCR respectively. Giardia intestinalis antigen was quantified by ELISA. The standard McMaster flotation technique was used to detect eggs and oocysts in feces. Fecal calprotectin and IgA concentrations were quantified by in-house radioimmunoassays. Results: For each marker (IgA and calprotectin), a strong positive correlation was observed between concentration in fresh feces and concentration in fecal dry matter. 75.6% of the puppies were found to be infected by at ≥1 of the enteropathogens evaluated. Fecal calprotectin concentration was significantly influenced by age (P = .001), with higher concentrations in younger puppies, but not by viral (P = .863) or parasitic infection (P = .791). Fecal IgA concentration was significantly influenced by enteropathogen shedding (P = .01), with a lower fecal IgA concentration in puppies shedding at ≥1 enteropathogen compared to puppies without any enteropathogen shedding, but not by age. Conclusions: Fecal calprotectin and IgA are of no diagnostic value to detect presence of enteropathogens in clinically healthy puppies or puppies with abnormal feces, but could help to better understand the maturation of digestive tract.
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Background: The prevalence and risk factors for infection with enteropathogens in dogs frequenting dog parks have been poorly documented, and infected dogs can pose a potential zoonotic risk for owners. Hypothesis/objectives: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of infection with enteropathogens and zoonotic Giardia strains in dogs attending dog parks in Northern California and to compare results of fecal flotation procedures performed at a commercial and university parasitology laboratory. Animals: Three-hundred dogs attending 3 regional dog parks in Northern California. Methods: Prospective study. Fresh fecal specimens were collected from all dogs, scored for consistency, and owners completed a questionnaire. Specimens were analyzed by fecal centrifugation flotation, DFA, and PCR for detection of 11 enteropathogens. Giardia genotyping was performed for assemblage determination. Results: Enteropathogens were detected in 114/300 dogs (38%), of which 62 (54%) did not have diarrhea. Frequency of dog park attendance correlated significantly with fecal consistency (P = .0039), but did not correlate with enteropathogen detection. Twenty-seven dogs (9%) were infected with Giardia, and genotyping revealed nonzoonotic assemblages C and D. The frequency of Giardia detection on fecal flotation was significantly lower at the commercial laboratory versus the university laboratory (P = .013), and PCR for Giardia was negative in 11/27 dogs (41%) that were positive on fecal flotation or DFA. Conclusions and clinical importance: Enteropathogens were commonly detected in dogs frequenting dog parks, and infection with Giardia correlated with fecal consistency. PCR detection of Giardia had limited diagnostic utility, and detection of Giardia cysts by microscopic technique can vary among laboratories.
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Background: Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that effects rodents, dogs, calves, humans, and cats. Infection with this parasite is known as cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidium spp. may induce clinical or subclinical signs in infected hosts. In the life cycle of this parasite infected dogs freely living in urban and rural areas of Khuzestan province are the definitive hosts that should be considered as a real problem in public health for humans. Objectives: This study aimed at determining the frequency of cryptosporidiosis in dogs in southwest of Iran. Methods: Overall, 350 fresh fecal samples were collected from domestic dogs living in 43 villages, from June 2012 to September 2013. All samples were investigated by Sheather’s concentration method and fecal smears were stained with modified Ziehl-Neelsen followed by light microscope examination, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The results revealed that frequency of Cryptosporidium infection was 8% and 12.3%, using direct smear and molecular method, respectively. Conclusions: The present findings indicated that domestic dog feces from southwest of Iran may contain zoonotic parasites such as Cryptosporidium spp. And may be a potential risk for humans and other animals, especially when they contaminate the environment. The role of dogs as source of human infection should be investigated by further studies.
