Article

Bicycle Seat Designs and Their Effect on Pelvic Angle, Trunk Angle, and Comfort

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Abstract

To examine whether bicycle seats with anterior-medial cutouts influence pelvic angle, trunk angle, and comfort in female subjects during cycling. Twenty female cyclists pedaled a stationary bicycle with their hands on the tops and drops of the handlebars under three different saddle conditions (standard, partial, and complete cutout designs). Pelvic angle was measured using an inclinometer attached to a caliper whereas trunk angle was quantified from digitization of video images. Comfort level was assessed subjectively by having participants rank the saddles from most to least comfortable. Anterior pelvic tilt angles for the partial and complete cutout saddles were 8% and 16% greater, respectively, than values for the standard saddle condition ( P < 0.05). Trunk flexion angles were greater for the complete versus standard and partial cutout designs ( P< 0.05). Participants displayed a 77% greater anterior pelvic tilt angle and an 11% greater trunk flexion angle in the drop versus top handlebar positions ( P < 0.05). A total of 55% of the subjects ranked the partial cutout saddle as the most comfortable, and 30% ranked the standard saddle as the most comfortable. These data indicate that partial and complete cutout saddle designs may increase anterior pelvic tilt, and saddles with a complete cutout design may increase trunk flexion angles under select cycling conditions. A saddle with a partial cutout design may be more comfortable than a standard or complete cutout saddle design.

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... Changes in position of the hands on the handlebars were related to pelvic tilt and trunk angles. In road cyclists, changing from the top flat section of the handlebars to the drops led to greater trunk (141 ± 0.87° vs. 156 ± 0.73°) and pelvic angles (16 ± 1.38 vs. 29 ± 1.59°) [166]. The greater the forward lean, the larger effects were observed in lumbar pelvis, with more flexion when cyclists opted for pedaling at the aerobars [167]. ...
... Type of handlebars is varied among makers, but little research has been done to compare potential effects from using each particular handlebars in cycling posture. Most attention has been given to the position of the hands in road bicycle handlebars [164,166,257]. This provides some relation to position used in mountain bike (top of handlebars) but a gap on effect of changes in distance from saddle to the position of the hands remains present in bike fit research. ...
... To allow comparisons between studies, trunk and pelvis angles have been defined as presented in Fig. 8.1. Trunk and pelvis angles were smaller with the hands on the top of the handlebars (141 ± 0.9° for the trunk and 16 ± 1.4° for the pelvis) than when the hands were on the brake hoods (156 ± 0.7° for the trunk and 29 ± 1.6° for the pelvis) [166]. This finding highlights that if the hands are further away in relation to the body, trunk and pelvic angles will be increased. ...
Chapter
Bicycles have become complex due to an increased need for reducing energy cost during pedaling. The changes from the hobby horse to modern bikes have led to a large number of components being individually set to accommodate cyclists of varying body dimensions. In parallel, racing profiles has become more complex, and bicycles are now used on roads, tracks and other types of surfaces.
... To provide evidence-based information in developing saddle design, Potter et al 15 investigated the influence of gender, power, hand position, and ischial tuberosities width on saddle pressure during seated stationary cycling. Only 1 previous study 16 has investigated the level of perceived comfort using different saddle shapes. The authors found that a partial nose saddle design may result in more comfort than a standard or complete no nose 1. ...
... At the end of the test, each participant was asked to rate the most comfortable pad, as in the study conducted by Bressel and Larson. 16 The 3 pads tested ( Figure 1) in the study were: Blaze (345 Â 210 mm, thickness of 5-10 mm with material density of 60 kg/m 3 ) (basic, BAS), Tour (370 Â 205 mm, thickness of 3-110 mm with material density of 80 kg/m 3 ) (intermediate, INT), and Multi-D Anatomic (340 Â 240 mm, thickness of 3-110 mm with material density of 80 and 120 kg/m 3 , respectively, front and back) (endurance, END). All the pads were produced by CyTech s.r.l ...
... The analysis of pelvis kinematics is in agreement with previous investigations, 16,23 which found that the highest angular excursions occurred on the frontal and transversal plane ( Figure 5). Nevertheless, the design and the material of the tested pads did not affect pelvis kinematics which is more influenced by the shape of the saddle. ...
Article
Full-text available
An intensive use of the bicycle may increase the risk of erectile dysfunction and the compression of the perineal area has been showed to be a major mechanism leading to sexual alterations compromising the quality of life. Manufacturers claim that pads contribute to increase cyclists perineal protection ensuring a high level of comfort.To investigate the influence of various cycling pads with regard to perineal protection and level of comfort.Nine club road cyclists rode 20 min on a drum simulator, located at the Nutrition and Exercise Physiology Laboratory, at a constant speed and gear ratio wearing the shorts with 3 cycling pads of different design and thickness: basic (BAS), intermediate (INT), and endurance (END). Kinematics and pressure data were recorded at min 5, 15, and 20 of the test using a motion capture system and a pressure sensor mat. The variables of interest were: 3-dimensional pelvis excursions, peak pressure, mean pressure, and vertical force. The comfort level was assessed with a ranking order based on the subjects' perception after the 20-min trials and measuring the vertical ground reaction force under the anterior wheel as well as the length of the center of pressure (COP) trajectory on the saddle.Results showed that the vertical force and the average value of mean pressure on the saddle significantly decreased during the 20-min period of testing for BAS and END. Mean peak pressure on the corresponding perineal cyclist area significantly increased only for BAS during the 20-min period. Interestingly objective comfort indexes measured did not match cyclists subjective comfort evaluation.The lower capacity of BAS to reduce the peak pressure on the corresponding perineal area after 20 min of testing, together with its positive comfort evaluation, suggest that a balance between protection and perceived comfort should be taken into account in the choice of the pad. Hence, the quantitative approach of objective comfort indexes introduced in this study could be helpful for manufacturers in the development of their protective pads.
... Changes in position of the hands on the handlebars were related to pelvic tilt and trunk angles. In road cyclists, changing from the top flat section of the handlebars to the drops led to greater trunk (141 ± 0.87° vs. 156 ± 0.73°) and pelvic angles (16 ± 1.38 vs. 29 ± 1.59°) [166]. The greater the forward lean, the larger effects were observed in lumbar pelvis, with more flexion when cyclists opted for pedaling at the aerobars [167]. ...
... Type of handlebars is varied among makers, but little research has been done to compare potential effects from using each particular handlebars in cycling posture. Most attention has been given to the position of the hands in road bicycle handlebars [164,166,257]. This provides some relation to position used in mountain bike (top of handlebars) but a gap on effect of changes in distance from saddle to the position of the hands remains present in bike fit research. ...
... To allow comparisons between studies, trunk and pelvis angles have been defined as presented in Fig. 8.1. Trunk and pelvis angles were smaller with the hands on the top of the handlebars (141 ± 0.9° for the trunk and 16 ± 1.4° for the pelvis) than when the hands were on the brake hoods (156 ± 0.7° for the trunk and 29 ± 1.6° for the pelvis) [166]. This finding highlights that if the hands are further away in relation to the body, trunk and pelvic angles will be increased. ...
Chapter
In this chapter we present some of the upcoming technology which is initially used in cycling and in other research fields. This technology, in our perspective, may provide novel information that could help cyclists and coaches to improve training methods and assessment of cyclists. In this chapter some of this technology is discussed considering the potential contribution to cycling performance and injury prevention. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. All rights are reserved.
... Eighteen studies measured pelvic tilt on bicycle (Bini et al., 2014(Bini et al., , 2016Brand et al., 2019;Bressel & Larson, 2003;Burnett et al., 2004;Fanucci et al., 2002;Holliday et al., 2019;Holliday & Swart, 2021a, 2021bKleinpaul et al., 2012;Muyor, 2015;Muyor et al., 2013b;Muyor et al., 2011c;Muyor & Zabala, 2016;Sauer et al., 2007;Sayers & Tweddle, 2012). Most of these studies showed that the handlebar type and position on the bicycle (according to height and distance of the handlebar from the saddle) was closely related to pelvic tilt (Table 2). ...
... However, there were no significant differences between recreational and competitive cyclists (Bini et al., 2016(Bini et al., , 2014, or between males and females, except in the drops hand position, in which the average pelvic tilt was more significant for females than for males (Sauer et al., 2007). In addition, a saddle designs with a partial or complete cut-out saddle designed increased anterior pelvic tilt (Bressel & Larson, 2003). ...
... Greater pelvic tilt in a position further away from the handlebar and with an inclination of the saddle. Bressel and Larson (2003) In experienced cyclists: 22.7° ± 2.11° in a standard saddle, in a partial cut-out saddle: 24.7° ± 2°, and in a complete cut-out saddle: 25.6° ± 2.3°. In novice cyclists: 18.7° ± 2.1°, in a partial cut-out saddle: 20.0° ± 2°, and in a complete cut-out saddle: 22.4° ± 2.3°. ...
Article
The aim was to know if cycling affects spinal morphology in postures off the bicycle, such as adapting the spinal curvatures on the bicycle depending on the handlebar type and position on the handlebars. A systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. The studies selected met the following criteria: a) the study design was cross-sectional or longitudinal (experimental or cohorts); b) the study evaluated the sagittal morphology of the spine on the bicycle; c) the study included healthy and trained participants without injuries or cyclists reporting low back pain. Fifteen studies reported that a greater pelvic tilt was observed that when the handlebar was in a lower position. Sixteen studies found that lumbar kyphosis was greater when the handlebar grip was lower and farther from the saddle. Twelve studies reported that a tendency towards greater thoracic flexion as the time spent pedalling on the bicycle increased. In conclusion, the practice of cycling produces adaptations in the morphology of the spine of the cyclist compared to non-cyclists, such as an increase in pelvic tilt and a greater capacity for lumbar flexion in trunk flexion positions, and a greater thoracic kyphosis in the standing position.
... Changes in position of the hands on the handlebars were related to pelvic tilt and trunk angles. In road cyclists, changing from the top flat section of the handlebars to the drops led to greater trunk (141 ± 0.87° vs. 156 ± 0.73°) and pelvic angles (16 ± 1.38 vs. 29 ± 1.59°) [166]. The greater the forward lean, the larger effects were observed in lumbar pelvis, with more flexion when cyclists opted for pedaling at the aerobars [167]. ...
... Type of handlebars is varied among makers, but little research has been done to compare potential effects from using each particular handlebars in cycling posture. Most attention has been given to the position of the hands in road bicycle handlebars [164,166,257]. This provides some relation to position used in mountain bike (top of handlebars) but a gap on effect of changes in distance from saddle to the position of the hands remains present in bike fit research. ...
... To allow comparisons between studies, trunk and pelvis angles have been defined as presented in Fig. 8.1. Trunk and pelvis angles were smaller with the hands on the top of the handlebars (141 ± 0.9° for the trunk and 16 ± 1.4° for the pelvis) than when the hands were on the brake hoods (156 ± 0.7° for the trunk and 29 ± 1.6° for the pelvis) [166]. This finding highlights that if the hands are further away in relation to the body, trunk and pelvic angles will be increased. ...
