ArticleLiterature Review

Health Effects of Welding

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Abstract

Many of the epidemiology studies performed are difficult to compare because of differences in worker populations, industrial settings, welding techniques, duration of exposure, and other occupational exposures besides welding fumes. Some studies were conducted in carefully controlled work environments, others during actual workplace conditions, and some in laboratories. Epidemiology studies have shown that a large number of welders experience some type of respiratory illness. Respiratory effects seen in full-time welders have included bronchitis, airway irritation, lung function changes, and a possible increase in the incidence of lung cancer. Pulmonary infections are increased in terms of severity, duration, and frequency among welders. Although epidemiological studies have demonstrated an increase in pulmonary illness after exposure to welding fumes, little information of the causality, dose-response, and possible underlying mechanisms regarding the inhalation of welding fumes exists. Even less information is available about the neurological, reproductive, and dermal effects after welding fume exposure. Moreover, carcinogenicity and short-term and long-term toxicology studies of welding fumes in animals are lacing or incomplete. Therefore, an understanding of possible adverse health effects of exposure to welding fumes is essential to risk assessment and the development of prevention strategies and will impact a large population of workers.

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... The functioning of various body organs and physiological systems is badly affected [2] and it also causes poor respiratory health [3], musculoskeletal disorders [4], ocular injuries [5], cuts and burns [6]. Approximately one million people perform welding as a part of their duties [7]. When welding is performed, metal vaporizes and combines the air to produce toxic fumes [8]. ...
... Around 80 different kinds of welding and associated processes in commercial use have been identified by The American Welding Society [16]. Different types of welding hazards were found to be associated with welding processes and the major categories of hazards identified were chemical, physical and radiations [7]. ...
... The welding workers suffer from various respiratory diseases such as a chronic cough, pneumoconiosis, lung cancer, asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) [7,14,17,18]. A chronic cough is defined as a regular phlegm production at any time during the day or night for at least three months of the year and at least two years. ...
Article
Background: Welding is one of the most hazardous professions across the globe. Several risk factors are associated with Indian unorganized welding units such as welding gases, fumes and dust particles resulting in various respiratory health problems. Objective: The objective of the present study is to examine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, their associated factors and lung function impairment amongst the welders of the unorganized sector in India. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted across 283 welders of age group 18-55 years from Punjab, India who responded to the interviewer-administrated respiratory symptoms questionnaire. Also, the lung function parameters of 50 male welders (exposed group) and 50 male non-welders (control group) working in the same environment were evaluated. Results: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms such as chronic cough (38.86%), phlegm (38.86%), shortness of breath (33.56%), wheezing (32.15%), chest tightness (36.40%,) and sputum (34.27%) was reported by the welders. The observed mean values of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC ratio of welders were (3.37±0.175), (2.59±0.16) and (76.63±6.16) respectively and that of non-welders were (3.70±0.15), (3.05±0.25) and (82.49±7.62) respectively. Conclusions: The welders were found to be at significant risk of developing pulmonary diseases. Long working hours, low level of education, hazardous working conditions, lack of implementation of safety laws make welders more vulnerable to health risks. The welders of Indian unorganized sector work without any technical training related to welding and safety. Proper orientation sessions about the workplace hazards and to maintain hygiene at their workplace should be organized. Welders must be provided with Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Welders should take proper health check-up and medication to sustain healthiness.
... Temperatures more than 3,000°C are common in FW. The high temperatures generated during the process give rise to toxic gases, fumes, and radiation as by-products which have deleterious consequences on the health of the welder (Antonini, 2003). With advancements in the semiconductor industry, many of the manufacturers make use of sophisticated electronics in their machines and provide features such high frequency starts, which engender electromagnetic noise. ...
... With advancements in the semiconductor industry, many of the manufacturers make use of sophisticated electronics in their machines and provide features such high frequency starts, which engender electromagnetic noise. Sustained exposure to these by-products might lead to chronic lung conditions, damage of nervous system, heart diseases, dermatological, hypersensitivity effects, etc. (Antonini, 2003;American Welding Society, 1979;Stern et al., 1986). ...
... Table 2 Health dangers associated with fumes and vapours during FW Nickel Potentially carcinogenic and irritating respiratory track (Kalliomäki et al., 1984) Metal oxides Patients experience chills, malaise, fever and joint pains, sore throat and congestion, chest tightness and fatigue. Metal fume fever (Antonini, 2003) Fluorides Irritation to eyes, nose and throat. Pulmonary edema and bone damage (Antonini, 2003) Aldehydes Irritant to eyes and respiratory system (http://www.nortonsandblasting.com/ weldhealth2.pdf) ...
... In numerous studies, PM 2.5 concentrations of 1000 µg/m 3 (as detected in this analysis) and even greater have been documented [60][61][62]. Welding usually releases PM 2.5 as hot vaporized metal from the welding activity cools and condenses, producing small solid metal particles [63]. These vaporized particles oxidize upon contact with oxygen in the air, rendering metal oxides as the main constituents of welding fumes [63]. ...
... Welding usually releases PM 2.5 as hot vaporized metal from the welding activity cools and condenses, producing small solid metal particles [63]. These vaporized particles oxidize upon contact with oxygen in the air, rendering metal oxides as the main constituents of welding fumes [63]. ...
... Similarly, a nine-year study of welders by Haluza et al. (2014) demonstrated a statistically significant association between the duration of occupational exposure to welding fumes and decreased pulmonary function [65]. In general, a wide amount of epidemiology research has shown welders to experience at least some form of respiratory illness, such as airway irritation, bronchitis, lung function alteration, and possibly lung cancer [63]. ...
Article
Full-text available
PM2.5 is an air contaminant that has been widely associated with adverse respiratory and cardiovascular health, leading to increased hospital admissions and mortality. Following concerns reported by workers at an industrial facility located in Santa Ana, California, workers and community leaders collaborated with experts in the development of an air monitoring pilot study to measure PM2.5 concentrations to which employees and local residents are exposed during factory operating hours. To detect PM2.5, participants wore government-validated AtmoTube Pro personal air monitoring devices during three separate workdays (5 AM–1:30 PM) in August 2021. Results demonstrated a mean PM2.5 level inside the facility of 112.3 µg/m3, nearly seven-times greater than outdoors (17.3 µg/m3). Of the eight workers who wore personal indoor sampling devices, five showed measurements over 100 μg/m3. Welding-related activity inside the facility resulted in the greatest PM2.5 concentrations. This study demonstrates the utility of using low-cost air quality sensors combined with employee knowledge and participation for the investigation of workplace air pollution exposure as well as facilitation of greater health-related awareness, education, and empowerment among workers and community members. Results also underscore the need for basic measures of indoor air pollution control paired with ongoing air monitoring within the Santa Ana facility, and the importance of future air monitoring studies aimed at industrial facilities.
