Article

Gallo LC, Matthews KA. Understanding, the Association between Socioeconomic Status and Physical Health: Do Negative Emotions Play a Role? Psychol Bull 129: 10-51

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
Psychological Bulletin (Impact Factor: 14.76). 02/2003; 129(1):10-51. DOI: 10.1037//0033-2909.129.1.10
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

In this article, the authors evaluate the possible roles of negative emotions and cognitions in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and physical health, focusing on the outcomes of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality. After reviewing the limited direct evidence, the authors examine indirect evidence showing that (a) SES relates to the targeted health outcomes, (b) SES relates to negative emotions and cognitions, and (c) negative emotions and cognitions relate to the targeted health outcomes. The authors present a general framework for understanding the roles of cognitive-emotional factors, suggesting that low-SES environments are stressful and reduce individuals' reserve capacity to manage stress, thereby increasing vulnerability to negative emotions and cognitions. The article concludes with suggestions for future research to better evaluate the proposed model.

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Available from: Linda C Gallo, Jul 29, 2014
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    • "Los resultados obtenidos con esta experiencia proponen que los AM pertenecientes al NSE MA presentan expresiones emocionales negativas a neutras, mientras que en la posición socioeconómica baja es de predominio preferentemente positivo. Al respecto, se dispone de información discrepante en la literatura, la cual mediante un modelo conceptual que explica la asociación dinámica entre el NSE bajo y el entorno , plantea que tanto las emociones como las capacidades cognitivas negativas tendrían mayor expresión en ambientes pobres y de mayor vulnerabilidad, dado la baja disposición de recursos y la disminuida posición en la jerarquía social (Gallo & Matthews, 2003). Este comportamiento desigual se podría explicar en el contexto de que las mediciones fueron efectuadas en condiciones nulas de asistencialismo, lo que garantiza un grato ambiente de trabajo, buen trato y la implementación de los tiempos necesarios para educar y aclarar dudas a los AM durante las evaluaciones, al respecto estos estándares de práctica al ser cotidianos para el sistema privado no significarían una ventaja comparativa para los participantes del NSE MA, por otro lado, los AM del NSE MB apreciarían esta experiencia, expresando una actitud de marcha más positiva ante la actividad requerida. "
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    ABSTRACT: La marcha es fundamental para la funcionalidad de adultos mayores (AM), además su expresión actitudinal se relaciona con diferentes estados emocionales, los cuales son condicionados por el nivel socioeconómico (NSE). El propósito de esta investigación fue evaluar el comportamiento de atributos actitudinales de marcha según el NSE en AM autovalentes. Participaron este estudio 71 AM autovalentes de la comunidad de Talca-Chile, categorizados según el NSE a los cuales se les aplicó el instrumento denominado análisis de forma y esfuerzo de la marcha previo caracterización de confiabilidad. Los resultados indican que el estilo de marcha no es diferente según el NSE en AM autovalentes; sin embargo, los perfiles cualificados presentan variaciones en los anclajes las que son dependientes del género.
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    • "Smoking cessation in these groups is often impeded by factors in the social environment; for example , less favourable norms towards smoking cessation and more smoking in their environment. Additionally, they are often not sufficiently convinced of the advantages of quitting and often experience low self-efficacy (Gallo and Matthews, 2003;Chandola et al., 2004). Web-based computer-tailored (CT) smoking cessation interventions can be successful to realize smoking abstinence and are (cost) effective (Smit et al., 2013;Te Poel et al., 2009;Strecher et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In western countries, smoking prevalence rates are high among smokers unmotivated to quit and those with a lower socioeconomic status (LSES). Multiple computer tailoring and the use of audio-visual aids may improve such interventions and increase cessation in LSES smokers. This study assessed the 12-month effectiveness of a video- and text-based computer-tailored intervention. Methods: A randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands was used in which smokers were allocated to the video-based condition (VC) (N=670), the text-based condition (TC) (N=708) or the control condition (CC) (brief generic text advice) (N=721). After 12months, self-reported prolonged abstinence was assessed and biochemically verified in respondents indicating to have quit smoking. Three analysis strategies were used to assess the effects: (1) multiple imputation (MI); (2) intention-to-treat (ITT); (3) complete case analysis (CC). Results: VC was more effective in prolonged abstinence compared to CC (odds ratio (OR)=1.90, p=.005) and the text-based condition (OR=1.71, p=.01). VC was furthermore more effective than TC. No differences were found for SES and motivational levels. Results were similar when using ITT and CC. For our secondary outcome seven-day point prevalence abstinence; however, neither VC (OR=1.17, p=.34) or TC (OR=0.91, p=.52) outperformed the CC. Conclusion: The video-based computer-tailored intervention was effective in obtaining substantial long-term abstinence compared to the text-based version and a brief generic text advice.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Preventive Medicine
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    • "Thus, from such a scenario, it is not difficult to establish how poverty may lead guardians to technically withdraw matters from court once the offender offer material things or promise marriage. Gallo and Matthews (2003) argues that though domestic violence occurs in all socioeconomic groups, there are close correlations between poverty and domestic violence. Thus, poverty directly or indirectly affects CSA. "
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    ABSTRACT: Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) is a worldwide phenomenon which has evolved from a matter of family to public concern. Numerous researches have demonstrated tremendous after-effects inclusive but not limited to psychological and physical. The international community, Zambia included battles to combat this ravaging scourge. Prosecution of offenders has re-emerged as a measure to stop Child Sexual Abuse. This study examined factors responsible for low conviction of offenders of Child Sexual Abuse in the face of substantial evidence. Survey design using qualitative methods: a questionnaire, semi structured interview and participant observation methods were used to conduct the study. The results showed: absence of technical knowledge of child psychology in courtrooms, an adversarial court system, official's lack of skills and training, under-staffing and poverty, contribute to the failure to convict offenders.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
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