Chapter
Looking at the wide number of applications of surface EMG in cycling, the goal of this chapter is to illustrate some uses of EMG in assessment of cyclists. Attention will be given to existing evidence from studies assessing varying affecting factors in muscle activation. Brief comments will be drawn on methods and procedures using surface EMG because key articles cover this issue more completely.
... Changes in position of the hands on the handlebars were related to pelvic tilt and trunk angles. In road cyclists, changing from the top flat section of the handlebars to the drops led to greater trunk (141 ± 0.87° vs. 156 ± 0.73°) and pelvic angles (16 ± 1.38 vs. 29 ± 1.59°) [166]. The greater the forward lean, the larger effects were observed in lumbar pelvis, with more flexion when cyclists opted for pedaling at the aerobars [167]. ...
... Type of handlebars is varied among makers, but little research has been done to compare potential effects from using each particular handlebars in cycling posture. Most attention has been given to the position of the hands in road bicycle handlebars [164,166,257]. This provides some relation to position used in mountain bike (top of handlebars) but a gap on effect of changes in distance from saddle to the position of the hands remains present in bike fit research. ...
... To allow comparisons between studies, trunk and pelvis angles have been defined as presented in Fig. 8.1. Trunk and pelvis angles were smaller with the hands on the top of the handlebars (141 ± 0.9° for the trunk and 16 ± 1.4° for the pelvis) than when the hands were on the brake hoods (156 ± 0.7° for the trunk and 29 ± 1.6° for the pelvis) [166]. This finding highlights that if the hands are further away in relation to the body, trunk and pelvic angles will be increased. ...
Chapter
Bicycle components have changed over the years in order to minimize resistive forces and energy cost for pedaling with purpose of maximizing cycling performance. Along these lines, the assessment of forces exerted by cyclists is important for the analysis of pedaling technique and to anticipate injury risk factors.
... Changes in position of the hands on the handlebars were related to pelvic tilt and trunk angles. In road cyclists, changing from the top flat section of the handlebars to the drops led to greater trunk (141 ±0.87 vs. 156 ±0.73) and pelvic angles (16 ±1.38 vs. 29 ±1,59) [166]. The greater the forward lean, the larger effects were observed in lumbar pelvis, with more flexion when cyclists opted for pedaling at the aerobars [167]. ...
... Most attention has been given to the position of the hands in road bicycle handlebars [257,164,166]. This provides some relation to position used in mountain bike (top of handlebars) but a gap on effect of changes in distance from saddle to the position of the hands remains present in bike fit research. ...
... The horizontal (distance from the handlebars to the saddle) and vertical . Furthermore, both saddle shape [166] and inclination angle [162] have been found to affect the angle of the pelvis which may make it difficult to isolate the relationship between trunk angle and low back pain. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Overuse injuries in cycling are common with up to 85 % of cyclists sustaining one or more overuse injuries during their lifetime. In one year, 33 million USA residents rode a bicycle an average of 6 days a month, for an average of >1 h a day, suggesting that approximately 23 million cyclists may develop at least one overuse injury in their lifetime.
... Saddles with partial (fully removing middle section of the saddle nose) or complete (saddle without protruding nose) cutout design have been produced (Asplund et al., 2007). Several studies have compared innovative and standard saddle designs (Bressel and Larson, 2003;Chen and Liu, 2014;Keytel and Noakes, 2002;Bressel et al., 2009b). Complete nose removal obviously entails a reduced saddle area to compress the perineal area, thereby reducing the perineal pressure and reduced discomfort compared with other saddle designs (Bressel et al., 2009b;Chen and Liu, 2014). ...
... Reach distance was determined from table values based on torso and arm length (De Vey Mestdagh, 1998). Handlebar height was 6 cm below saddle height (Bressel and Larson, 2003;Silberman et al., 2005). Participants wore their own sports shoes and tights without padding to avoid influence on perceived discomfort (Marcolin et al., 2015). ...
... In line with our hypothesis, we found a change in pressure distribution during cycling underlining the importance of the nose and cutout width of unpadded saddles. Consistent with the existing literature (Bressel et al., 2009a;Guess et al., 2006), no difference in total mean saddle pressure was found between the three different saddles, in either the static or dynamic cycling conditions, indicating that the participants did not redistribute weight to the handlebars between the three saddles, which previously have been reported in cutout designs (Bressel et al., 2009a;Bressel and Larson, 2003). The analysis of pressure distribution revealed that the anterior and posterior pressure increased and decreased respectively with the wide saddle compared with the standard and medium saddle (Table 3). ...
Article
The objectives were 1) to design and produce two novel unpadded bicycle saddles with a wide/medium width and partial nose cutout; 2) to investigate the responses on pressure distribution and perceived discomfort in female cyclists. For comparison, a standard saddle was also tested. Nineteen female cyclists pedaled on an ergometer cycle for 20 min with each saddle in a counterbalanced order. A pressure mat measured saddle interface pressure. Discomfort ratings were collected using a visual analogue scale. Total mean saddle pressure remained similar across saddles. The wide saddle increased anterior and decreased posterior mean saddle pressure as compared with the standard (p<.002) and the medium saddle (p<.001). Significantly increased ischial tuberosity discomfort was found for the novel saddles (p<.001), while crotch discomfort was not significantly different between saddles. The medium width saddle appeared to be the best compromise since increased crotch discomfort was avoided and saddle pressures were redistributed. Such design may be suggested as an alternative to traditional saddles for women reporting discomfort in the perineal region.
... Changes in position of the hands on the handlebars were related to pelvic tilt and trunk angles. In road cyclists, changing from the top flat section of the handlebars to the drops led to greater trunk (141 ±0.87 vs. 156 ±0.73) and pelvic angles (16 ±1.38 vs. 29 ±1,59) [166]. The greater the forward lean, the larger effects were observed in lumbar pelvis, with more flexion when cyclists opted for pedaling at the aerobars [167]. ...
... Most attention has been given to the position of the hands in road bicycle handlebars [257,164,166]. This provides some relation to position used in mountain bike (top of handlebars) but a gap on effect of changes in distance from saddle to the position of the hands remains present in bike fit research. ...
... The horizontal (distance from the handlebars to the saddle) and vertical . Furthermore, both saddle shape [166] and inclination angle [162] have been found to affect the angle of the pelvis which may make it difficult to isolate the relationship between trunk angle and low back pain. ...
... Changes in position of the hands on the handlebars were related to pelvic tilt and trunk angles. In road cyclists, changing from the top flat section of the handlebars to the drops led to greater trunk (141 ± 0.87° vs. 156 ± 0.73°) and pelvic angles (16 ± 1.38 vs. 29 ± 1.59°) [166]. The greater the forward lean, the larger effects were observed in lumbar pelvis, with more flexion when cyclists opted for pedaling at the aerobars [167]. ...
... Type of handlebars is varied among makers, but little research has been done to compare potential effects from using each particular handlebars in cycling posture. Most attention has been given to the position of the hands in road bicycle handlebars [164,166,257]. This provides some relation to position used in mountain bike (top of handlebars) but a gap on effect of changes in distance from saddle to the position of the hands remains present in bike fit research. ...
... To allow comparisons between studies, trunk and pelvis angles have been defined as presented in Fig. 8.1. Trunk and pelvis angles were smaller with the hands on the top of the handlebars (141 ± 0.9° for the trunk and 16 ± 1.4° for the pelvis) than when the hands were on the brake hoods (156 ± 0.7° for the trunk and 29 ± 1.6° for the pelvis) [166]. This finding highlights that if the hands are further away in relation to the body, trunk and pelvic angles will be increased. ...
Chapter
Motion analysis involves detecting the position of joints and segments in a global coordinate system, which enables the assessment of translations and rotations. Exclusive analysis of motion does not take into account forces acting on the body and interactions to varying systems (e.g., bicycle components). In biomechanics, the most common approach for motion analysis is by filming subjects performing a given motion and tracking segments and joints throughout various frames. For that purpose, reference markers are attached to the skin at anatomical sites related to joint coordinate systems. Tracking these markers throughout motion is important to assess changes in segment and joint motion during a given task.
... Changes in position of the hands on the handlebars were related to pelvic tilt and trunk angles. In road cyclists, changing from the top flat section of the handlebars to the drops led to greater trunk (141 ± 0.87° vs. 156 ± 0.73°) and pelvic angles (16 ± 1.38 vs. 29 ± 1.59°) [166]. The greater the forward lean, the larger effects were observed in lumbar pelvis, with more flexion when cyclists opted for pedaling at the aerobars [167]. ...
... Type of handlebars is varied among makers, but little research has been done to compare potential effects from using each particular handlebars in cycling posture. Most attention has been given to the position of the hands in road bicycle handlebars [164,166,257]. This provides some relation to position used in mountain bike (top of handlebars) but a gap on effect of changes in distance from saddle to the position of the hands remains present in bike fit research. ...
... To allow comparisons between studies, trunk and pelvis angles have been defined as presented in Fig. 8.1. Trunk and pelvis angles were smaller with the hands on the top of the handlebars (141 ± 0.9° for the trunk and 16 ± 1.4° for the pelvis) than when the hands were on the brake hoods (156 ± 0.7° for the trunk and 29 ± 1.6° for the pelvis) [166]. This finding highlights that if the hands are further away in relation to the body, trunk and pelvic angles will be increased. ...
Chapter
Improving the interaction between cyclists and their bicycles is a key issue to enhance performance. The reason for that is linked to the optimal use of force applied from cyclists at the pedals, handlebars and saddle in order to improve bicycle speed at the minimum possible energy cost.
... Trunk forward lean during cycling was generally comparable to other studies which reported angles of 51-61° (Bressel & Larson, 2003;Savelberg et al., 2003). As this parameter was increased at neutral settings with a longer reach distance, a change of 10% in the shortened positions was already shown to alter trunk position. ...
... In contrast, saddle position appears to have no relevant influence on trunk position, as no significant difference was found for inclined saddle positions. Pelvic anterior tilt results were also comparable to other studies conducted by Bressel and Larson (2003) and Burnett et al. (2004), whereas some studies that investigated road racing positions reported even higher values (Bini, Hume, & Croft, 2014;Diefenthaeler, Carpes, Bini, Mota, & Guimarães, 2008;Muyor, López-Miñarro, & Alacid, 2011). The reduced pelvic anterior tilt in shortened positions might be a main effect of the change in reach distance, which shifts the whole body into a more upright position. ...
... Activity of the Musc. triceps in our study generally ranged between 12%-14% of MVC, whereas earlier findings by Bressel and Larson (2003) in novice and experienced cyclists revealed higher activity levels of up to 24% of MVC. This discrepancy may be explained by the fact that, compared to our study, participants cycled at upper body positions with more forward flexion, which proved to be correlated with higher rates of muscle activity and fatigue (Streisfeld et al., 2017). ...
