Reduced levels of specific autobiographical memories in schizophrenia

University of Strasbourg, Strasburg, Alsace, France
Psychiatry Research (Impact Factor: 2.47). 02/2003; 117(1):35-45. DOI: 10.1016/S0920-9964(03)81027-7
Source: PubMed


Autobiographical memory is intrinsically related to the self and personal identity. This study investigated whether both personal episodic memory and semantic memory are impaired in schizophrenia, a disease characterized by an abnormal personal identity. Personal episodic memory and personal semantic memory were investigated in 24 patients with schizophrenia and 24 normal subjects using an autobiographical fluency task and an autobiographical memory inquiry. Autobiographical memory scores and the proportion of specific memories were lower in patients with schizophrenia than in normal subjects. The deficit of personal episodic and semantic memory, as assessed by the autobiographical memory inquiry and the autobiographical fluency task, respectively, was most apparent after the onset of clinical symptoms. Schizophrenia is associated with an impairment of both personal episodic and semantic memory and with a reduction of specific autobiographical memories. Those impairments are consistent with the existence of an abnormal personal identity in patients with schizophrenia.

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    • "Construction of a coherent identity across time relies on autobiographical memory (Conway, 2005; Tulving, 2002 ) and the ability to synthesize these personal memories with future goals (McAdams and McLean, 2013). Autobiographical memory recall is compromised in schizophrenia (e.g., Elvevåg et al., 2003; Riutort et al., 2003; Danion et al., 2005; McLeod et al., 2006; Cuervo-Lombard et al., 2007; D'Argembeau et al., 2008) with recent findings suggesting that recollection of negative autobiographical events is particularly affected (Neumann et al., 2007; MacDougall et al., unpublished results). It has been suggested that an impoverished autobiographical memory may hinder the ability to think in more complex ways about oneself or others (Dimaggio et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The relation of episodic and semantic memory for emotional- (positive, negative) and neutral-valenced autobiographical events to illness insight was examined in individuals with schizophrenia. Reduced recall of episodic details for negative events was significantly associated with impaired awareness of having a past mental disorder and its social consequences. Deficits in episodic memory for negative autobiographical events may underlie impaired insight in schizophrenia.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Psychiatry Research
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    • "occurring at the retrieval phase in schizophrenia. In fact, dysfunctions of cognitive processes involved at the encoding phase (Riutort et al., 2003; Danion et al., 2007) or in the storage and organization phase may also contribute to patients' autobiographical memory deficits (Morise et al., 2011; Bennouna-Greene et al., 2012). Although rumination and autobiographical memory impairment showed no direct relationship in patients, both may point to a metacognitive dysfunction, which refers to difficulties recognizing mental states, naming them correctly and using them in a flexible way (Dimaggio et al., 2012; Lysaker et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Although patients with schizophrenia exhibit autobiographical memory impairment, which is considered to be a limiting factor in their daily life, the mechanisms underlying such impairment have been rarely studied. In the current study, we investigate whether rumination and, in particular, brooding, which is a form of maladaptive repetitive thinking, may be linked to the difficulty that patients with schizophrenia experience when attempting to access specific autobiographical memories. Our results indicate that patients reported less specific autobiographical memories compared to control participants. Patients also displayed a higher level of brooding and had more depressive symptoms. According to the CaR-FA-X model (Williams et al., 2007), depression and brooding were associated with memory specificity in control participants. In contrast, neither depression nor brooding was correlated with memory specificity in patients. These results suggest that depression and rumination may not be directly related to patients' difficulty to recall specific memories and that other factors, such as metacognitive deficits, must first be considered when seeking interventions aimed to improve autobiographical memory in patients with schizophrenia.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Schizophrenia Research
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    • "Across studies, in all periods of life, people with schizophrenia consistently demonstrate lower specificity in autobiographical memory recall than controls (Corcoran and Frith 2003; D 0 Argembeau et al. 2008; Feinstein et al. 1998; Neumann et al. 2007). This impairment is highest following illness onset (Elvevag et al. 2003; Riutort et al. 2003), reflecting encoding or acquisition problems after diagnosis (Danion et al. 2005), although semantic processing is sufficient to benefit from organizational cues (Ragland et al. 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Autobiographical recall training in people with schizophrenia may have positive effects on social functioning, mood state, or imagination of future events. Thirtytwo stabilized participants with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to two groups. One group completed a program of life review training based on positive events (LRTspev), while the other group continued with their usual treatment. LRTspev consisted of structured interviews exploring positive past events from childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and last year. After treatment, the LRTspev group showed increased numbers of specific memories and details of the recalled events. However, no changes in symptoms of depression and brooding (negative repetitive thinking) were observed. Limitations and future recommendations to increase cognitive behavioral therapy efficiency based on autobiographical information recovery for people with schizophrenia are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Cognitive Therapy and Research
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