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Feeding pets raw meat-based diets (RMBDs) is commonly practiced by many companion animal owners and has received increasing attention in recent years. It may be beneficial for the animals, but may also pose a health risk for both pets and their owners, as RMBDs may be contaminated by enteric pathogens—such as Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Yersinia—which are the most common zoonotic bacteria causing enteritis in humans. Little information exists on the prevalence of these pathogens in pet food, and thus one aim was to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Yersinia in commercial RMBDs from retail stores. Little evidence also exists on the significance of raw meat feeding on the shedding of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and enteropathogenic Yersinia in the feces of pets, and therefore, the second goal was to study the presence of these pathogens in dogs and cats fed RMBDs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) only sporadically detected Campylobacter, Salmonella, and enteropathogenic Yersinia in RMBDs. These pathogens were not found by culturing, indicating a low contamination level in frozen RMBDs. They were also detected in the feces of dogs and cats, but the association with feeding RMBDs to them remained unclear.
Article
Intestinal helminths are common in dogs in the United States, particularly non-treated dogs in animal shelters, but surveys by fecal flotation may underestimate their prevalence. To determine the prevalence of intestinal helminths and evaluate the ability of fecal flotation and detection of nematode antigen to identify those infections, contents of the entire gastrointestinal tract of 97 adult (>1 year) dogs previously identified for humane euthanasia at two animal control shelters in northeastern Oklahoma, USA, were screened. All helminths recovered were washed in saline and fixed prior to enumeration and identification to genus and species. Fecal samples from each dog were examined by passive sodium nitrate (SG 1.33) and centrifugal sugar solution (SG 1.25) flotation. Fecal antigen detection assays were used to confirm the presence of nematode antigen in frozen fecal samples from 92 dogs. Necropsy examination revealed Ancylostoma caninum in 45/97 (46.4%), Toxocara canis in 11/97 (11.3%), Trichuris vulpis in 38/97 (39.2%), Dipylidium caninum in 48/97 (49.5%), and Taenia sp. in 7/97 (7.2%) dogs. Passive fecal flotation identified 38/45 (84.4%) A. caninum, 6/11 (54.5%) T. canis, 26/38 (68.4%) T. vulpis, 2/48 (4.2%) D. caninum, and 1/7 (14.3%) Taenia sp. infections, while centrifugal flotation combined with antigen detection assays identified A. caninum in 97.7% (43/44), T. canis in 77.8% (7/9), and T. vulpis in 83.3% (30/36) of infected dogs based on necropsy recovery of nematodes. Taken together, these data indicate that detection of nematode antigen is a useful adjunct to microscopic examination of fecal samples for parasite eggs, and that this approach can improve diagnostic sensitivity for intestinal nematode infections in dogs.
Article
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Cryptosporidium is a parasitic protozoon with a wide range of vertebrate hosts. Cryptosporidiosis has been reported from numerous countries, including Iran. Molecular identification can be applied to characterize Cryptosporidium, of which there are over 30 species and 50 genotypes. Herein, we report the genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in Iranian dogs for the first time based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. One hundred forty fecal samples of herd dogs were collected from Isfahan, central Iran. The samples were concentrated using sucrose flotation and subjected to Kinyoun staining. DNA extraction of positive samples was performed, and molecular diagnosis was carried out using highly specific seminested PCR for the characterization of Cryptosporidium species. Finally, sequencing and DNA analysis were performed to identify Cryptosporidium species. A total of 2.14% of herd dogs were positive for cryptosporidiosis in both microscopy and molecular methods. In all cases, the causative agent was identified as Cryptosporidium parvum. Dogs associated with positive samples had been in close relationship with livestock. Cryptosporidiosis in the herd dogs in Isfahan could be due to their close contact with animals, particularly cattle and sheep. Given that dogs with cryptosporidiosis lack clinical symptoms, they are a potential source of zoonotic transmission of this disease as they are companion animals for humans. Dogs with cryptosporidiosis are a potential source of the zoonotic transmission of this disease.