Article
Purpose: Discomfort during cycling can be counteracted by adjusting the seat position. However, the influence of changes in cycling position regarding quantitative biomechanical adaptions of the upper body in recreational cyclists is unclear. This study aims to investigate the effects of saddle position and reach distance on upper body kinematics and muscle activation. Methods: Twelve recreational cyclists were investigated in four different sitting positions on an adjustable cycle trainer. Trunk, pelvis, shoulder, elbow and spinal kinematics as well as lower back and elbow extensor activity were analyzed for combinations of normal and shortened reach distance including horizontal and 10° downward inclined saddle positions. Results: An inclined saddle increased activation of elbow extensors by almost 23 ± 8% (p < .01) while a shortened reach distance resulted in a more posterior pelvic tilt of up to 18 ± 2% (p < .01) and less trunk forward lean of 10 ± 9% (p < .01). Shoulder flexion reduced by up to 23 ± 16% (p < .05) while elbow flexion increased by 15 ± 22% (p < .05) with a shortened reach distance. No differences between configurations were found for spinal kinematics and lower back muscle activity. Conclusions: Changing the reach distance showed considerable biomechanical effects on upper body kinematics of the pelvis and trunk rather than on the spine or on lower back muscle activity. For reach distance, most compensation of postural changes of the upper body occurred by changes of shoulder and elbow angles while elbow extensor activation was only altered by saddle downward inclination.
... Bressel and Larson evaluated the effects of traditional, partial-cutout, and noseless (the entire nose of the saddle was removed) saddles on pelvic floor pressure in women in both the "tops" (i.e., hands resting on top of the handlebars) and "drops" (i.e., hands resting at the bottom of the handlebars) hand positions [42]. They reported that while both saddle designs allowed for increased anterior pelvic tilt angles, the cyclists found the partial-cutout to be the most comfortable. ...
... They reported that while both saddle designs allowed for increased anterior pelvic tilt angles, the cyclists found the partial-cutout to be the most comfortable. Although the noseless saddle favorably increased trunk flexion angles, which should potentially decrease stress on the lumbar spine, it was reported as being the least comfortable by the riders [42]. The investigators speculated that cyclists might find the noseless saddle uncomfortable due to a perceived insecurity from the inability to rely on the anterior region of the saddle for stability and steering. ...
... The investigators speculated that cyclists might find the noseless saddle uncomfortable due to a perceived insecurity from the inability to rely on the anterior region of the saddle for stability and steering. They opine that the partial-cutout saddle is a suitable compromise, as it increases anterior tilt yet is very similar in shape to the traditional saddle [42]. ...
Article
IntroductionCycling is growing in popularity among women. As in men, it is associated with genital neuropathies and decreased sensation in female riders. However, there is a gap in research and information addressing the relationship between cycling and female sexual dysfunction (FSD) in women.AimsTo review the literature investigating pelvic floor injuries and sexual dysfunction in female cyclists.Methods Searches in several electronic databases were conducted, and relevant articles that met the inclusion criteria were identified for critical review.Main Outcome MeasuresThe main outcome measure to be determined was the strength of the current body of evidence in published literature of a correlation between cycling-related pelvic floor injuries and FSD.ResultsData on FSD from cycling-related injuries in women are limited. Research indicates that bicycle setup and riding equipment may be contributing factors. Women's ergonomics and physiology interact differently with the bicycle than men's. Current evidence offers insufficient foundation to recommend various effect-mitigating equipment and products.Conclusions While gender-specific cycling products offer a promising direction for protecting women riders, studies addressing FSD and pelvic floor injuries in women cyclists are inadequate to indicate clear etiology or provide treatment recommendations. Current evidence is also insufficient to recommend effect-mitigating equipment and products. Partin SN, Connell KA, Schrader SM, and Guess MK. Les lanternes rouges: The race for information about cycling-related female sexual dysfunction. J Sex Med **;**:**–**.
... Saddle and handlebar adjustment are the two critical variables for a correct cycling posture [2,9,[15][16][17]. Bicycles can be roughly classified into three types according to different handlebars, including top (high) handlebars, straight (brake) handlebars, and dropped (racing) handlebars [13,17]. ...
... That is, if the saddle can be moderately improved, the optimal TF would be increased from 38 to a more flexed trunk position. As a cyclist leans forward onto the handlebars of a bicycle, undesirable pressure is often applied to the anterior perineum [2]. In our study, 67.2% of sampled bicycles equipped traditional saddle with flat saddle surface. ...
... Only 4% of them were partial cutout design. This can explain why our TF, whatever measured or optimal one, was much lower than that of study done by Bressel and Larson [2]. They requested the female cyclists pedaled a stationary bike with their hands on the straight and drop of handlebars under three saddle types. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study attempts to find the optimal trunk flexion (TF) of a recreational cyclist's subjective discomfort rating while cycling. Two hundred and fifty cyclists were sagittally filmed while cycling on a cycle-way, and their subjective body discomforts were rated. The cyclists also responded to a brief questionnaire. Results show that the TF is positively related to the discomfort on neck/shoulders and is contrary to that on the buttocks. The bike owner cyclists’ (n = 144) trunks were more flexed than the bike rental cyclists’ (n = 106), with a difference of about 11°. This study also found that the cyclists may subjectively perceive the minimum discomforts of both the buttocks and neck/shoulders regions when the trunk was nearly flexed to 38°. This finding serves as a reference for ergonomic consideration in bike design to avoid extreme discomfort while cycling.
... As análises cinemáticas da coluna têm sido conduzidas a fim de identificar fatores de risco para a ocorrência de lombalgia, que pode ser recorrente entre ciclistas. No ciclismo, a busca por um método padrão para análise cinemática da coluna lombar limita-se aos poucos estudos e 784 metodologias desenvolvidas para tal (BRESSEL; LARSON, 2003;SAUER et al., 2007;USABIAGA et al., 1997). Acredita-se que a escassez de estudos deva-se a dificuldades metodológicas para quantificar a geometria vertebral em movimento e de forma precisa e acurada. ...
... As imagens adquiridas foram digitalizadas considerando os pontos anatômicos de referência para a análise do movimento angular da coluna lombar durante a pedalada. Após a digitalização das imagens e determinação dos ângulos, os dados foram filtrados em ambiente Matlab versão 7.0.1 (MathWorksInc, USA) através de um filtro passa-baixa do tipo Butterworth de segunda ordem e frequência de corte de 6 Hz (BRESSEL; LARSON, 2003). Os dados foram analisados em função do ângulo do PDV utilizando o programa Origin 6.0 Professional (Microcal., Inc., EUA). ...
... Na literatura consultada, nenhum estudo teve o objetivo de comparar o comportamento angular da coluna com a utilização de diferentes ajustes da altura do selim, mas sim, com diferentes modelos de selim (BRESSEL; LARSON, 2003), diferentes angulações do selim (USABIAGAet al., 1997) e em diferentes posições de agarre no guidom (SAUERet al., 2007). No entanto, é no selim que os maiores erros no ajuste corporal do ciclista na bicicleta são encontrados (MARTINS et al., 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of saddle height on the kinematics of the lumbar spine during cycling. Eight recreational cyclists were assessed in an usual situation (self-selected) and the situation of saddle properly adjusted while pedaling with a load set at 150 W. Using two-dimensional kinematic the angles of flexion, lateral inclination and rotation of the lumbar spine were computed. The flexion was greater in the adjusted position whereas the highest average tilt and rotation angles occurred in the usual position. There were two cycles of flexion-extension observed during a complete pedaling cycle, and only one cycle of lateral inclination and rotation. The major differences were observed at early, middle and end of the pedaling cycle. The mismanagement of the saddle did not involve significant changes in the kinematics of the lumbar spine for the conditions tested.
... Estudios más recientes han observado molestias y lesiones más frecuentes como son el dolor y adormecimiento en la zona perineal, la disfunción sexual o urológica, problemas de piel, o las molestias en la zona genital (Larsen et al., 2018), todas ellas ligadas al tipo de sillín utilizado. En concreto, las molestias en la zona perineal son bastante más frecuentes en las mujeres ciclistas que en los hombres (Bressel & Larson, 2003). ...
... Una vez conocidas las lesiones por sobreuso más frecuentes en mujeres ciclistas, que se producen alrededor de la zona genital, y que su incidencia es mayor que en los hombres (Bressel & Larson, 2003), en los últimos años, algunas de las marcas comerciales más importantes en el ámbito ciclista han comenzado a desarrollar modelos de sillín específicos para la mujer, adaptados a su anatomía. Los sillines específicos de mujer suelen caracterizarse por tener una mayor anchura que los sillines convencionales para hombres (i.e.; entre 150-180 mm y 130-155 mm, respectivamente) para adaptarse mejor a la mayor distancia entre tuberosidades isquiáticas que presentan las mujeres. ...
... Los sillines específicos de mujer han sido estudiados por diferentes autores, si bien no existe un claro consenso en relación a la geometría óptima para la mujer, variando las diferentes recomendaciones en función del estudio consultado. De esta forma, Bressel & Larson (2003) afirmaron que el sillín prostático sería más recomendable que los otros dos tipos de sillín (estándar y nuevos modelos), debido a que mantenía la estabilidad y el confort que otorgaba el sillín estándar, pero incrementaba a su vez la inclinación pélvica, lo que supuso que una mayor cantidad de peso corporal se distribuyera hacia el manillar. El sillín ovalado (nuevos modelos) incrementaba la flexión del tronco más que los otros dos sillines estudiados, pero comprometía tanto la estabilidad sobre la bicicleta como la comodidad de las ciclistas, por lo que no aconsejaban su uso. ...
Article
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Llevar una postura correcta sobre la bicicleta durante la práctica de ciclismo de carretera es muy importante para prevenir lesiones y mejorar el confort, el rendimiento y la seguridad. Una revisión de la literatura revela que un gran porcentaje de ciclistas sufre molestias ocasionadas por un incorrecto ajuste de la bicicleta o tipo de sillín utilizado. Entre las más comunes caben mencionarse el entumecimiento en la zona perineal, la excoriación o la hematuria. Específicamente en mujeres se ha detectado que tanto los diferentes modelos como los métodos de ajuste del sillín utilizados no son verdaderamente útiles, siendo las molestias en la zona perineal más frecuentes que en hombres. A la vista de estos problemas, en los últimos años se han desarrollado modelos de sillín específicos para mujer. Sin embargo, sólo unos pocos estudios han analizado el efecto de éstos sobre el confort en las mujeres durante el pedaleo.
... Previous studies on bicycle seats have primarily focused on analyzing traditional seats that exhibit protruding nodes (De Vey Mestdagh, 1998;Bressel and Larson, 2003;Bressel et al., 2007) or analyzing the seat pressure distribution for various commercial seats (Lowe et al., 2004;Sauer et al., 2007;Potter et al., 2008;Bressel et al., 2009). In summary, the protruding node length (PNL) is a crucial difference among various bicycle seats. ...
... This may be because it is simple to slip off a seat that lacks a protruding node (Dickson, 1985); however, this is unacceptable by riders (Lowe et al., 2004). Bressel and Larson (2003) also determined that most riders felt that the seat was uncomfortable. Therefore, an appropriate PNL design is critical; however, previous studies on various riding postures and subjective ratings have compared only commercially available bicycle seats (Bressel and Larson, 2003;Bressel et al., 2009;Lowe et al., 2004). ...