... Approximately, 800,000 people worldwide are occupationally exposed to metal-welding-fumes, this increases the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage the genetic material [1]. ...
... Evidence suggests that DNA damage (genotoxicity), caused by welding-fumes, plays an important role in the development of lung cancer, which incidence is higher in the welder sub-population compared to general population [1][2][3]. ...
... Iron is the most used metal in Mexican industry; the exposure to iron smokes relates to the initiation, growth, and metastasis of malignant neoplasms [1,4], probably because it is a strong oxidizing agent [5]. Aluminium is the second most used metal in the welding industry, and occupational exposure to its fumes is associated with generation of ROS that triggers a cascade of immune responses that lead to lysosomal membrane damage, genotoxicity, and finally, carcinogenesis or cell-death [6][7][8]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: An estimated of 800,000 people worldwide are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes. Previous studies show that the exposure to such fumes is associated with damage to genetic material and increased cancer risk. In this study, we evaluate the genotoxic effect of welding-fumes using the Micronucleus Test on oral mucosa cells of Mexican welders. Material and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, matched case-control study of n = 39 (20 exposed welders, and 19 healthy controls). Buccal mucosa smears were collected and stained with acridine orange, observed under 100x optical amplification with a fluorescence lamp, and a single-blinded observer counted the number of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities per 2000 observed cells. We compared the frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities, and fitted generalised linear models to investigate the interactions between nuclear abnormalities and the exposure to welding-fumes, while controlling for smoking and age. Results: Binucleated cells and condensed-chromatin cells showed statistically significant differences between cases and controls. The frequency of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities (lobed-nuclei, pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) did not differ significantly between the groups. After adjusting for smoking and age, the regression results showed that the occurrence of binucleated cells could be predicted by the exposure to welding-fumes plus the age and tobacco consumption; for the condensed-chromatin cells, our model showed that the exposure to welding-fumes is the only reliable predictor. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that Mexican welders who are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes have increased counts of binucleated and condensed-chromatin cells. Nevertheless, the frequencies of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities did not differ between cases and controls. Further studies, with bigger sample sizes and less variability, could shed more light on this subject.
... Approximately, 800,000 people worldwide are occupationally exposed to metal-weldingfumes, this increases the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage the genetic material [1]. Evidence suggests that DNA damage (genotoxicity), caused by welding-fumes, plays an important role in the development of lung cancer, which incidence is higher in the welder sub-population compared to general population [1][2][3]. ...
... Approximately, 800,000 people worldwide are occupationally exposed to metal-weldingfumes, this increases the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage the genetic material [1]. Evidence suggests that DNA damage (genotoxicity), caused by welding-fumes, plays an important role in the development of lung cancer, which incidence is higher in the welder sub-population compared to general population [1][2][3]. ...
... Iron is the most used metal in Mexican industry; the exposure to iron smokes relates to the initiation, growth, and metastasis of malignant neoplasms [1,4], probably because it is a strong oxidizing agent [5]. Aluminium is the second most used metal in the welding industry, and occupational exposure to its fumes is associated with generation of ROS that triggers a cascade of immune responses that lead to lysosomal membrane damage, genotoxicity, and finally, carcinogenesis or cell-death [6][7][8]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: An estimated of 800,000 people worldwide are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes. Previous studies show that the exposure to such fumes is associated with damage to genetic material and increased cancer risk. In this study, we evaluate the genotoxic effect of welding-fumes using the Micronucleus Test on oral mucosa cells of Mexican welders. Material and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, matched case-control study of n = 66 (33 exposed welders, and 33 healthy controls). Buccal mucosa smears were collected and stained with acridine orange, observed under 100x optical amplification with a fluorescence lamp, and a single-blinded observer counted the number of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities per 2000 observed cells. We compared the frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities, and fitted generalised linear models to investigate the interactions between nuclear abnormalities and the exposure to welding-fumes, while controlling for smoking and age. Results: Binucleated cells and condensed-chromatin cells showed statistically significant differences between cases and controls. The frequency of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities (lobed-nuclei, pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) did not differ significantly between the groups. After adjusting for smoking, the regression results showed that the occurrence of binucleated cells could be predicted by the exposure to welding-fumes plus the presence of tobacco consumption; for the condensed-chromatin cells, our model showed that the exposure to welding-fumes is the only reliable predictor. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that Mexican welders who are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes have increased counts of binucleated and condensed-chromatin cells. Nevertheless, the frequencies of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities did not differ between cases and controls. Further studies, should shed more light on this subject.
... Worldwide, it is estimated that 11 million workers have the job title of welder, and around 110 million more have job tasks with potential welding-related exposure (Antonini 2003). Welders are exposed to toxic gases and aerosols, which can cause bronchiolitis, bronchitis, airway irritation, pneumonitis (Antonini 2003) and asthma (Storaas et al. 2015). ...
... Worldwide, it is estimated that 11 million workers have the job title of welder, and around 110 million more have job tasks with potential welding-related exposure (Antonini 2003). Welders are exposed to toxic gases and aerosols, which can cause bronchiolitis, bronchitis, airway irritation, pneumonitis (Antonini 2003) and asthma (Storaas et al. 2015). Most welding materials are alloy mixtures of metals, and of these, chromium, nickel and manganese are of particular interest from a toxicological point of view. ...