Article
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Amostras de fezes de 387 cães sem distinção de faixa etária, sexo ou raça e oriundos de diferentes locais da região metropolitana de Curitiba, PR, foram coletadas para diagnóstico laboratorial mediante exames coproparasitológicos realizados no laboratório de Parasitologia Veterinária da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná (PUCPR) em São José dos Pinhais, PR, entre os meses de fevereiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2005. As fezes foram colhidas individualmente e processadas pelo método de Hoffman, Pons & Janer (1934) (1). Os resultados obtidos comprovaram contaminação por ovos de Ancylostoma spp. (18,6%), Trichuris vulpis (10,35%), Toxocara spp. (1,29%), Dipylidium caninum (0,77%), Cystoisospora sp. (0,51%), Candida spp. (0,51%) e Giardia spp. (0,25%). O elevado índice de cães portadores de infecção por endoparasitas evidencia o risco potencial de transmissão de zoonoses a que está exposto o ser humano que convive com animais infectados. Muitas vezes um animal aparentemente sadio está eliminando no solo fezes contendo ovos embrionados desses parasitas. As crianças podem facilmente infectar-se ou reinfectar-se pela ingestão de terra contaminada.
Chapter
Feces are the by‐product of digestion. Fecal amount, shape, and consistency provide insight into gastrointestinal and systemic health. Fecal scoring is a tool that can facilitate veterinary team discussions about bowel habits. When gut transit time is lengthened, stool is retained. Retention of feces causes a net loss of fecal moisture, and the stool becomes drier. Fecal balls are more likely to form and back up in the descending colon. The consequence of this is constipation. Constipation can result from decreased mobility, increased fiber, certain medications such as opioids, mechanical obstruction, metabolic disease, neuromuscular disease, painful defecation, iron supplementation, or lead toxicosis. Idiopathic megacolon is a common cause of constipation in cats. Recurrent bouts of constipation may lead to permanent colonic distension and obstipation. At the other end of the spectrum is diarrhea. Diarrhea may result from increased gut wall permeability, hypermotility syndromes involving the intestinal tract, osmotically active but poorly digested medications such as lactulose, bacterial toxins, decreased absorptive surfaces, and overstimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system. Diarrhea may be further classified into small bowel and large bowel diarrhea. Small bowel diarrhea is characterized by voluminous amounts of stool and weight loss, without mucus or tenesmus. If blood is present in the diarrheic stool, it is in the form of melena. This signifies that there is an upper bowel bleed. Small bowel diarrhea is most often associated with dietary indiscretion, viral enteritis, and parasitic enteritis. Bacterial enteritis is possible, but rare. Large bowel diarrhea involves smaller amounts than small bowel diarrhea. Large bowel diarrhea contains excess mucus, and tends to cause straining. Fresh red streaks of blood may also be apparent. This signifies that the patient has a lower bowel bleed. Large bowel diarrhea, with or without hematochezia, is often the result of dietary indiscretion or endoparasitism. This chapter aims to clarify common causes of small and large bowel diarrhea, and provides a starting point for the diagnostic investigation of acute diarrhea. Chronic enteropathies, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and chronic colitis, are beyond the scope of this chapter. However, recognize that these causes of chronic diarrhea do exist and require interventions when all other causes of diarrhea have been effectively ruled out.
Chapter
Toxocara prevalence ranges from 0 to >87% and 0 to >60% in dogs and cats, respectively, within the United States, Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean. Higher prevalence occurs in animals less than 1 year of age. Overall, prevalence is higher in cats compared to dogs. The lowest prevalence occurs in the US owned dog population. Specific populations in this industrialized nation, in animal shelters or resource-limited locations, have prevalences similar to those seen in populations from other regions reviewed here. Conversely, subpopulations in Central America and the Caribbean have very low prevalence. Apparent contributors to prevalence, excluding animal age and climate, are socio-economic factors, attitudes towards pet management and animal population density. The lack of data from some regions pose a challenge in assessing trends; however, with the exception of the US owned dog population, there is no strong indication of any decrease in prevalence from historical levels.