... Bressel and Larson (2003) also determined that most riders felt that the seat was uncomfortable. Therefore, an appropriate PNL design is critical; however, previous studies on various riding postures and subjective ratings have compared only commercially available bicycle seats (Bressel and Larson, 2003;Bressel et al., 2009;Lowe et al., 2004). In addition to PNL, the design variables for bicycle seats vary substantially and have not been thoroughly researched in previous studies, causing the understanding of the effect of PNL on riding posture and subjective ratings to be limited. ...
Article
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This study examined body posture, subjective discomfort, and stability, requiring the participants to ride a stationary bicycle for 20 min (cadence: 60 rpm; workrate: 120 W), using various combinations of two handle heights and five seat-protruding node lengths (PNLs). The results indicated that bicycle handle height significantly influenced body posture, and that seat PNL caused differences in the riders' subjective discomfort and stability scores. The various PNLs affected only the trunk angle (approximately 6°), but had significantly positive (r = 0.994, p < .005) and negative (r = -0.914, p < .05) correlations with the subjective discomfort rating for perineum and ischial tuberosity, respectively. When the participants were seated at PNL = 0 or 3 cm, cycling using dropped handles was less stable compared with using straight handles; however, the handle height did not affect the cycling stability when the PNL was ≥6 cm. The results suggest that a 6-cm PNL is the optimal reference for bicycle seat designs.
... Back pain in cyclists is common, occurring in 30-50% of athletes and 40,41 it may be attributed to the cyclists' position on the bicycle. 41 Cycling requires prolonged back flexion, which may cause muscular pain. Another mechanism is compression of the anterior portion of the intervertebral disk from forward pelvic tilt, which opens up the posterior side, tensing the posterior ligamentous complex, leading to LBP. ...
... A partially cut-out saddle design overcomes this, while still improving the back pain. 41 Another study showed a neutral lumbar positioning of the seat to alleviate up to 70% of back pain in cyclists. 11 Supple quadriceps and hamstrings, as well as good core strength for stability, together with correct bike fit, will go a long way to preventing back pain in cyclists. ...
... Para manter uma postura adequada é importante que haja uma harmonia entre as três áreas de contato que o ciclista tem com a bicicleta (Figura 1). São elas: as interfaces pelve-selim, mãos-guidão e sapatilha-pedal (COHEN, 1993;DE VEY MESTDAGH, 1998;SILBERMAN et al., 2005;BU et al., 2010;XIANG et al., 2011). Embora na figura 1 não esteja representado, outra possibilidade de posicionamento da mão do ciclista é sobre os manetes e parte superior do guidão. ...
... Um quadro de tamanho inapropriado ao ciclista pode dificultar, ou até mesmo comprometer, o ajuste por não permitir a realização dos ajustes necessários. Antropometria, dimensão, ajuste e postura sobre a bicicleta são variáveis que se correlacionam (SCHULTZ; GORDON, 2010;BU et al., 2010), e até a elaboração deste artigo não consta nenhuma pesquisa que tenha associado as variáveis entre si e com a ocorrência de lombalgia em ciclistas. Schultz e Gordon (2010) defendem a realização de um estudo que associe a antropometria do ciclista às dimensões da bicicleta e ajuste bem como a postura sobre a mesma, pois são variáveis que se correlacionam. ...
Article
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Low back pain is a common disorder in cyclists and it's occurrence has long been related mainly to a lack of flexibility. The aim of this study was to review the etiologic factors of low back pain in cyclists cited by articles from SciELO, PubMed and Scopus, published from 1965 to 2011, indicated, when appropriate, by books cited in these articles. The results indicated that excessive trunk flexion, leg length discrepancy, frame size and/or other components of inappropriate length, poor bike fit or improper bike fit, lumbopelvic muscle weakness, poor flexibility and postural deviations may compromise performance and comfort of the cyclist on the bike, especially during long distance riding and may lead to the development of low back pain. Therefore, the cyclist with back pain should be evaluated based on different variables described in literature with the purpose of identifying the etiologic factors may trigger lumbar dysfunction to make the necessary corrections.
... Para manter uma postura adequada é importante que haja uma harmonia entre as três áreas de contato que o ciclista tem com a bicicleta (Figura 1). São elas: as interfaces pelve-selim, mãos-guidão e sapatilha-pedal (COHEN, 1993;DE VEY MESTDAGH, 1998;SILBERMAN et al., 2005;BU et al., 2010;XIANG et al., 2011). Embora na figura 1 não esteja representado, outra possibilidade de posicionamento da mão do ciclista é sobre os manetes e parte superior do guidão. ...
... Um quadro de tamanho inapropriado ao ciclista pode dificultar, ou até mesmo comprometer, o ajuste por não permitir a realização dos ajustes necessários. Antropometria, dimensão, ajuste e postura sobre a bicicleta são variáveis que se correlacionam (SCHULTZ; GORDON, 2010;BU et al., 2010), e até a elaboração deste artigo não consta nenhuma pesquisa que tenha associado as variáveis entre si e com a ocorrência de lombalgia em ciclistas. Schultz e Gordon (2010) defendem a realização de um estudo que associe a antropometria do ciclista às dimensões da bicicleta e ajuste bem como a postura sobre a mesma, pois são variáveis que se correlacionam. ...
Article
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A dor lombar é uma disfunção comum entre ciclistas e há tempos sua ocorrência tem sido relacionada ao ajuste dos componentes da bicicleta e sua relação com as características anatômicas do ciclista. O objetivo do presente estudo foi revisar os fatores etiológicos da lombalgia em ciclistas considerando artigos das bases de dados SciELO, PubMed e Scopus, publicados de 1965 a 2011, complementados, quando pertinente, por referências de livros citados por estes artigos. Os resultados indicam que flexão de tronco excessiva, discrepância de comprimento dos membros inferiores, quadro e/ou demais componentes da bicicleta de dimensão inapropriada, falta de ajuste da bicicleta ou ajuste inadequado, fraqueza da musculatura lombo-pélvica, déficit de flexibilidade e desvios posturais pode comprometer o desempenho e o conforto do ciclista sobre a bicicleta, principalmente em percursos de longa distância, podendo levar à lombalgia. Desta forma, o ciclista com lombalgia deve ser avaliado quanto às diferentes variáveis apontadas na literatura de modo a identificar os fatores etiológicos desencadeadores da disfunção lombar para proceder as correções necessárias.
... In the PS only, the TH position showed greater values than the DH position, similarly to what was described in Bressel and Cronin 2005 [12]. This behavior can be attributed to the different posture that characterizes the TH position with respect to the DH, where pelvic and trunk angles are generally lower, accompanied by a lower activity of triceps brachii [38]. It should be further mentioned that in the LH position, an increase on all the variables relative to the AS, with respect to the TH, was documented, while in the PS, lower values were recorded with respect to the TH position and higher than the DH. ...
... Secondly, the six different conditions (TH, DH, LH * with/without Equistasi ® ) were always tested in the same order, similarly to Bressel and Cronin 2005 [12]. Even if a similar choice was made by Bressel et al. [38] who studied the influence of bicycle seat design on cyclist posture, it represents one of the limitations of our study. Another limitation can be found in the differences existing among cyclists' saddles that might have affected the different responses documented among the athletes. ...
Article
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When pedaling, the excessive pressure on the seat has the potential to produce injuries and this can strongly affect sport performance. Recently, a large effort has been dedicated to the reduction of the pressure occurring at the saddle region. Our work aims to verify the possibility of modifying cyclists’ pedaling posture, and consequently the pressure on the saddle, by applying a proprioceptive stimulus. Equistasi® (Equistasi srl, Milano, Italy) is a wearable device that emits focal mechanical vibrations able to transform the body temperature into mechanical vibratory energy via the embedded nanotechnology. The data acquired through a pressure mapping system (GebioMized®) on 70 cyclists, with and without Equistasi®, were analyzed. Pedaling in three positions was recorded on a spin trainer: with hands on the top, hands on the drop handlebar, and hands on the lever. Average force, contact surface, and average and maximum pressure each in different regions of the saddle were analyzed, as well as integral pressure time and center of pressure. In the comparisons between hands positions, overall pressure and force variables were significantly lower in the drop-handlebar position at the rear saddle (p < 0.03) and higher in hand-on-lever and drop-handlebar positions at the front saddle (p < 0.01). When applying the Equistasi device, the contact surface was significantly larger in all hand positions (p < 0.05), suggesting that focal stimulation of the lumbar proprioceptive system can change cyclists’ posture.
... RWGDBAK5A52gVooq9), link sent by email on the 7th June 2019), whereof nine were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. The pre-screening questionnaire was used to collect the participants' age, height, body mass, hip circumference, cycling experience, yearly cycling distance, type of saddle (defined as standard, partial cut-out or complete cutout (Bressel and Larson 2003)), and current size in cycling shorts. Height, body mass and thigh circumference were used to determine the correct size of cycling bib shorts to the participants. ...
... Ã Between-group difference (p < .05). ÃÃ Saddle type defined according to Bressel and Larson (2003). ...
Article
This randomised controlled field study aimed to design a female-specific cycling pad with reduced padding in the crotch area (half-pad) and test its effects on self-reported sensory manifestations in comparison with full-padded cycling bib shorts. Recreational female road cyclists (n = 183) participated (divided into two groups). Self-reported sensory manifestations were collected six times over 12 weeks. Sitting discomfort, wetness perception, thermal, texture sensation, and wear discomfort decreased over time for the crotch and sitting-bones areas in both groups. Irritation and tenderness in the crotch area also decreased over time in both groups. Irritation and tenderness in the sitting-bones area were only higher at week two in the half-pad compared with the full-pad group. Cycling with the half-padded shorts compared with the full-padded ones had no negative effects on sensory manifestations beside the observed transient change at week two. This suggests that foam thickness in the crotch area can be reduced in female-specific cycling pads. Practitioner’s Summary: Road cycling might result in discomfort and non-traumatic injuries in the female genital area. This field study compares two different cycling pads; a half-pad and a full-pad, over a 12-week period among female recreational road cyclists. Reducing the foam thickness in the crotch area of the pad does not change sensory manifestations, i.e. discomfort, wetness perception, texture-, and thermal-sensation as well as wear discomfort. Abbreviations: CS-Q: online Cycling bib Shorts Questionnaire; VADER: Valence Aware Dictionary and sEntiment Reasoner
... Geometry variables are defined by this paper as any adjustable bicycle fit parameter that influences any one of the three contact points (i.e., the pedals, saddle, and handlebars) between the cyclist and the bicycle. Some common geometry variables studied by researchers for road and/or time-trial bicycling include saddle height [3], crank length [4][5][6], shape of the front chain ring [7][8], seattube angle (STA) [9][10][11], as well as saddle design [12][13]. In contrast to geometry variables, other researchers have focused on body kinematics and/or performance outcomes that result from cyclists interacting with a bicycle or cycle ergometer with a fixed geometry. ...
... Thus, these studies were able to relate changes in bicycle geometry to subsequent changes in body kinematics, which then helped explain changes in physiological parameters. Interestingly, with the exception of studies focused on saddle design and comfort [12], the use of pelvic tilt angle (PTA) as a kinematic marker is almost non-existent in cycling studies. This seems unusual because the hip extensor muscles responsible for power production during cycling all originate on the pelvis. ...