... The characteristics of welding fumes are complex and depend on several factors such as base materials and surface coating, the welding process, the filler material, fluxes, shield gas composition, spray type and voltage/current applied (see (Antonini 2003) for a review). Finally, the dose delivered to the welder is dependent on the technique and skill of the welder, workload, surrounding welding activities, degree of enclosure, general and local ventilation and the use of personal protection equipment (PPE) (Persoons et al. 2014;Pesch et al. 2012;Weiss et al. 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Air monitoring has been the accepted exposure assessment of toxic metals from, e.g., welding, but a method characterizing the actual dose delivered to the lungs would be preferable. Sampling of particles in exhaled breath can be used for the biomonitoring of both endogenous biomarkers and markers of exposure. We have explored a new method for the sampling of metals in exhaled breath from the small airways in a study on welders. Methods Our method for particle sampling, Particles in Exhaled Air (PExA®), is based on particle counting and inertial impaction. We applied it on 19 stainless steel welders before and after a workday. In parallel, air monitoring of chromium, manganese and nickel was performed as well as blood sampling after work. Results Despite substantial exposure to welding fumes, we were unable to show any significant change in the metal content of exhaled particles after, compared with before, exposure. However, the significance might be obscured by a substantial analytical background noise, due to metal background in the sampling media and possible contamination during sampling, as an increase in the median metal contents were indicated. Conclusions If efforts to reduce background and contamination are successful, the PExA® method could be an important tool in the investigations of metals in exhaled breath, as the method collects particles from the small airways in contrast to other methods. In this paper, we discuss the discrepancy between our findings and results from studies, using the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) methodology.
... Approximately, 800,000 people worldwide are occupationally exposed to metal-weldingfumes, this increases the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage the genetic material [1]. Evidence suggests that DNA damage (genotoxicity), caused by welding-fumes, plays an important role in the development of lung cancer, which incidence is higher in the welder sub-population compared to general population [1][2][3]. ...
... Approximately, 800,000 people worldwide are occupationally exposed to metal-weldingfumes, this increases the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage the genetic material [1]. Evidence suggests that DNA damage (genotoxicity), caused by welding-fumes, plays an important role in the development of lung cancer, which incidence is higher in the welder sub-population compared to general population [1][2][3]. ...
... Iron is the most used metal in Mexican industry; the exposure to iron smokes relates to the initiation, growth, and metastasis of malignant neoplasms [1,4], probably because it is a strong oxidizing agent [5]. Aluminium is the second most used metal in the welding industry, and occupational exposure to its fumes is associated with generation of ROS that triggers a cascade of immune responses that lead to lysosomal membrane damage, genotoxicity, and finally, carcinogenesis or cell-death [6][7][8]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: An estimated of 800,000 people worldwide are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes. Previous studies show that the exposure to such fumes is associated with damage to genetic material and increased cancer risk. In this study, we evaluate the genotoxic effect of welding-fumes using the Micronucleus Test on oral mucosa cells of Mexican welders. Material and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, matched case-control study of n = 66 (33 exposed welders, and 33 healthy controls). Buccal mucosa smears were collected and stained with acridine orange, observed under 100x optical amplification with a fluorescence lamp, and a single-blinded observer counted the number of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities per 2000 observed cells. We compared the frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities, and fitted generalised linear models to investigate the interactions between nuclear abnormalities and the exposure to welding-fumes, while controlling for smoking and age. Results: Binucleated cells and condensed-chromatin cells showed statistically significant differences between cases and controls. The frequency of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities (lobed-nuclei, pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) did not differ significantly between the groups. After adjusting for smoking, the regression results showed that the occurrence of binucleated cells could be predicted by the exposure to welding-fumes plus the presence of tobacco consumption; for the condensed-chromatin cells, our model showed that the exposure to welding-fumes is the only reliable predictor. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that Mexican welders who are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes have increased counts of binucleated and condensed-chromatin cells. Nevertheless, the frequencies of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities did not differ between cases and controls. Further studies, should shed more light on this subject.
... Strong evidence suggests that all welding fumes can be carcinogenic and can induce chronic inflammation in the respiratory tract [1][2][3][4][5][6]. Stainless steel welders are additionally subject to inhalable hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), reported to increase the risk of health related issues, such as lung cancer, asthma, and bronchitis [7][8][9][10][11][12][13]. Since the base material only contributes 5-10% to the total fume particle mass, the welding consumable composition becomes most important [14,15]. Fillers containing more Cr typically result in aerosols with higher amounts of Cr(VI) [11,[16][17][18][19]. ...
... These elements are intentionally added for controlled fluidity, viscosity, and arc stabilization during the welding process [19]. The general solubility of the fume is significantly higher for the SMAW and FCAW processes than with GMAW [15]. This is of importance as pulmonary toxicity can be associated with soluble forms of transition metals and their doses [40,41]. ...
... Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) can be used in all welding positions, yielding the highest mechanical properties, but the process is slow and thus more time-consuming. It is the cleanest manual method when it comes to welding fume, but substantial amounts of O 3 are generated, which is highly inflammatory and can cause different pulmonary edema and DNA damage [15,20,90]. Wagner et al. [91,92] have, however, shown that it may be possible to reduce the O 3 formation considerably with the GTAW process by selecting special shielding gases. ...
Article
Welding fumes have been found to be carcinogenic and stainless steel welders may be at higher risk due to increased formation of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). The slag-shielded methods, identified to generate most airborne particles and Cr(VI), would potentially be most harmful. With ever-stricter limits set to protect workers, measures to minimize human exposure become crucial. Austenitic stainless steel flux-cored wires of 316L type have been developed with the aim to reduce the toxicity of the welding fume without compromised usability. Collected particles were compared with fumes formed using solid, metal-cored, and standard flux-cored wires. The size, morphology, and composition were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Total metal concentrations and released amounts of metals (Cr, Cr(VI), Ni, Mn, Fe) were investigated after complete digestion in aqua regia and after incubation in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) by means of flame furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), and UV–vis spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of the particles was assessed with the Alamar blue assay for cell viability using cultured human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC-3kt). The findings correlate well with previous in vitro toxicity studies for standard and experimental wires. The new optimized 316L-type flux-cored wires showed improved weldability and generated less Cr(VI) in wt.-% than with solid wire. The respirable particles were confirmed to be less acute toxic in HBEC-3kt cells as compared to standard flux-cored wires. The highest cell viability (survival rate) was observed for the metal-cored wire.
... Welding, a method of joining metals, employs millions of workers around the world (IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk to Humans 2018). However, many types of welding produce significant amounts of fumes which are known to be hazardous to human health (Antonini 2003). Acute and chronic conditions such as metal fume fever, bronchitis, and increased infection incidence have been reported in welders (Coggon et al. 1994;Holm et al. 2012;Marongiu et al. 2016;Suri et al. 2016). ...