Article
A 12-week-old female intact, pit bull terrier cross breed puppy presented with vomiting and haemorrhagic diarrhoea. Phagocytosed bacterial rods were observed on peripheral and central blood smears. A commercially available canine parvovirus ELISA test and subsequent electron microscopy for viral particles both tested negative on faecal sampling. The owners declined treatment and the puppy was euthanased. The postmortem revealed enteric necrosis, purulent meningoencephalitis, necropurulent hepatitis and diffuse interstitial pneumonia, with heavy Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium growth on blood and tissue culture. The Salmonella species were sensitive to most commonly used antimicrobials including ampicillin. Canine parvovirus enteritis was diagnosed by positive canine parvovirus specific immune-peroxidase staining of intestinal tissue sections. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper to describe canine parvoviral enteritis complicated by a salmonella bacteraemia, and the detection of a bacteraemia on a peripheral blood smear in a live dog.
Article
O presente trabalho analisa prospectivamente as infeccoes multiplas e isoladas em caes de estudantes de quatro instituicoes de ensino de Curitiba – PR, atraves de exames de 264 amostras de fezes, colhidas no periodo de abril a julho de 2000 e examinadas de acordo com a tecnica de WILLIS (1921). A infeccao isolada causada por Ancylostoma sp. foi observada em maior porcentagem, seguida da parasitose multipla pela associacao Ancylostoma sp./Toxocara sp. Enteroparasites in dogs (Canis familiaris) from Curitiba, Parana, Brasil Abstract The present study demonstrates the multiple and isolated infections caused by enteroparasites in dogs belonged to students of four schools from Curitiba, PR, by examination of 264 fecal samples, collected from April to July, 2000, and analyzed by the WILLIS (1921) technique. The isolated infection by Ancylostoma sp. was the highest percentage observed, while Ancylostoma sp. and Toxocara sp. were the multiple parasites most frequently found.
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We performed a cross-sectional study at an outpatient AIDS clinic to assess the prevalence of Campylobacter species in stool specimens from 201 consecutive patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We characterized campylobacters phenotypically and genetically by using primers for the group of common species (i.e., C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, and C. upsaliensis) and for most individual uncommon species. We performed cultures with use of a membrane filter technique on nonselective blood agar and found that Campylobacter species were the most frequent enteropathogenic bacteria: the organisms were recovered from 7 (16%) of 43 patients with diarrhea and 5 (3%) of 158 patients without diarrhea (P = .001). We isolated only one campylobacter with use of conventional culture techniques on selective media. Phenotypic characterization of 10 campylobacter strains resulted in the misidentification of four isolates. C. upsaliensis was the most frequently isolated species, followed by C. jejuni and C. coli. Two strains could not be identified with the available primers. Two of 12 Campylobacter strains were resistant to erythromycin, and two were resistant to ciprofloxacin. We conclude that Campylobacter species other than C. jejuni can frequently be detected in the stools of HIV-infected patients and that these organisms could be associated with diarrhea.
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Genetic and phylogenetic characterization ofCryptosporidium isolates at two loci (18S rRNA gene and heat shock gene) from both Australian and United States dogs demonstrated that dog-derived Cryptosporidium isolates had a distinct genotype which is conserved across geographic areas. Phylogenetic analysis provided support for the idea that the “dog” genotype is, in fact, a valid species.
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Of 53 salmonella serotypes isolated from dogs, S typhimurium and S anatum have been the most commonly isolated. Surveys have disclosed that over 20% of the dogs in a population may be infected. Simultaneous, multiple infections with 2 or more serotypes are not unusual. Nonclinical salmonellosis occurs in most cases. The severe form of the disease is manifested by diarrhea, vomiting, fever, depression, abortion, and death. Dogs may remain carriers and fecal shedders and thus serve as sources of salmonellosis for man and other animals. A number of documented transmissions from dogs to human beings have been recorded. Such infections in man have been severe.