Article
Studies have previously documented how changes in cycling body kinematics are related to submaximal energetics and power output, as well as cycling performance, but few have focused specifically on how body kinematics will vary with changes in bicycle geometry. This study sought to describe kinematic changes resulting from the systematic change of several bicycle geometry variables: Trunk angle ("low" and "high" positions), seat-tube angle (76 and 80), saddle tilt angle (0 to-10), saddle sitting position (middle or nose), as well as two types of saddles. Methods: Well-trained cyclists were kinematically evaluated across specific combinations of geometry variables using a modified cycle ergometer at a standard relative power. Standard two-dimensional sagittal-view kinematics from the left side were used to summarize a collection of kinematic variables: Trunk angle, hip angle (HA), knee angle, pelvic tilt angle, and two "composite" angles called body position and pelvic position (PP). Finally, each trial was also evaluated for frontal area (FA; m 2) from stationary digital photography. Data were evaluated using repeated measures ANOVA (=0.05) to evaluate change in kinematics between trials, as well as regression analysis to determine predictability of performance markers (HA and FA) from the collection of geometry and kinematic variables. Results: Changing trunk angle had the greatest impact on other kinematic variables, while saddle type had no influence. Regression showed that geometry variables could explain 75-85% of the variability in either HA or FA, while 78-79% of the variation in HA and 83-84% of FA was explained by PP alone. Conclusions: The composite kinematic measure PP was generally a better predictor of both HA and FA than any combination of geometry variables. These results can serve as a starting point for understanding the interactions between bicycle geometry and body kinematics, both of which are important determinants of power generation and aerodynamic drag.
... Additional markers were attached to the anterior surface of the patella and to the anterior surface of the cycling shoe in the frontal plane (see Figure 2(b)), as described previously (Bailey et al., 2003). For the measurement of pelvic and trunk angles in the sagittal plane, markers were attached to the anterior superior iliac spine and the posterior superior iliac spine, as reported by Bressel and Larson (2003). Participants had their own bicycles mounted on a stationary wind trainer (Kingcycle, Buckinghamshire, UK) and were asked to assume the position as similar as possible to outdoors cycling. ...
... The medio-lateral position of the knee relative to the pedal axis in the frontal plane was determined as described elsewhere (Ericson et al., 1984). Pelvic and trunk angles were computed as reported by Bressel and Larson (2003). All angles were measured at the 3 o'clock and 6 o'clock crank positions. ...
Article
This study compared the presence of pain in recreational and competitive road cyclists and body position on the bicycle between cyclists with and without pain. Seventy-one cyclists completed a survey reporting existing cycling-related sites of pain and comfort. Static sagittal and frontal plane images were taken to analyse body position on the bicycle. Participants were separated into recreational and competitive road cycling groups, and further into cyclists reporting pain in the upper body, low back, buttocks/hips and knees for comparison with cyclists without pain. A logistic regression model investigated possible predictors of pain whilst cycling. Pain was present in 67% of recreational and 70% of competitive cyclists whilst comfort was reported by 81% of recreational and 75% of competitive cyclists. Trivial to moderate non-significant differences were observed for body position on the bicycle between cyclists with and without pain, and between cyclists with and without pain in the upper body, low back, buttocks/hips and knees. The predictive logistic model was not significant (p = 0.07) with a model fit predicted by McFadden R² of 0.07. Given most cyclists reported both pain and comfort, comfort is probably not a good predictor of overuse injury risk.
... Although cycling was predominantly a man's sport, in recent years women have increasingly joined its ranks raising the issue of genito-urinary pathologies [24][25][26][27]. ...
Article
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The saddle is one of the most complex bicycle components providing both comfort and support while pedalling. Several studies have been carried out on bicycle saddles in recent years including medical ones to identify any correlated pathologies, and others to optimize design and sports performance. There are various types of commercially available saddles but they are all fixed geometry. The main identifiers of these designs are their length, nose inclination and the geometry of the support of the ischial tuberosities and pubic rami (wide, narrow, flat, furrowed etc.). So as the literature suggests, the fixed-geometry saddle on today’s market has only partly resolved the anatomical pathologies related to extended saddle time. Consequently, the aim of this study is to develop, through interactive Re-design methodology, a variable geometry saddle (VGS) prototype for amateur cyclists capable of reducing the onset of saddle pathologies and improving pedalling comfort. The VGS was developed which can be adjusted to the physico-anatomical requirements of the rider as well as to various ride conditions (uphill, flat and downhill). The simple adjusters affect nose inclination and the width of the saddle back. In particular, the nose mechanism allows on-the-fly adjustment. The VGS developed could also allow the cyclist to identify the most congenial subjective geometry to help choose among commercial alternatives. An electroneurograph test on the pudendum nerve was also performed on five male amateur cyclists to see whether there were any effects with a variable saddle geometry compared to a fixed-geometry commercial saddle.
... However, the extent of the body weight and thus pressure being transferred through each anatomical point depends on the cyclists' individual riding position and the anterior-posterior rotation angle of the pelvis on the saddle. 1 With advances in technology we are now able to measure the pressure at the interface between the cyclist and the saddle. The reliability and validity of bicycle seat interface pressure measurements has previously been studied. ...
Article
Objectives: To compare pressure load and distribution in various saddle zones through a range of workloads in order to provide clinicians and bike fitters with a better understanding of how to optimise saddle positioning. Design: Experimental, quantitative study. Methods: Saddle pressure of seventeen male well-trained cyclists was recorded at 60, 80 and 90% of maximal heart rate, based on data collected during a peak power output test. Results: Loaded area increased significantly and progressively with increased workload while mean pressure did not change significantly. Point of load indexes in longitudinal and transverse planes both increased significantly and progressively with increases in workload. Distribution of load did not change with intensity. Conclusions: Saddle pressure mapping should ideally be performed at an intensity similar to that which the cyclist will encounter during the majority of their training and racing. Comparative measurements of saddle pressures should also standardise workload intensity to ensure reliability of these measurements.
... Moreover, prolonged sitting has been associated with creep deformation in the lumbar viscoelastic tissues [25]. Cyclists spend a large amount of time training on their bicycles to elicit a physiological training effect, and this training may influence lumbar spinal curvature [26,27]. ...
Article
Objectif Comparer la courbure lombaire dans plusieurs postures entre cyclistes d’élite et sujets non sportifs. Méthodes Un total de 60 cyclistes et 68 sujets sédentaires (groupe témoin), d’âges similaires (moyenne d’âge : 21,94 ± 2,86 ans) ont participé au test en laboratoire. La courbure lombaire a été mesurée avec un Spinal Mouse® en position assise, détendue, flexion maximum du tronc en position assise avec les genoux fléchis, sur le test sit-and-reach et assis sur le vélo avec prise en haut du guidon, prise au niveau moyen du guidon, et prise au niveau du bas du guidon. Résultats Les cyclistes ont démontré une flexion lombaire significative et plus grande que le groupe contrôle (p < 0,008) dans les postures évaluées. Cependant, on n’a pas trouvé de différences dans la posture position debout. Sur le vélo, dans les trois prises du guidon (haut, moyen et bas), les cyclistes ont montré une courbure lombaire plus grande que le groupe témoin (25,33° ; 26,02° ; 28,47° chez les cyclistes ; 22,27° ; 23,04° ; 24,25° dans le groupe de sujets sédentaires). Conclusions Le cyclisme produit des adaptations spécifiques de la courbure lombaire quand on réalise des postures de flexion du tronc. Les cyclistes ont montré une flexion lombaire plus grande que les non sportifs en posture assise sur le vélo. On peut en conclure que l’entraînement en cyclisme ne paraît pas influer sur la courbure lombaire en position debout.
... Cyclists are usually oriented to sustain the physiological curvature of their spine while cycling. However, as long as the trunk is positioned forward, a lower level of flexibility of posterior thigh muscles combined with the saddle type (mainly in the saddles with plane surface) acts directly to hamper the anterior pelvic tilt 23,24 .Therefore, the position on the bike may lead to increased pressure on the anterior region of the vertebra and stretches the ligaments from posterior region, which implies discomforts and low back pain 22 . It would contribute to increase muscle activation aiming at sustenance of the spine posture throughout the exercise. ...
... Upper body is also affected by changes in bicycle components. Trunk and pelvis show decreased and increased angles, respectively, when the hands are moved away from the body (e.g., when cyclists change from the brake hoods to the drops) (Bressel and Larson 2003). Table 1 Range of motion (ROM) measured in road and mountain-bike cyclists during pedaling at steady-state workload corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold and using their own bicycle mounted in a cycle simulator (Carpes et al. 2006). ...
Chapter
In this chapter, we intend to present information on the kinematics of cycling for recreational and professional plural. Considering that the kinematics of cycling can be affected by many aspects, we opted to discuss some of the more frequent issues that have been covered in the literature on segmental movements during cycling. We believe this chapter is an introductory reading for undergraduates and graduate students interested in understanding how kinematics can change during cycling and why it is important for training and competition. Although we mention in some sections information about technical details of motion capture systems, our purpose is not to provide a full discussion on how motion capture works. We started the chapter by introducing the importance of assessing kinematics of cyclists. We also included a brief summary with the state of the art in the use of kinematics for cycling assessment. The chapter follows with the discussion of selected topics, including the effects of body position, exercise intensity, pedaling cadence, fatigue, bike fit, and training level on the segmental movements during pedaling. Finally, we discuss some implications of segmental movements on force production and injury risk among cyclists. The chapter is finished with our conclusions and comments on future directions for research in this topic.
... Estes estudos biomecânicos possuem diferentes aspectos, desde os que primam por temas da engenharia mecânica, como as análises das resistências aerodinâmicas, geralmente fazendo uso de avaliações em túnel de vento (KYLE, 1989;KYLE, 1990), análises sobre perspectivas médicas, relacionadas com a dinâmica muscular (GREGOR, KOMI, BROWING et al., 1991;JORGE & HULL, 1986), e também perspectivas cinemáticas e cinéticas RUBY, HULL & HAWKINS, 1992;SANDERSON & BLACK, 2003;BRESSEL & LARSON, 2003;DIEFENTHAELER, 2004;CARPES, BINI, NABINGER et al., 2005;CARPES, ROSSATO, SANTOS et al., 2005). ...