... However, this may not be a likely outcome based on the dose extrapolations to the human and somewhat rapid clearance of the particulate. Ni represents the second largest metal component of the fume tested and is classified as carcinogenic to humans by the IARC, as supported by many worker and animal studies (IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk to Humans 1990;Costa 1991;Langard 1994;Shen & Zhang 1994;Antonini 2003;Kasprzak et al. 2003). Previous work by our lab has evaluated individual surrogate metal components of SS welding fume which included exposures to nickel oxide (NiO) in mice. ...
Article
Objective: Stainless steel welding creates fumes rich in carcinogenic metals such as chromium (Cr). Welding consumables devoid of Cr are being produced in an attempt to limit worker exposures to toxic and carcinogenic metals. The study objective was to characterize a copper-nickel (Cu-Ni) fume generated using gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and determine the pulmonary deposition and toxicity of the fume in mice exposed by inhalation. Materials and Methods: Male A/J mice (6-8 weeks of age) were exposed to air or Cu-Ni welding fumes for 2 (low deposition) or 4 (high deposition) hours/ day for 10 days. Mice were sacrificed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), macrophage function, and histopathological analyses were performed at different timepoints post-exposure to evaluate resolution. Results and Discussion: Characterization of the fume indicated that most of the particles were between 0.1 and 1 mm in diameter, with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of 0.43 mm. Metal content of the fume was Cu ($76%) and Ni ($12%). Post-exposure, BAL macrophages had a reduced ability to phagocytose E. coli, and lung cytotoxicity was evident and significant (>12%-19% fold change). Loss of body weight was also significant at the early timepoints. Lung inflammation, the predominant finding identified by histopathology, was observed as a subacute response early that progressively resolved by 28 days with only macrophage aggregates remaining late (84 days). Conclusions: Overall, there was high acute lung toxicity with a resolution of the response in mice which suggests that the Cu-Ni fume may not be ideal for reducing toxic and inflammatory lung effects. ARTICLE HISTORY
... In Canada, there are some 170 000 persons employed in the welding trades of whom approximately 5% are women (Canadian Welding Association, 2016). Many exposures in welding carry a risk to health, most notably metal dusts and fumes containing manganese, chromium/ hexavalent-chromium (Cr(VI)), nickel, and aluminum (Antonini, 2003). Lung cancer (Honaryar et al., 2019) is a major concen along with nonmalignant respiratory disease and effects on the nervous system (Flynn and Susi, 2009;Inan-Eroglu and Ayaz, 2018). ...
... A number of job-exposure matrices for welding have been published previously (Gérin et al., 1993;Weiss et al., 2013;Kendzia et al., 2019;Pesch et al., 2019). These all took account of the welding process and the metal being welded but none accounted for the consumables (wire or rod, shielding gas) which (Antonini, 2003) concluded were the greatest source of emissions. ...
Article
Objectives This study aimed to construct, validate, and calibrate an exposure matrix that would be used to estimate personal airborne exposures to total dust, manganese, nickel, chromium, and aluminum for welders in the WHAT-ME cohort. The Workers’ Health in Apprenticeship Trades: metal and electrical (WHAT-ME) study established a cohort of women and men welders to investigate pregnancy and other birth outcomes along with health issues related to welding. To construct the matrix, data were extracted and assembled from the literature and analyzed to produce exposure models. Final models derived in this first step were then compared with external data gathered under controlled conditions and later combined to form calibrated models. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted to identify and extract all relevant data from published journal articles appearing in selected databases. Summary data were extracted that represented airborne personal exposures to total, inhalable and respirable dusts along with metal concentrations for manganese, nickel, chromium, and aluminum. Mathematical exposure models were derived and a validation of the models undertaken in the second part of this study. The most common welding combinations of welding process, base metal, and consumable (welding scenarios) for welders taking part in the WHAT-ME study were identified through detailed welding questionnaires completed by WHAT-ME participants. These were replicated under controlled conditions with a welder equipped with a personal air sampling pump to gather samples. A gravimetric analysis was performed to determine total dust exposures followed by a metals analysis using ICP-MS. Predictions were made for these welding scenarios replicated in the laboratory, using the exposure models derived in the literature and the predictions correlated against the results from the welding laboratory replications. Results The systematic review yielded 92 published articles from which 737 summary statistics were extracted representing 4620 personal samples of total dust, 4762 of manganese, 4679 of nickel, 3972 of chromium, and 676 of aluminum. The highest total dust exposures were for flux-core arc welding (FCAW) while the highest manganese producing base metal was mild steel. For nickel, the highest emissions were from high alloyed steel using gas metal arc welding while chromium emissions were most abundant in manual metal arc welding on stainless steel. Aluminum exposures were highest in FCAW welding and on aluminum as a base metal. The replication of 21 scenarios covered more than 90% of the scenarios in the WHAT-ME study. Sixty-one laboratory welding sessions took place with a minimum of two replications per scenario. Spearman rank correlations between predicted exposures and mean measured exposures yielded a rho of 0.93 (P < 0.001) for total dust, 0.87 (P < 0.001) for manganese, 0.54 (P < 0.024) for nickel, 0.43 (P = 0.055) for chromium, and 0.29 (P = 0.210) for aluminum. Conclusions This study produced the first welding exposure matrix composed of process, base metal, and consumable. This model was able to predict exposures observed under controlled conditions and could be used by any researcher to estimate welding exposures in a wide range of occupational contexts.
... Strong evidence suggests that all welding fumes can be carcinogenic and can induce chronic inflammation in the respiratory tract [1][2][3][4][5][6]. Stainless steel welders are additionally subject to inhalable hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), reported to increase the risk of health-related issues, such as lung cancer, asthma, and bronchitis [7][8][9][10][11][12][13]. Since the base material only contributes 5-10% to the total fume particle mass, the welding consumable composition becomes most important [14,15]. Fillers containing more Cr typically result in aerosols with higher amounts of Cr(VI) [9,[16][17][18][19]. ...
... The highest emission rate and content of Cr(VI) have been confirmed for shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), but also flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) generate substantial amounts [24,25]. The general solubility of the fume is significantly higher for the SMAW and FCAW processes than with GMAW [15]. This is of importance as pulmonary toxicity can be associated with soluble forms of transition metals and their doses [27,28]. ...