Article
To study the incidence, clinical features, treatment and outcome of patients with Salmonella, Shigella or Campylobacter infection. Retrospective analysis. Two dedicated HIV units within a London teaching hospital. All patients with Salmonella, Shigella or Campylobacter infection were reviewed retrospectively by correlating the records of the gastrointestinal and microbiology departments with the computerized records of all HIV-positive patients attending the two clinics. Between July 1985 and June 1991, 56 episodes of Salmonella, 37 of Campylobacter and eight of Shigella infection were documented in HIV-seropositive patients. Shigella was most likely to occur early in HIV disease, whilst patients with Campylobacter or Salmonella were more likely to have had a previous AIDS diagnosis. Septicaemica was most common in patients with Salmonella and was especially likely to occur in individuals with an AIDS diagnosis. Relapse of infection was common in patients with Salmonella, especially in those with low CD4 lymphocyte counts, those with an initial septicaemic illness and those not treated with ciprofloxacin. Patients with Salmonella who have low CD4 lymphocytes counts and/or a septicaemic illness should be considered for life-long secondary prophylaxis with ciprofloxacin because of the high rate of relapse observed. Administration of zidovudine or cotrimoxazole as prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia may prevent the development of salmonellosis: significantly fewer patients with this infection were taking these drugs than patients with Campylobacter.
Article
The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is fundamentally the same disease in all parts of the world, but the prevalence of microorganisms in an environment governs the patterns of disease arising from reactivated latent infections, invading pathogens and opportunistic infections. AIDS in Africa has certain characteristic presentations. Enteropathic AIDS is most common: Cryptosporidium and Isospora belli are identified in up to 60% of patients, but it is uncertain whether they are the causes of diarrhoea. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is rare. Tuberculosis, both pulmonary and extrapulmonary, is the supreme complicating infection. Herpes zoster is frequently the first clinical presentation, and has a 95% positive predictive value for HIV positivity. Measles may be more frequent in infants born to HIV-infected mothers, and appears to be worse in HIV-infected children. There is accelerated progress of both diseases in patients infected by HIV and Mycobacterium leprae. Salmonellosis is frequent. There is no direct interaction between malaria and HIV, but, by being a potent cause of anaemia, malaria enhances transmission of HIV to children through blood transfusion. HIV-positive subjects are liable to new or reactivated visceral leishmaniasis with dissemination to unusual sites. Cerebral toxoplasmosis is common. There are no apparent interactions between HIV and helminths, although there is one report of hyperinfection with Strongyloides stercoralis. Cryptococcal meningitis has high frequency. Infections with Histoplasma encapsulatum are common in tropical America, but there has been no increase of frequency of H. duboisii in Africa since the advent of AIDS.
Article
In order to ascertain the importance of Campylobacter spp., C.difficile, C.perfringens and Salmonella as agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in dogs, two groups of animals were studied prospectively. The first group consisted of 77 puppies in 14 litters, with fecal cultures performed weekly for 10 weeks, starting at birth. The second group consisted of a kennel population with every dog cultured at entry, and at two-month intervals thereafter. Incidence of Campylobacter spp. was 32 and 31 per 100 dog-month of observation for healthy pups and healthy adult dogs respectively, 46 and 0 for C.difficile, 51 and 36 for C.perfringens and 6.5 and 1.3 for Salmonella. The incidence of Campylobacter spp. in pups peaked at 8 weeks of age. This incidence (43 per 100 dog-months) was higher in pups reared together with older dogs than in pups reared without contact to other dogs (0 per 100 dog-months). Toxigenic strains of C.difficile were found in 61.5% of the healthy neonate dogs. None of the cases of non-watery and non-inflammatory diarrhea we observed was associated with any of the pathogens studied. Furthermore newly acquired colonization with Campylobacter spp. or Salmonella was never associated with episodes of diarrhea. No conclusions could be drawn about the role of bacterial pathogens for causation of watery or inflammatory diarrhea which were not observed in our study.
Article
A number of animal-associated infections occur in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), including those due to Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium, Microsporida, Salmonella, Campylo-bacter, Giardia, Rhodococcus equi, Rochalimaea, and Listeria monocytogenes. Most of these infections, with the exception of those due to Rochalimaea, appear to be acquired by the immunosuppressed individual from sources other than exposure to animals. Drs. Glaser and colleagues review our current understanding of the role of exposure to animals, especially pets, in the natural history of these opportunistic infections. They suggest that the risk of zoonotic transmission is small and offer practical suggestions designed to reduce this low risk. They conclude that the benefits of animal companionship outweigh the risks to patients and that prohibition of pet ownership by individuals infected with HIV is not warranted.