Thesis
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A medida das forças envolvidas na pedalada é uma das mais sofisticadas metodologias aplicadas nas ciências do esporte para avaliação da técnica de pedalada. A técnica de pedalada é avaliada com base na habilidade dos ciclistas em produzir e aplicar força aos pedais. Diversas variáveis de controle de desempenho podem ser monitoradas com a aplicação de pedais instrumentados. No entanto, observa-se que um pequeno número de estudos considera as diferenças entre os membros na capacidade de gerar força, o que possivelmente ocorre devido a limitações de instrumentação, pois pedais instrumentados são normalmente unilaterais e construídos por laboratórios de pesquisa, não sendo disponíveis comercialmente. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um sistema de pedais instrumentados que possibilitem o monitoramento das forças aplicadas nos pedais direito e esquerdo, com características que não modifiquem o padrão normal de movimento e que possam ser utilizados em diferentes bicicletas e ciclo ergômetros. Para a instrumentação, os eixos dos pedais (direito e esquerdo) modelo Shimano SPD para ciclismo mountain-bike foram modificados a fim de que fossem montados 8 extensömetros em cada eixo e dispostos em duas colunas e conectados em duas pontes de Wheatstone completas, sendo uma para o monitoramento da deformação do eixo decorrente da força aplicada no sentido horizontal e outra para medir a deformação decorrente das forças aplicadas no sentido vertical ao plano do pedal. Com o eixo fixo ao corpo do pedal, uma peça foi especialmente desenvolvida para abrigar rolamentos que permitem a conexão e o movimento relativo do pedal com o pé-devela, a fim de permitir a montagem dos fios dos extensômetros. Esta peça permite o uso do sistema de diferentes bicicletas e ciclo ergômetros. O sistema foi calibrado e apresentou relação linear entre as cargas aplicadas e as tensões de saída nas pontes de Wheatstone que monitoram esforços horizontais e verticais em ambos os pedais. Uma matriz de calibração foi desenvolvida para a conversão das tensões em magnitudes de força, assim como uma matriz de interferência foi montada para corrigir o acoplamento entre as medidas verticais e horizontais devido ao desalinhamento entre os sensores. Para ambos os pedais a histerese foi menor que 0,6%. Para o pedal direito, a sensibilidade na ponte normal foi de 2,5 mV/N e na ponte tangencial foi de 2,6 mV/N. Para o pedal esquerdo a sensibilidade foi de 2,4 mV/N e 2,7 mV/N para a ponte normal e tangencial respectivamente. A resolução do sistema, para ambos os pedais, foi sempre menor que 0,5 N, enquanto que o erro estimado a partir da matriz de calibração foi de 1% para a ponte normal direita e 2% para a ponte tangencial direita, e pontes normal e tangencial esquerdas. Conclui-se que o sistema apresentou características estáticas que permitem sua aplicação prática na avaliação de atletas devido ao baixo erro, satisfatória resolução e linearidade observada entre as cargas aplicadas e as tensões de saída nas pontes tangenciais e normais.
... The lengths of the thigh, the shank and the distance from lateral malleolus to the floor were used to compute the lower limb length (Mellion, 1991). Joint angles of the hip, knee, and ankle were calculated from the xÁy coordinate data, as shown in Figure 2. Markers attached to the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) as reported by Bressel and Larson (2003) allowed measurement of pelvic and trunk angles in the sagittal plane at the 3 o'clock and 6 o'clock crank positions. From the image of the participant seated on the bicycle with the right pedal in the most forward position (3 o'clock crank position) the anteriorÁposterior position of the knee in relation to the pedal axis was measured to assess saddle anteriorÁposterior configuration. ...
Article
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Abstract Our study evaluated differences in body position on the bicycle for recreational cyclists, competitive cyclists and triathletes. Thirty-six recreational cyclists, 17 competitive road cyclists and 18 competitive triathletes were assessed for body position on their bicycles on a cycle trainer. Images were taken of cyclists/triathletes in static poses with the crank at the 3 o'clock and 6 o'clock positions. Trunk, pelvis, hip, knee and ankle angles, anterior-posterior and medio-lateral positions of the knees in relation to the pedal axis and frontal projected area were measured using ImageJ. Comparison of body position between groups (recreational, competitive road cyclists and competitive triathletes) was conducted using effects sizes (ES). The greatest differences between groups in the measured variables were observed between the triathletes and the other two groups. Smaller differences were observed between competitive and recreational cyclists. Competitive triathletes had greater body forward projection (10% greater trunk flexion and 66% knee anterior position, ES = 2.5 and 1.2, respectively) and less frontal projected area (17%, ES = 1.3) than competitive road cyclists for body position on the bicycle. Both recreational and competitive cyclists sat on their bicycles with their trunks in a more vertical position compared to triathletes. Guidelines for bicycle configuration for triathletes and road cyclists need to consider the body positions during events.
... On the other hand, the importance of accurate measurements of the pedal forces enhances the use of cycle-ergometer in laboratories for training and testing purposes [12]. Moreover, it can be stated that the apparent simple movement of pedalling actually involves the entire body [13] of the rider and many researches concern the seat design [14], the hand position on the handlebar [15], a method to determine cycling posture via an automatic saddle height-control system [16] or aerodynamic study with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis and wind-tunnel tests [17]. ...
Conference Paper
Recent studies in Biomechanics are focused on postural optimization in cycling: among the numerous mechanical parameters the Seat Tube Angle (STA) is analyzed as the one that may influence the performance of cycling and triathlon athletes. In particular, it was conjectured that the STA may affect the biomechanical efficiency of a cyclist. The diffusion of this conjecture is testified by the frequent use of tuning techniques intending to get the ”optimal” STA angle by professional teams. In order to define a model of the biomechanical efficiency based on mechanical parameters, this paper presents a preliminary study aiming to confirm (or deny) this conjecture which asserts that a realistic biomechanical model has to include the STA as the independent (input) variable. The natural dependent (output) variable is the biomechanical efficiency measured by a new virtual sensor which hinges on both a dynamic and a static physiological model. In particular, those models where used to determine a range of mechanical and physiological values that guarantees a linear relationship between the biomechanical efficiency and the oxygen uptake. A two-phase experiment was designed to determine how changes in frame geometry during sub-maximal cycle ergometry have effects on the biomechanical efficiency. In particular, different STA positions were tested to argue if the STA is actually related to the cyclist performances. The methodology adopted was selected in order to keep constant all the major exogenous variables but the STA. The design of experiment results in a rigid protocol implemented on 14 subjects. The preliminary data analysis seems to suggest the existence of a relationship between the STA variation and the cycling efficiency. To prove an explicit relationship for all the athletes involved a more detailed statistical analysis is required. Further studies will investigate this particular aspect.
... Owing to the presence of the sole, the properties of foot rests have a negligible effect on comfort, conversely the geometric, stiffness and damping properties of handles and saddle have a large influence on the contact stresses between the body and the bicycle. Several bio-mechanical studies have been carried out to study and improve the characteristics of saddles and clothing (pants and gloves) [2,3]. ...
Conference Paper
The correlation between the modal properties and the comfort characteristics of a utility, step-through frame bicycle are investigated. In-plane modal testing of the vehicle is carried out both without and with the rider, and the major differences between the results obtained with the two conditions are highlighted. In order to have an insight into the contribution of the various bicycle components to the transmission of vibrations, the frequency response functions (FRFs) between the main interface points in the vehicle structure are measured and studied. Finally, the modal characteristics are compared with road tests data, emphasizing the relationship between the in-plane vibration modes and the main peaks in the acceleration power spectral densities (PSDs) measured on the road.
... Fig. 4. Illustration of the mean saddle vertical reaction force and mean sum of forces applied on the trunk (presented in Eq. (1)) patterns for all participants (n¼25) for power output ¼20% of the sit-stand transition power. erectile dysfunction associated with cycling (Bressel et al., 2010;Bressel and Larson, 2003;Carpes et al., 2009;Lowe et al., 2004). Indeed, the inconsistency of the patterns of saddle force observed previously (Bolourchi and Hull, 1985;Stone and Hull, 1995;Wilson and Bush, 2007) can be explained by the different pedaling conditions used in these studies. ...
... In addition, this study suggests that improving bike settings and considering the specificities imposed by high force pedaling on the whole body during training may improve cycling performance. Clinicians, researchers, and manufacturers trying to understand the etiology of groin injuries and erectile dysfunction associated with cycling (Bressel and Larson, 2003;Lowe et al., 2004;Carpes et al., 2009;Bressel et al., 2010) should also consider the factors associated with saddle forces. ...
Conference Paper
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We hypothesized that the saddle vertical force would be a critical parameter to explain the sitto-stand transition during cycling. Twenty-five participants were required to pedal at six different powers ranging from 20 (1.6 ± 0.3 W.kg-1) to 120% (9.6 ± 1.6 W.kg-1) of their Sit-to-Stand Transition Power (SSTP) at 90 RPM. Five 6-component sensors recorded the loads applied on the saddle, pedals and handlebars. The results showed that the saddle vertical force decreased with increasing cycling power, from a static position on the bicycle (5.30 ± 0.50 N.kg-1) to 120% of SSTP (0.68 ± 0.49 N.kg-1). Pedal and handlebar force directions were reversed around SSTP, suggesting that the seated position may become constraining in these pedalling conditions. These results suggest that the saddle vertical reaction force may be predictive of the sit-to-stand transition in cycling, and that pedalling in the seated position at high crank forces add constraints on the cyclist, explaining the spontaneous change in coordination mode.
Article
Objectives Saddle sores are a prominent but an under investigated health issue among female competitive cyclists. To identify and describe existing evidence of the prevalence, prevention and treatment of saddle sores among female competitive cyclists. Design Systematic scoping review and expert consultation. Methods Primary studies and grey literature investigating saddle sores for competitive female cyclists were identified from six databases which were systematically searched (Medline; PubMed; Scopus; SPORTDiscus; Embase; Advanced Google Scholar) from 1990 onwards. An online survey was distributed to consultants in the female Australian competitive cycling community to obtain information and expert perspectives outside the published literature. Results Of the 401 studies identified, 10 met the inclusion criteria – 4 were case-series, 4 were cross-sectional, and 2 were brief intervention trials. There was limited empirical evidence to determine the prevalence, and identify prevention and treatment approaches for saddle sores. Handlebar positioning relative to the saddle and reducing perineal pressure had some evidence. Saddle sore treatments appear to be limited to antibiotics and surgical intervention when they worsen or become infected. Yet, three-quarters of the consultants (n = 16) indicated saddle sores were frequent among female competitive cyclists, identifying prevention and management strategies as topical creams, maintaining good hygiene, wearing appropriate clothing, leg elevation and taking time off the bike. Conclusions There is limited research investigating the prevalence, prevention and treatment of saddle sores among female competitive cyclists, although it has been described as a common occurrence by those in the cycling community. Research is required to understand its prevalence, along with trials to investigate prevention and management methods, so that evidence informed guidelines and/or protocols can be developed.