Article
Welding fumes have been found to be carcinogenic and stainless steel welders may be at higher risk due to increased formation of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). The slag-shielded methods, identified to generate most airborne particles and Cr(VI), would potentially be most harmful. With ever-stricter limits set to protect workers, measures to minimize human exposure become crucial. Austenitic stainless steel flux-cored wires of 316L type have been developed with the aim to reduce the toxicity of the welding fume without compromised usability. Collected particles were compared with fumes formed using solid, metal-cored, and standard flux-cored wires. In part 1, the new wires were concluded to have improved weldability, to generate even less Cr(VI) in wt.-% than with solid wire and to be less acute toxic in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells as compared to standard flux-cored wires. In part 2, two additional institutes created fume emission datasheets for the same wires for correlation with the fume data obtained in part 1. The reported values showed large variations between the three laboratories, having a significant effect on the standard deviation. This is suggested to be the result of different welding parameters and various ways to collect and analyze the fume. More stringent specifications on parameter settings and fume collection would be required to increase the accuracy. This means that at present, it may not be possible to compare fume data on datasheets from two different wire producers and care should be taken in interpretation of values given in the available literature. Nevertheless, the laboratories confirmed the same trends for Cr(VI) as presented in part 1.
... Welders are exposed to a variety of occupational hazards with untoward health effects. Welding hazards such as the bright and blinding light of the welding arc, the hazardous composition of the welding fumes, the sharp metal edges as well as the hot and flying molten metal particles, fast moving machinery, noise, and vibration may lead to acute and chronic health effects (Sabitu et al., 2009, Antonini, 2003. Physical and accidental risks, like burns, cuts, lacerations, and fall injuries are also common (Bhumika et al,.2014, ...
... The back and waist pain experienced by majority of our respondents could be due to poor posture during working designed workshops and the absence of working benches.In addition, working for long hours in such poor postures could cause backache, fatigue and overstretching of muscles and joints leading toimpairment of welders" health and efficiency. Most the welding related health hazards enumerated in this study by the respondents are well documented occupational hazards related to the welding processes (Antonini, 2003, ILO, 2011). The observed low use of PPEs was attributed to a variety of reasons by the respondents including, inconvenience, production of excessive heat, forgetfulness, short duration of task, anticipated low risk of task, and affordability. ...
Article
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To assess the current workplace safety and associated health hazards of the informal welding industry in Ghana is the main purpose of this study. In pursuance of this objective, research questions such as Do the informal welders in Ghana have workplace safety challenges, what are they, to what extent has these challenges affected their operations, what health issues are associated with these challenges, and to what extent does unsafe practices of welders expose them to risks and hazards were administered. The springing up of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Ghana in response to the government"s industrialization drive provides several challenges including, lack of workplace safety, low occupational hazards awareness, inefficient safety management system and lack of health policy among workers in this sector. Welders are part of the informal occupational sector in Ghana. Welding exposes welders to a variety of work-related hazards, which may be deleterious to their health. The awareness of these hazards and the attitude towards them are important factors in the prevention of these hazards. The literature on occupational hazards and health has mainly focused on the formal sector with very little attention to the informal work environment. This paper fills this gap by providing empirical evidence of the current workplace safety and associated health hazards of the informal welding industry in Ghana. The study was a work site based cross-sectional one, conducted among 250 welders of various welding practices in the Kumasi Metropolis. Data obtained for this study were acquired through the use of questionnaire, personal observation and personal interviews. Data collected included socio-demographic profile, training, experience, job duration, and use of protective equipment, occupational injuries in the past one year, finance, marketing and policy. Key informant interviews and focused group discussion were also conducted to gather qualitative data on welding occupational hazards and the associated injuries. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 22.Descriptive statistical tools such as frequency and percentage were used to analyze the facts sought from questionnaire. The study recorded an overall response rate of 96.5%. It was found out that those who practice arc welding accounts for 68.2% of the welding types followed by those who practice both arc welding and gas metal arc welding (31.8%). None of the respondents wore a complete PPE and only 5 percent of the welders wore respiratory protection. About 60% of them knew that PPE could be used to protect workers from hazards. Fire was the most reported hazard (97.7%).The prevailing physical injuries encountered were cuts to the hand/arms and feet (92%) and burns to the hands and feet (96%).Health concerns
... Nervous system disorder, parkinsonism Irritation and burn on the skin and eyes Intolerable Risk Medium Risk Manganese, which is described as both cytotoxic and neurotoxic substance, forms in most welding processes. It is clearly manifested that chronic manganese poisoning cause central nervous system diseases such as Parkinson's disease [14]. Not only has respirable silica, been known to cause silicosis, which is a non-reversible and fatal lung disease but also has been designated as carcinogenic to human [15]. ...
... These may consist of irritation of the eyes, nose, respiratory system and sometimes the skin. Coughing, a tight chest or chest pains, headaches, nausea, vomiting and fatigue may also be some insistent symptoms [14]. ...
Article
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Arc welding process is a significant source of by-products such as metal particulates and noxious gases. It is vital to characterize aerosols and define particle composition and size in order to make an assessment for a welder's exposure to welding fume since welding has been associated not only with many respiratory problems such as cough, chronic bronchitis, and asthma but also lung cancer. In this study, manual metal arc (MMA) welding of shipbuilding steel were realized with rutile, basic and cellulosic covered electrodes using variety of parameters. The most and the least fume generating covered electrodes and parameter combinations were analyzed in terms of fume particle composition and morphology. Results were evaluated with regard to occupational health and safety as well as environmental effects.
... It encompasses a broad range of joining techniques that include fusion welding, solid state welding, weld bonding, diffusion welding, brazing, and soldering 1 . The more common welding processes can be classified as arc welding, gas welding, resistance welding, energy beam welding and solid-state welding [2][3] . Welding processes employed in Nigeria include gas welding (by the gas welders or the panel beaters) and electric arc welding (by the electric welders). ...