Article
Three virus strains were isolated in DK cell cultures inoculated with fecal specimens of dogs manifesting diarrhea. The isolates were identified as reoviruses on the basis of their biological and physico- chemical properties. They possessed reovirus type 3 antigenic specificity revealed by hemagglutination-inhibition and neutrarization tests with the reovirus prototype strains. It was suspected that the isolates were participated in this diarrheic cases.
Article
Isolation of Salmonella from the feces of impounded dogs was carried out to make clear the recent microbiological condition of dogs introduced into our facilities. Salmonella was isolated from 10 out of 283 samples (3.5%). Inparticular, during the first week after introduction, Salmonella was isolated from nine out of 74 dogs (12.2%). The isolation rate during the first week after introduction was significantly higher than that for dogs introduced later. No isolates were detected from dogs reared for more than 3 weeks after introduction. This study indicates that impounded dogs had the highest risk of infecting a person with Salmonella during the first week after introduction into our laboratory animal facilities, and that we need to pay attention to this fact when handling them.
Article
Diarrhoeic faeces from about 500 dogs were examined by negative stain electron microscopy. As well as parvovirus, and some of the other recognised viral causes of gastroenteritis, unusual "virus-like" particles were observed in about 8% of the samples. The particles were spherical, 100 nm to 300 nm in diameter, and surrounded by a thick wall penetrated by numerous pores. An additional 74 samples of normal faeces yielded no "virus-like" particles. We do not know the nature of these particles.
Article
Faecal samples from 112 dogs both with and without diarrhoea were screened for parvovirus by a haemagglutination titration test and then examined by electron microscopy for the presence of viruses and virus-like particles. On the basis of morphology eight distinct viruses or virus-like particles were identified. Particles identified were coronaviruses, coronavirus-like particles, rotavirus-like particles, papovavirus-like particles, torovirus-like particles, picornavirus-like particles, 27 nm virus-like particles with projections and parvovirus-like particles which did not cause haemagglutination.
Article
Infection of suckling mice with Giardia trophozoites recovered from the intestines of 11 dogs autopsied in Central and Southern Australia in each case produced an established isolate. In contrast, only 1 isolate was obtained by inoculation of faecal cysts. The organisms grew poorly in comparison with isolates from humans or non-canine animal hosts. Light microscopy revealed that the trophozoites had median bodies with the 'claw hammer' appearance typical of G. intestinalis (syn. G. duodenalis, G. lamblia) but that they differed in shape and nuclear morphology from axenic isolates of human or canine origin. Allozymic analysis of electrophoretic data representing 26 loci and phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences obtained from DNA amplified from the glutamate dehydrogenase locus showed that the 11 isolates examined from Australian dogs were genetically distinct from all isolates of G. intestinalis that have been established previously from humans and animals, and also from G. muris. Both analytical methods placed 10 of the Australian canine isolates into a unique genetic lineage (designated Assemblage C) and the eleventh into a deep-rooted second branch (designated Assemblage D), each well separated from the 2 lineages (Assemblages A and B) of G. intestinalis that encompass all the genotypes known to infect humans. In contrast, 4 axenic isolates derived from dogs in Canada and Europe (the only other isolates to have been established from dogs) have genotypes characteristic of genetic Assemblages A or B. The findings indicate that the novel Giardia identified in these rural Australian dogs have a restricted host range, possibly confined to canine species. The poor success rate in establishing Giardia from dogs in vitro suggests, further, that similar genotypes may predominate as canine parasites world-wide. The absence of such organisms among isolates of Giardia that have been established from humans by propagation in suckling mice indicates that they are unlikely to infect humans. However, infection of humans by those dog-derived genotypes that grow in vitro cannot be excluded.