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Lower back pain (LBP) appears to be a common overuse injury in cycling. However, there are few scientific studies that report on the epidemiology and risk factors associated with LBP in cyclists. The prolonged flexed posture that a cyclist maintains may lead to increased mechanical strain of the lumbar spine, causing LBP. In this article, the epidemiology, pathomechanics and risk factors associated with LBP in cyclists will be critically reviewed. An extensive literature review was conducted using an evidence-based approach. Using selective keywords (lower back pain, cyclists, bicycle set-up, risk factors) a search was undertaken on the PubMed database to identify all research publications that relate to lower back pain in cyclists. Although epidemiological studies were limited, LBP was shown to be a common cycling overuse injury. The point prevalence of LBP in cyclists ranged from 10-60%. It has been suggested that LBP in cyclists may be prevented by adjusting certain bicycle parameters to match the anthropometric measurements of the cyclist. Pathomechanical hypotheses for the development of LBP in cyclists are poorly supported, and most studies were conducted over time periods shorter than one hour. Monitoring cyclists over a longer period of cycling may yield more accurate data. There is strong evidence supporting the incorrect saddle angle as an intrinsic risk factor is associated with LBP in cyclists. In conclusion, additional research on the epidemiology of LBP in cyclists is necessary. Further research studies, such as case control and intervention studies are necessary to study pathomechanics and risk factors associated with LBP in cyclists
Article
Purpose Female cyclists undergo a perineal compression of the pudendal nerve and genital-perineal area, with underexplored effects on genital injuries and sexual dysfunctions. This study tests the effects of a new geometric bicycle saddle (SMP) on perineal compression, blood perfusion, genital sensation and sexual function. Methods Thirty-three professional female athletes were monitored when using both the new saddle and a traditional professional saddle, in a randomized order. Short-term effects are estimated by measuring the partial pressure of vagina transcutaneous oxygen (PtcO2) before using the saddle, after 10 minutes of static sitting, after riding 20 minutes. Long-term effects are estimated by measuring athletes Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS) before using the new saddle and after 6 months using it. Results From an initial average of 70 mmHg, PtcO2 decreases by 30 mmHg after riding on a traditional saddle, 10 mmHg on the new saddle (respectively 20 and 7 after just sitting). When using the traditional saddle all FSDS scores are well over the 12 “normality” threshold, with an average of 41, while after using the new saddle the average falls to 12. All differences between the saddles are strongly significant: paired t-tests > 6; P < 0.001; 95% confidence intervals respectively 13 ± 3 mmHg after sitting, 20 ± 3 mmHg after riding, 29 ± 2 FSDS scores. Conclusion Traditional saddles have strong negative effects on the vascular perfusion of the vulva, with possible consequences on female sexual functions. The SMP saddle reduces the compression on the pelvic floor and can help reducing the incidence of urogenital pathologies for female cyclists.
Book
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Bicycles have been a common device to enhance physical fitness level in gyms and training centers along with solid use in competitive sport. For that reason, biomechanics of cycling has grown as a research field with many publications addressing different perspective of the interaction between the cyclist and his bicycle. The most common end point of research on biomechanics of cycling is optimization of performance and reduction of injury risk. One goal of this book is to meet the growing need for a comprehensive presentation of contemporary knowledge on biomechanics of cycling which will positively influence the activity of cycling in a global fashion. In order to accomplish this purpose, ten chapters are presented with focus on varying methods for biomechanical analysis of cycling motion. The introduction section provides an overview of the main methods for assessment of cycling motion, including motion analysis, pedal force measurements, muscle activation, anthropometry and joint kinetics. These methods are discussed in depth in individual chapters followed by chapters on characteristics of bicycles and potential perspectives to improve their configuration in order to improve performance of cyclists and reduce their overuse injury risk. Moreover, a preliminary method to train technique in cyclists is shown. A final chapter provides authors perspective on the upcoming technology that should be effective in helping training of cyclists. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. All rights are reserved.
Article
Hip pathology is common amongst athletes and the general population. The mechanics of cycling have the potential to exacerbate symptomatic hip pathology and progress articular pathology in patients with morphologic risk factors such as femoroacetabular impingement. A professional fit of the bicycle to the individual which aims to optimize hip joint function can allow patients with hip pathology to exercise in comfort when alternative high impact exercise such as running may not be possible. Conversely improper fit of the bicycle can lead to hip symptoms in otherwise healthy individuals who present with risk factors for hip pain. Accordingly a bike fit can form part of the overall management strategy in a cyclist with hip symptoms. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to discuss hip pathomechanics with respect to cycling, bicycle fitting methodology and the options available to a physical therapist to optimize hip mechanics during the pedaling action.
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The effects of EMG, HR, RPE and low back pain to legs in different exercise bikes riding positions were studied. In the condition of sixty RPM (revolutions per minute), the subjects are sixteen healthy graduates riding exercise bikes three minutes in five different seat positions (Standard, Forward, Backward, Up, Down), and use BioPacMP150, POLAR watch and VAS to record the changes of legs EMG, HR, RPE and Low back pain. When riding, turning the seat position upward, EMG signals is larger, HR, RPE and low back pain are also higher. In different riding seat positions really can bring out different muscular contraction, HR, RPE, and low back pain. The differences will provide references to exercise bike riders. Keywords : Exercise Bikes, Electromygraphy (EMG), Heart Rate (HR), Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE).
Chapter
L’hypertrophie des petites lèvres, généralement sans conséquence, peut parfois être source d’irritation locale (accentuée par les modes vestimentaires: jeans très serrés, string…), de gêne dans les rapports sexuels et de gêne d’ordre esthétique.
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This study aims to systematically review existing literature on the association between erectile dysfunction (ED) and bicycling. Furthermore, it wants to suggest preventive measures to minimize the risk of ED associated with bicycle riding. It was revealed that to date, no sufficient evidence exists to either attribute a simple causal relationship between bicycle riding and ED, nor to refute this relationship. There is need for further research to determine if bicycling is an independent risk factor for the development of ED. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapter
Cycling may induce urogenital problems in men and women. This research aimed at investigating the effects of chamois design on seat pressure distribution during cycling. Maximum seat pressures were quantified for nine male test persons using three different chamois designs (thick, thin and no chamois) using a pressure mat. The effects of chamois design, work rate and hand position were tested on maximum pressure at the perineum region, the left hip bone region and the right hip bone region. The study showed that chamois design affected maximum pressures on the saddle. The thick chamois had an overall maximum pressure of 640 mbar (SE 14), which was 50 mbar lower than the thin chamois design. The results suggest that the effect of chamois design on urogenital compression syndromes may be underestimated.
Thesis
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O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a produção de torque durante 40 km de ciclismo, verificando também as relações entre simetria na produção de torque, influência do membro dominante e intensidade do exercício (%VO2máx). Um grupo de 5 ciclistas da modalidade mountain bike cross country (idade média de 24,4 anos, estatura de 1,81 m, massa corporal de 73,48 kg, e VO2máx de 55,16 ml.kg-1.min-1) foi submetido a dois protocolos de avaliação com intervalo de no máximo 48 h, sendo o primeiro um teste para determinação do consumo máximo de oxigênio em protocolo de rampa (100 W iniciais com incremento de 25 W.min-1), utilizando o cicloergômetro SRM Training System e analisador de gases Aerosport TEEM 100. O segundo protocolo consistiu na realização de uma prova simulada de 40 km no cicloergômetro SRM Training System, onde foi analisado o consumo de oxigênio e o torque propulsivo produzido pelos membros inferiores. O torque foi analisado durante 10 s, a cada 5 minutos durante os 40 km, sendo assumida como assimetria diferenças percentuais iguais ou superiores a 10% entre os picos do membro direito e esquerdo. O tempo médio para percorrer os 40 km foi 62 min 35 s, e a intensidade mantida foi em média 66,33 %VO2máx. Os resultados mostram que em relação a simetria na produção de torque, cada ciclista apresentou uma resposta diferenciada ao protocolo. O torque médio durante os 40 km apresentou uma correlação de 0,87 com o pico de torque nos 40 km. Com relação à simetria na produção de torque, os resultados mostraram que os ciclistas possuem características de assimetria, entretanto, a mesma variou durante os 40 km e entre os ciclistas, não apresentando uma relação direta com o tempo. A análise do torque propulsivo em relação ao membro dominante (perna de chute) mostrou que o mesmo apresentou relação com os picos de torque (salvo exceções observadas), ou seja, seguidamente o pico de torque foi produzido pelo membro dominante. A intensidade do exercício pareceu não ser um fator limitante para a assimetria, pois foram observadas diferentes respostas dentre o grupo de estudo. Com isso conclui-se que os ciclistas estudados desenvolvem torque de maneira assimétrica em diferentes etapas ao longo de um percurso de 40 km, também essa assimetria apresenta relação com o membro dominante, mas não com a intensidade do exercício. Para uma melhor compreensão do torque produzido durante a pedalada sugere-se o uso de pedais instrumentados e a realização de avaliações individualizadas, visto as diferenças observadas entre os ciclistas.
Chapter
Maßnahmen zur Rückengesundheit wie Rückenschule und Rückengymnastik gehören in Unternehmen neben der betrieblichen Sportgruppe zu den am häufigsten angebotenen Programmen und werden als das wichtigste Angebot aller Maßnahmen zur betrieblichen Gesundheitsförderung (BGF) bewertet. Die neue Versorgungsleitlinie »Kreuzschmerz« empfiehlt deshalb zur Prävention von Kreuzschmerz konsequenterweise auch die Maßnahmen am Arbeitsplatz (ergonomische Gestaltung, Verhaltensprävention, Förderung der Arbeitsplatzzufriedenheit).
Article
Objectives: To compare mean angles of anterior pelvic tilt (APT) and variability of APT angles in elite cyclists and matched non-cyclists. Design: Observation, cross-sectional, matched pairs. Participants: Seventeen elite cyclists Australian Institute of Sport Track Cycling Squad (AISTCS) (23±4.2 years, 15 males) age and gender matched with 17 non-cyclists (23±4.1 years, 15 males). Setting: Laboratory within the University of South Australia. The APT was assessed in long-sitting position with chest as close to thighs as voluntarily possible and measured using a digital inclinometer over L5-S1 intervertebral space. Main outcome measures: APT in elite and non-cyclists. Unpaired t-tests and F-tests were used to analyze difference and variability of APT angles between groups with p≤0.05 regarded as significant. Results: There was a significant difference between APT angles between the two groups (cyclists +12.2° (±6.0), non-cyclists -5.3° (±9.7); t = 6.32, p<0.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 11.8-23.1°). The variability of APT angles was significantly greater in non-cyclists compared to elite cyclists (F = 2.6, p = 0.032). Conclusions: The APT angle of elite cyclists is significantly greater and has significantly less variability than APT angle in matched non-cyclists, when tested in a long-sitting position.
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between measurements of lumbar lordosis, pelvic tilt, and abdominal muscle performance during normal standing. In addition, the reliability of the measurements used in this study was examined. Measurements of lumbar lordosis, pelvic tilt, and abdominal muscle performance were taken of 31 healthy adults aged 20 to 33 years. Each measurement was taken twice, and the measurements were shown to be reliable. The Spearman's rho correlation of the abdominal muscle performance measurements with pelvic tilt was .18 and with lordosis was .06. The Pearson product-moment correlation of lordosis with pelvic tilt was .32. The results indicate that lumbar lordosis, pelvic tilt, and abdominal muscle function during normal standing are not related. This study demonstrates the need for a reexamination of clinical practices based on assumed relationships of abdominal muscle performance, pelvic tilt, and lordosis.