Article
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Welding without use of appropriate eye protector can cause physical, mechanical, chemical and psychosocial hazards/injuries and this has been observed among a large number of the welding workforce who report to eye clinics/hospitals daily with incidence of workplace ocular injuries/ hazards. Aim: To ascertain the ocular injuries among Welders in Nekede, Imo State. Materials and methods: The study was carried out as a descriptive and cross-sectional survey. Questionnaire was distributed among the 260 welders participating in the study and eye screening exercise also carried out. Data analysis was done with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 21 computer software using descriptive analysis. Result: Ocular hazards/injuries found among the welders due to non-use of eye protectors included foreign bodies (30.7%), conjunctivitis (20.3%); pterygium (13.4%), arc-eye injury/trauma (12.6%), cataract (10.0%), chemical injury/burns (7.4%), uveitis (4.3%) and corneal abrasion (1.3%). Conclusion: There was a high rate of occurrence of ocular injuries among the participants, of which foreign bodies, trauma and corneal abrasion, which are related causes of avoidable blindness, additively made up to 44.3% of the ocular injuries/hazards, a very high percentage. This implied that welders in Nekede, Imo State do not maintain Occupational health and safety regulations. Hence, efforts should be made to reduce the risks of ocular problems in their work environment through enlightenment programmes, health education and improved compliance/adherence to occupational health and safety regulations with the help of Health practitioners, State ministry of health and the Government
... Particles released during welding have different diameters, but the majority are less than 2.5 µm, including nanoparticles, which can reach the alveoli and deposit there, generating interstitial fibrosis and eventually, respiratory diseases such as bronchitis, airway irritation, lung function changes (Antonini, 2003), siderosis (Patel et al., 2009), asthma (Storaas et al., 2015), COPD (Ithnin et al., 2019) and lung cancer (Honaryar et al., 2019;Wong et al., 2017). Studies have described that these nanoparticles are rich in different metals (McCarrick et al., 2019;Shoeb et al., 2017). ...
Article
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During the welding activities many compounds are released, several of these cause oxidative stress and inflammation and some are considered carcinogenic, in fact the International Agency for Research on Cancer established that welding fumes are carcinogenic to humans. The aim of the present study was to analyze the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of exposure to welding fumes and to determine concentrations of metals in blood and urine of occupationally exposed workers. We included 98 welders and 100 non-exposed individuals. Our results show significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei (MN), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB), nuclear buds (NBUD) and necrotic cells (NECR) in cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay, as well as in the telomere length (TL) of the exposed individuals with respect to the non-exposed group. In the analysis of the concentrations of inorganic elements using PIXE method, were found higher concentrations of Cr, Fe and Cu in the urine, and Cr, Fe, Mg, Al, S, and Mn in the blood in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group. A significant correlation was observed between MN and age and between NPB and years of exposure. Additionally , we found a significant correlation for TL in relation to MN, NPB, age and years of exposure in the exposed group. Interestingly, a significant correlation between MN and the increase in the concentration of Mg, S, Fe and Cu in blood samples of the exposed group, and between MN and Cr, Fe, Ni and Cu in urine. Thus, our findings may be associated with oxidative and inflammatory damage processes generated by the components contained in welding fumes, suggesting a high occupational risk in welding workers.
... Arc welding procedures emit solid particles and gases that may have adverse health-related effects following inhalation, including cardiovascular (Sjogren et al., 2006), neurological (Fored et al., 2006) respiratory signs and symptoms. Therefore, it may cause environmental and health problems (Lighty et al., 2000;Antonini, 2003;Jenkins and Eagar 2005a;Oberdörster et al., 2005). Welding fume has toxicity which may be hazardous to human health if inhaled or swallowed in pure form. ...
Article
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In this study, the sample of welding fume was obtained from low and medium carbon steels and the electrodes used in welding. The microstructures of the particles were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). In the experiments; Be, Fe, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn were found to be atomically more than 1%. Based on this finding, it is revealed that the structure is composed mainly of oxides such as Fe2O3, Fe3O4, MnO2, TiO2, SiO2, Fe3Mn3O8, FeMn2O4, BeO, CrO. It was also found with XRD analysis that the elements which were found to be atomically less 1% formed oxide phases. Because oxidized structures threaten the environment and human health, it has been experimentally found that the metals and heavy metals emitted by welding fumes still keep polluting and threatening the environment.
... In addition to neurological disorders, the inhalation of Mn can also create unfavorable effect on different organs, such as the liver and kidney (Flynn and Susi 2010;Taube 2013). It was reported that the inhalation of different metals in fumes/welding aerosol creates physiological disorders, especially in the respiratory system of welders, as well as enhances the prevalence of lung cancer (Antonini 2003;Antonini and Roberts 2007). The other adverse impacts of welding fumes are not studied well, especially on the nervous system (Josephs et al. 2005;Racette et al. 2005;Antonini and Roberts 2007). ...
Article
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Immense epidemiological studies have been indicated about adverse effects of the welding fumes on the health of the welders, especially respiratory problems and other physiological disorders. The different types of welding mechanisms produce aerosols/fumes that contain different metals including chromium (Cr) and manganese (Mn). In the present study, the welders of two age groups (adolescents and adults) were selected; simultaneously the age-matched adolescents and adults belong to nonindustrial area as referents/control subjects. Biological samples (scalp hair) were collected from welders and referents, along with analyzed for Cr and Mn by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer, prior to acid digestion. To evaluate the occupational exposure on the health of the workers, the clinical features and biochemical parameters of selected population (exposed and non-exposed age-matched groups) were also carried out. The resulted data indicated that the concentrations of Mn and Cr were significantly higher in scalp hair samples of welders as compared to referent subjects (p < 0.01), verifying the absorption/exposure of both metals produced in welding fumes. The high prevalence of anemia and stomach disorder was observed in adolescent than adult welding workers. The incidence of asthma and related symptoms was elevated in adult welders than in younger boys. The neurological problems were particularly observed in aged welders > 50 years, might be due to long time exposure of welding fumes contains different toxicant especially Mn in ill ventilation system of workshops.
... Tables (2,3 (1) show the fine and also ultrafine particles with nano diameter from 10 nm to 400 nm accumulations in mask filter thread. Welding fumes typically aggregate with nanometer-sized particles [24][25][26]. Deposited welding particles had diameters that often ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 μm in size, with individual particles as small as 10 nm [27]. Another very prominent symptom amongst those welders subjected to Aluminum was exhaustion, concentration problems, and depression [28,29]. ...