Article
To assess the prevalence of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin in feces of dogs with and without diarrhea, and to compare the use of microbial cultures from fecal specimens and evaluation of stained fecal smears for endospores with the presence of enterotoxin as tools for diagnosing C perfringens-associated diarrhea. Prospective study. 144 dogs representing hospitalized dogs with (n = 41) or without (50) diarrhea, and clinically normal dogs treated as outpatients (53). Fresh fecal specimens from all dogs were examined as Gram-stained fecal smears to determine numbers of Gram-positive spore-forming rods/100x objective field. Enterotoxin was assayed directly by use of a reverse passive latex agglutination assay. Fecal specimens were plated directly to prereduced egg yolk agar plates and incubated overnight at 37 C in an anaerobic chamber. At 24 hours, up to 3 lecithinase-positive colonies were subcultured to Brucella blood agar to evaluate for double zone hemolysis. Colonies with double zone hemolysis were tested for aerotolerance and Gram-stained. A significant difference was not detected among groups with respect to the presence of C perfringens as determined by culture, the presence of endospores, and the reaction patterns of fecal enterotoxin assays. An association was not found between number of endospores and the presence of fecal enterotoxin. The presence of C perfringens enterotoxin in feces of dogs, as detected by the latex agglutination assay used in this study, correlates poorly with the number of fecal endospores, regardless of the dog's clinical status.
Article
To determine prevalence of enteric zoonotic organisms in cats in north-central Colorado. Prospective study. Serum and fecal samples from 87 cats with diarrhea, 106 cats without diarrhea, and 12 cats for which fecal consistency was unknown. Samples were obtained from client-owned cats and cats at a humane society shelter. Serum was assayed for feline leukemia virus antigen and antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus, IgM antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, and IgG antibodies against T gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. Microscopic examination of unstained feces was performed after centrifugation in a zinc sulfate solution, thin fecal smears were stained with acid fast stain and examined for C parvum, and bacteriologic culture of feces was used to detect aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Enteric zoonotic organisms were detected in feces from 27 of 206 (13.1%) cats and included C parvum (5.4%), Giardia spp (2.4%). Toxocara cati (3.9%), Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (1.0%), and Campylobacter jejuni (1.0%); each organism was detected in samples from cats with and without diarrhea. Although differences between groups were not significant, a higher proportion of shelter cats (18.2%) had enteric zoonotic organisms than client-owned cats (10.1%). Enteric zoonotic organisms were detected in feces of 13.1% of cats, suggesting that cats, particularly those in homes of immunocompromised humans, should be evaluated for enteric zoonotic organisms.
Article
Giardia is a ubiquitous and well-known enteric parasite affecting humans and a range of domestic and wild mammals. It is one of the most common parasites of domestic dogs and dairy cattle and a frequently recognized waterborne pathogen. Giardiasis is considered to be a re-emerging infection because of its association with outbreaks of diarrhoea in child-care centres. Although only a single species has been recognized as causing disease in humans and most other mammals, molecular characterization of morphologically identical isolates from humans and numerous other species of mammals has confirmed the heterogeneity of this parasite and provided a basis for a clearer understanding of the taxonomy and zoonotic potential of Giardia.
Article
A 1-year prospective study was conducted to identify enteropathogens in adults with diarrhea (n = 851) and in healthy control subjects (n = 203) by use of conventional laboratory methods. Virulence factor genes for diarrheagenic Escherichia coli were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Enteropathogens were identified in 56% of patients and 16% of control subjects. The isolation rate was 65% for patients with symptoms for <1 week and for travelers; >1 pathogen was found in 11% of patients. The most frequent enteropathogens were Campylobacter (13% of patients), Clostridium difficile (13%), enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (8%), Salmonella (7%), Shigella (4%), Blastocystis hominis (4%), calicivirus (3%), rotavirus (3%), enteroaggregative E. coli (2%), Aeromonas (2%), Giardia intestinalis (2%), Cryptosporidium (2%), and astrovirus (2%). Less frequently isolated (≤1% of patients) were verotoxigenic E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, microsporidia, and adenovirus. Fifty percent of the patients were hospitalized, and 43% needed intravenous fluids. The median duration of diarrhea was 14 days. Clinical features were not helpful for predicting the etiology of diarrhea.