Article
The increasing participation in the athletic forms of bicycling warrants expanded physician attention to the traumatic and overuse injuries experienced by cyclists. The modern bicycle consists of a frame with various components, including handlebars, brakes, wheels, pedals, and gears, in various configurations for the various modes of cycling. For high performance cycling the proper fit of the bicycle is critical. The most efficient method to provide an accurate fit is the Fitkit, but proper frame selection and adjustment can be made by following simple guidelines for frame size, seat height, fore and aft saddle position, saddle angle, reach and handlebar height. The human body functions most effectively in a narrow range of pedal resistance to effort. Riding at too much pedal resistance is a major cause of overuse problems in cyclists. Overuse injuries are lower using lower gear ratios at a higher cadence. Cycling injuries account for 500 000 visits per year to emergency rooms in the US. Over half the accidents involve motor vehicles, and road surface and mechanical problems with the bicycle are also common causes of accidents. Head injuries are common in cyclists and account for most of the fatal accidents. Despite good evidence of their effectiveness, victims with head injuries have rarely worn helmets. Contusions, sprains and fractures may occur throughout the body, most commonly to the hand, wrist, lower arm, shoulder, ankle and lower leg. The handlebar and seat have been implicated in a wide variety of abdominal and genital injuries. Abrasions, lacerations and bruises of the skin are the most common traumatic injuries. Trauma may be prevented or reduced by proper protective safety equipment and keeping the bike in top mechanical condition. Anticipation of the errors of others and practising and adopting specific riding strategies also help to prevent traumatic injuries. Management of overuse injuries in cycling generally involves mechanical adjustment as well as medical management. Neck and back pain are extremely common in cyclists, occurring in up to 60% of riders. Ulnar neuropathy, characterised by tingling, numbness and weakness in the hands is common in serious cyclists after several days of riding. Managing saddle-related injuries or irritations may also involve adjusting seat height, angle and fore and aft position in addition to changing the saddle. Padding in the saddle and shorts play an important part in saddle problems. Saddle-related problems include chafing, perineal folliculitis and furuncles, subcutaneous perineal nodules, pudendal neuropathy, male impotence, traumatic urethritis and a variety of vulva trauma. Improper fit of the bicycle may also lead to problems such as trochanteric bursitis, iliopsoas tendinitis, and ‘biker’s knee’ (patellofemoral pain syndrome). Foot paraesthesias, metatarsalgia and occasionally Achilles tendinitis and plantar fasciitis have also been reported in cyclists. Cyclists should take proper precautions against sun and heat injuries, especially dehyration. Cyclists may benefit from a variety of protective clothing and equipment, such as helmets, mirrors, eyewear, lights and reflective clothing and footwear.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between hip extension range of motion (ROM) and three determinants of postural alignment: standing pelvic tilt, standing lumbar lordosis, and abdominal muscle performance. The subjects were 25 healthy adults ranging in age from 21 to 49 years. The Pearson product-moment correlation of hip extension ROM with pelvic tilt was -0.04, with lumbar lordosis -0.09, and with abdominal muscle performance 0.09. These results indicate that these variables are not related. This study demonstrates that the hypothetical correlation among these clinical parameters needs to be reassessed. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1990;12(6):243-247.
Article
We studied the between-therapist reliability and the validity of four instruments in measuring lumbar spine curvature and pelvic tilt. The four instruments and their measurements were 1) a tape measure to measure the change in lumbar curvature during trunk flexion; 2) a gravity goniometer to measure pelvic angle and lumbar curvature during stance, trunk flexion, and trunk extension; 3) a parallelogram goniometer to measure lumbar curvature during stance, trunk flexion, and trunk extension; and 4) a standard goniometer to measure the angle between wooden pointers mounted perpendicularly to the spine to obtain pelvic angle and lumbar curvature during stance, trunk flexion, and trunk extension. We found no single instrument to be the most reliable or valid. Between-therapist reliability ranged from .64 to .93 (Pearson product-moment correlation) and from .60 to .92 (interclass correlation coefficient). The validities of the instruments compared with measurements from roentgenograms generally were low, ranging from -.13 to .76 (Pearson product-moment correlation) and -.73 to -.05 (interclass correlation coefficient).
Article
All 132 participants in a 500 mile, 8 day bicycle tour were surveyed by questionnaire to characterize the demographics and bicycling experience of the riders, and to determine the frequency and severity of non traumatic injuries they experienced. Riders who devel oped significant symptoms were interviewed and/or examined. Eighty-six percent of ride participants re sponded to the survey. The average age of the riders was 41.4 years (±11.7 years). They rode an average of 95.8 miles per week on a routine basis, but the majority were new to long distance touring. Most were healthy, but 5% had seri ous cardiovascular disease and bicycled as part of a rehabilitation program. The most common nontraumatic injury was buttocks pain (experienced by 32.8% of riders); four had skin ulceration of the buttocks. Knee problems occurred in 20.7% of riders; patellar pain syndromes and lateral knee complaints were the most common knee prob lems. One cyclist withdrew from the tour because of knee pain. Neck-shoulder pain occurred in 20.4% of the riders. Groin numbness and palmar pain or paresthesias each occurred in approximately 10%. Other less common problems were foot and ankle symptoms and sunburn.
Article
The goal of this research was to examine the accuracy of three methods used to indicate the hip joint center (HJC) in seated steady-state cycling. Two of the methods have been used in previous studies of cycling biomechanics and included tracking a marker placed over the superior aspect of the greater trochanter, a location that estimates the center of rotation of the hip joint, and assuming that the hip is fixed. The third method was new and utilized an anthropometric relationship to determine the hip joint location from a marker placed over the anterior-superior iliac spine. To perform a comparative analysis of errors inherent in the three methods, a standard method which located the true hip joint center was developed. The standard method involved establishing a pelvis-fixed coordinate system using a triad of video markers attached to an intracortical pin. Three-dimensional motion analysis quantified the true hip joint center position coordinates. To provide data for the comparative analysis, the intracortical pin was anchored to a single subject who pedaled at nine cadence-workrate combinations while data for all four methods were simultaneously recorded. At all cadence-workrate combinations the new method was more accurate than the trochanter method with movement errors lower by a factor of 2 in the vertical direction and a factor of 3 in the horizontal direction. Relative to the errors introduced by the fixed hip assumption, the new method was also generally more accurate by at least a factor of 2 in the horizontal direction and had comparable accuracy in the vertical direction. For computed kinetic quantities, the new method most accurately indicated hip joint force power but the fixed hip method most accurately indicated the work produced by the hip joint force over the crank cycle.
Article
There is a need to better document the reliability and validity of assessment measures used in physical therapy. Studies documenting the reliability of measurement of the pelvic angle and its relationship to sacral motion are presently inconclusive. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, we wanted to determine the reliability and validity of a goniometric measurement of the pelvic angle. We also wanted to test the hypothesis that there is a relationship between the pelvic angle and the sacral angle. Intertester and intratester reliability of goniometric pelvic angle measurements of 23 healthy young adults were examined using three different raters. Radiographic measurements of the pelvic and sacral angle using two raters and goniometric measurement of the pelvic angle using a single rater were taken from 15 patients with low back pain who had been referred for X-rays. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of intratester reliability for goniometric measurements of the pelvic angle were .93, .96, and .96. The intertester reliability was .95. The ICCs for intratester reliability for radiological measurements were .92 and .95 for the sacral angle and .98 for both measurements of the pelvic angle. Intertester reliability coefficients were .86 and .88, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients for the goniometric and radiological measurements of the pelvic angle were .85 and .68. A comparison of the radiological and goniometric measurements of the pelvic angle with the sacral angle demonstrated low average correlations of .43 and .58, respectively. The results indicate a high level of correlation between and within testers for goniometric measurements of the pelvic angle but only a fair correlation between goniometric and radiological measurements of the pelvic angle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
Symptoms related to the bicycle seat are common among cyclists. Skin problems, such as chafing, ischial tuberosity pain, folliculitis, and ulceration are particularly common. Although rarely serious, these problems may cause significant discomfort and interfere with a cyclist's ability to ride. Numerous preventive measures have been recommended to prevent these problems, mostly related to seat position, seat construction, and bicycling pants. Little research is available, however, to support any of these recommendations. Research does indicate that use of skin creams is not effective for prevention of bicycle-related skin problems.
Article
A radiologic and electromyographic study was done of the adaptation of the lumbar spine to high-performance cycling. To evaluate changes in the lumbar spine produced by different cycling positions on different types of bicycles used during competition. Three professional cyclists were observed to evaluate changes in the lumbar spine. Radiographs were obtained of the different positions adopted by the cyclists during competition, and changes in the angles of the lumbar spine were measured. An electromyographic study was done of the abdominal, lumbar, and thoracic paravertebral muscles. The cyclists' positions involved a change from discal lordosis to kyphosis. To obtain a more aerodynamic position, the cyclists flexed the hip and made the pelvis horizontal without changing disc angles. The contraction of paravertebral lumbar muscles was proportional to pedalling intensity and decreased in more aerodynamic positions. The tone of the paravertebral thoracic muscles depended on the extent of cervical hyperextension. Abdominal muscles remained relaxed in all bicycle positions and with all pedalling intensities. The changes observed could modify the normal biomechanics of the lumbar spine, but the overall mechanical load on the spine is reduced by shifting weight onto the upper limbs. The imbalance that occurs between the activity of flexor and extensor muscles could cause lumbar pain in persons without proper physical preparation.
Article
Research has been undertaken into the question of comfort on a standard 'utility' bicycle. Most ergonomics studies on bicycles so far have focused on biomechanical and physiological factors influencing the efficiency of road racing. The actual use of a utility bicycle has been neglected in this research. One of the reasons, especially in studying sitting comfort on bicycles, is that conclusions must be based on subjective measurements. In the study described in this paper, the main focus is on the measurement of cyclists' preferences in a dynamic way, compared to physical data. A pilot study and laboratory experiment were carried out to investigate, among other aspects of cycling comfort, the validity of existing rules of thumb for bicycle fitting. The data, collected with the aid of two specially designed ergonomics measuring stations and an 'interactive remote-control bicycle simulator', indicate that these rules of thumb are questionable. By way of improving the fit between cyclist and machine (and assisting bicycle shopkeepers to select the right bicycle for their customers), a commercial bicycle fitting system has been proposed and developed for production.
Article
Correct cycling posture improves performance and may prevent injuries. This article addresses the most important variables that determine cycling posture of road racing cyclists. It focuses not only on 'posture height' but also on 'posture length', an aspect that has as yet received little attention. In order to help cyclists find their optimum posture, reliable anthropometric measuring is of utmost importance. The relevant measurements and the necessary measuring instruments are considered. Special attention is given to gender related posture aspects.
Article
According to the literature, 30-70% of cyclists suffer from cervical, dorsal, or lumbar back pain. This study was conducted to evaluate one of the possible causes of low back pain and to suggest a solution by appropriate adjustments to the bicycle. Serial fluoroscopic studies were performed while cyclists sat on different types of bicycle (sports, mountain, and city). Pelvic/spine angles were measured at different seat angles, and the related force vectors analysed. There was a tendency towards hyperextension of the pelvic/spine angle which resulted in an increase in tensile forces at the promontorium. These forces can easily be reduced by appropriate adjustment of the seat angle--that is, by creating an anterior inclining angle. The findings of the biomechanical analysis were then applied to a group of cyclists who were members of a cycling club and who complained of low back pain. After appropriate adjustment of the saddle angle, most of the cyclists (>70%) reported major improvement in the incidence and magnitude of their back pain. The incidence and magnitude of back pain in cyclists can be reduced by appropriate adjustment of the angle of the saddle. It is important that these findings be conveyed to cyclists, bicycle salesmen, trainers, and members of the general public who engage in cycling, in order to decrease the prevalence of back pain.
  • Anderson