Article
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Welding, as a process, is a standard manufacturing method used to combine metals and produces complex aerosols of potentially dangerous metal fumes and gases. Welding procedures, the length of contact, and other workplace conditions other than welding gases were the leading causes that affected the welder's health. Welding gas particles all seem to be somewhere around or less than one micrometer in diameter and less than 100 nanometers in diameter. Vapors are present during welding, whether or not a smoke plume is visible. Owing to their small scale, the vapors can infiltrate the alveoli deeply into the respiratory system. This study aimed to determine the elements and gases and their relation with welder health by using FESEM and EDS x-ray technique. The welders from north rumaila (NR)and south rumaila (SR) the oil field (24 people) were selected for this study and by using the disposable mask to capture the welding fume to determine the nanoparticles of toxic elements, and the results show clinical signs for three persons in SR compare with two persons in NR. On the other hand, the presents of chromium, bromine, argon, and cerium in NR, lack in SR. At the same time, vanadium was found in SR and zero in NR. Generally, other elements like aluminum, copper, palladium, magnesium, lanthanum, iron, and vanadium were observed in both NR and SR in different concentrations; after viewing the NR and SR workshop, the notable mistake was the absence of safety equipment like welding fume extractors and other kinds of HEPA filters.
... Emissions from welding processes are potentially harmful for workers (1)(2)(3). Apart from radiation, heat, mechanical and acoustical risks, welding fume emissions are widely discussed as sources of health hazards. Dependent on the welding techniques and materials used, welding fumes can consist of different gaseous noxes (ozone, nitrogen oxides) (4,5) and aerosol particles which may contain harmful substances such as chromium and nickel (6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11). ...
Article
Welding fume exposure of welders occurs either directly from the welding process and sputters or from the fume background within the workshop. In this study the contribution of fume originating directly from the welding process was assessed. Exposure was quantified by measuring the time integral of fume mass concentration using a tapered element oscillating micro balance connected to a welder dummy. Direct fume exposure was highest for welding processes with low fume emission rates and lowest for processes with high fume emission rates. This finding is supposed to be due to the higher energy input of high emitting processes which stabilizes the thermic column and therefore eliminates fume particles from the welder’s breathing zone. Exposure can be minimized by additionally optimizing workshop ventilation.
... Mallet and colleagues [28] reported that, when compared with epithelial keratinocytes, corneal epithelial cells contain higher amounts of DDB2, a UV-induced DNA damage recognition protein that plays a role in CPD repair [39], XPC which is essential for the repair of both CPD and 6-4 PP(39), and p53, the protein implicated in the cellular response to genotoxic stress [40]. Exposure to extremely high levels of UV, either combined UVA and UVB as in snow blindness or combined UVA, B and C from welding ('arc-eye') [41], while sufficient to cause complete epithelial desquamation, show no evidence of a greater risk of developing ocular surface neoplasia. Additionally, laser refractive surgery, where high fluence UVC is applied to reshape the human cornea, has resulted in no reports of ocular neoplasia. ...
Article
Purpose Antimicrobial ultraviolet C (UVC) has proven efficacy in vitro against keratitis isolates and has potential to treat corneal infection if safety can be confirmed. Method Safety of 265 nm, intensity 1.93 mW/cm² UVC (15–300 s exposures) was investigated in vitro via cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation in DNA of human cultured corneal epithelial cells; ex vivo, by evaluating UVC transmissibility as a function of porcine corneal thickness; and in vivo, by evaluating CPD induction in the mouse cornea following UVC exposure. Results A single exposure of 15 s UVC did not induce significant CPD formation (0.92 ± 1.45%) in vitro relative to untreated control (p = 0.93) whereas 300 s exposure caused extensive CPD formation (86.8 ± 13.73%; p < 0.0001). Cumulative exposure to 15 s UVC daily for 3 days induced more CPD (14.6 ± 8.2%) than a single equivalent 45 s exposure (8.3 ± 4.0%) (p < 0.001) but levels returned to baseline within 72 h (p = 0.29), indicating highly efficient DNA repair. Ex vivo, UVC transmission decreased sharply with increasing corneal thickness, confirming UVC effects are limited to the superficial corneal layers. In vivo evaluations demonstrated no detectable CPD after three consecutive daily 15 s UVC exposures, whereas a single 300 s exposure induced extensive CPD formation in superficial corneal epithelium. Conclusion Up to three daily doses of 15 s UVC, in vivo, appear safe with respect to CPD formation. Ongoing research exploring UVC as a possible treatment for microbial keratitis is warranted.
... is still very high, and an estimated 800,000 workers are employed full time as welders worldwide, with more than one million performing welding intermittently as part of their work duties. 2 Similar findings were reported in 97 welders in China, 29 showing 21% serum iron and 18% s-FERR increase compared to matched controls, an increase that was associated with the welder's professional years and suggested a systemic overload of iron. However, the amount of iron overload, as based on the level of s-FERR, was much lower than that reported in our series. ...
Article
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Background & Aims Inhalation of welding fume may cause pulmonary disease known as welder’s lung. At our centre we came across a number of welders with systemic iron overload and prolonged occupational history and we aimed at characterising this novel clinical form of iron overload. Methods After exclusion of other known causes of iron overload, 20 welders were fully evaluated for working history, hepatic, metabolic, and iron status. MRI iron assessment was performed in 19 patients and liver biopsy in 12. We included 40 HFE‐HH patients and 24 healthy controls for comparison. Results 75% of patients showed lung HRCT alterations; 90% had s‐FERR >1000 ng/mL and 60% had TSAT >45%. Liver iron overload was mild in 8 and moderate‐severe in 12. The median iron removed was 7.8 g. Welders showed significantly lower TSAT and higher SIS and SIS/TIS ratio than HFE‐HH patients. Serum hepcidin was significantly higher in welders than in HFE‐HH patients and healthy controls. At liver biopsy, 50% showed liver fibrosis that was mild in 4, and moderate‐severe in 2. Liver staging correlated with liver iron overload. Conclusions Welders with prolonged fume exposure can develop severe liver iron overload. The mechanism of liver iron accumulation is quite different to that of HFE‐HH suggesting that reticuloendothelial cells may be the initial site of deposition. We recommend routine measurement of serum iron indices in welders to provide adequate diagnosis and therapy, and the inclusion of prolonged welding fume exposure in the list of acquired causes of hyperferritinemia and iron overload.
... The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified welding fume as carcinogenic for humans (Group 1) [5]. Hazardous by-products of welding are many: fume components (fluorides, Al, SiO, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, Pb), gases (CO 2 , CO, NO x , NO 2 , O 3 ), radiant energy (UV, visible, IR), and other (heat, noise, vibration) [6]. Moreover, PM can also contain all components from outdoor sources, including organic, but these components depend on outdoor air quality, since they are not produced by metal processing. ...
Preprint
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During metal welding and cutting, large amounts of particulate matter (PM) are produced that might represent a significant health risk for the exposed workers. In the present pilot study, we performed an elemental analysis of fine PM collected in a metal workshop. Also, elemental analysis of the hair and nail samples collected from workers exposed to the workshop dust and control group was done. Concentrations of 15 elements in PM were measured with X‐Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Particle Induced X‐ray Emission (PIXE), whereas inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP‐MS) was used to determine 12 elements in hair and nail samples. Mean 8‐hr concentrations of PM2.5, Fe, and Mn in the vicinity of welders were up to 1803, 860, and 30 μg/m3, respectively, whereas in the nearby city, daily PM2.5 concentrations are on average 11 μg/m3. We found that several elements, especially Fe and Mn, had substantially higher concentrations in hair and nail samples of exposed workers than in the control group, which indicates the accumulation of metals in workers' tissues, although limit values were not exceeded.
... Our finding that gunshot smoke particles emitted from pistols in the breathing zone of the shooter resemble particles emitted during welding, corroborating previous findings (Antonini, 2003;Grabinski et al., 2017;Wingfors et al., 2014). Military soldiers that inhaled gunshot smoke particle fumes from Pb-free military small arms ammunitio (dominated by oxides of Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn) developed neutrophilic inflammation within 24 h in both upper airways and blood circulation, along with reduced lung function and impaired alveolar-vascular barrier integrity (Borander et al., 2017;Sikkeland et al., 2018;Voie et al., 2014). ...
Article
Metal oxide fumes form at high temperatures, for instance, during welding or firing ammunition. Inhalation exposure to high levels of airborne metal oxide particles can cause metal fume fever, cardiovascular effects, and lung damage in humans, but the associated underlying pathological mechanisms are still not fully understood. Using human alveolar epithelial cells, vascular endothelial cells, and whole blood model systems, we aimed to elucidate the short-term effects of well-characterized metal particles emitted while firing pistol ammunition. Human lung epithelial cells exposed to gunshot smoke particles (0.1-50 μg/ml) produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 8 (IL-8), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)) that activate and recruit immune cells. Particles comprising high copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) content activated human endothelial cells via a non-ROS-mediated mechanism that triggered immune activation (IL-8, GM-CSF), leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1)), and secretion of regulators of the acute-phase protein synthesis (interleukin 6 (IL-6)). In human whole blood, metal oxides in gunshot smoke demonstrated intrinsic properties that activated platelets (release of soluble cluster of differentiation 40 ligand (sCD40L), platelet-derived growth factor B-chain homodimer(PDGF-BB), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)) and blood coagulation and induced concomitant release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from blood leukocytes that further orchestrate thrombogenesis. The model systems applied provide useful tools for health risk assessment of particle exposures, but more studies are needed to further elucidate the mechanisms of metal fume fever and to evaluate the potential risk of long-term cardiovascular diseases.
... There are approximately 60 different welding processes. The two major types of welding are: shielded metal arc and gas (oxyacetylene) welding (Meo and Al-Khlaiwi, 2003), both of them are associated with adverse health effects from chemical and physical agents (Antonini, 2003). ...
... Welders are a large occupational group being exposed to welding fumes inevitably created during the welding process. Welding fumes have been associated with many respiratory health outcomes including bronchitis, airway irritation and inflammation (Antonini 2003;Riccelli et al. 2020) and have recently been reclassified as group 1 carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC 2017). Welding is performed in a large variety of occupational settings and it may, for instance, not completely be avoided for some manual operations to take place in confined, poorly ventilated spaces. ...
Article
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Welders are daily exposed to various levels of welding fumes containing several metals. This exposure can lead to an increased risk for different health effects which serves as a driving force to develop new methods that generate less toxic fumes. The aim of this study was to explore the role of released metals for welding particle-induced toxicity and to test the hypothesis that a reduction of Cr(VI) in welding fumes results in less toxicity by comparing the welding fume particles of optimized Cr(VI)-reduced flux-cored wires (FCWs) to standard FCWs. The welding particles were thoroughly characterized , and toxicity (cell viability, DNA damage and inflammation) was assessed following exposure to welding particles as well as their released metal fraction using cultured human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC-3kt, 5-100 µg/mL) and human monocyte-derived macrophages (THP-1, 10-50 µg/mL). The results showed that all Cr was released as Cr(VI) for welding particles generated using standard FCWs whereas only minor levels (< 3% of total Cr) were released from the newly developed FCWs. Furthermore, the new FCWs were considerably less cytotoxic and did not cause any DNA damage in the doses tested. For the standard FCWs, the Cr(VI) released in cell media seemed to explain a large part of the cytotoxicity and DNA damage. In contrast, all particles caused rather similar inflammatory effects suggesting different underlying mechanisms. Taken together, this study suggests a potential benefit of substituting standard FCWs with Cr(VI)-reduced wires to achieve less toxic welding fumes and thus reduced risks for welders.
... et al., 2017) (Michalek, et al. Les constituants métallique des FS tels que le Pb, l'Al et le Mn ont été soupçonnés de provoquer des atteintes neurologiques et/ou psychiatriques chez les travailleurs exposés dans le cadre de leurs activités de soudage(Antonini et al., 2003). Une étude récente a montré une association significative entre l'exposition aux FS et la dérégulation de gènes impliqués dans certaines maladies neurodégénératives(Rana et al., 2019). ...
Thesis
La fraction particulaire des fumées de soudage (FS) a très récemment été suspectée d’êtrel’un des acteurs majeurs de leurs effets néfastes sur la santé humaine. Cependant, à ce jour,la toxicité de cette fraction n'a pas encore été étudiée de manière approfondie. Notre travailde thèse a consisté à caractériser la fraction ultrafine des FS émises par le soudage à l'arc del’acier inoxydable et à étudier, dans un modèle de cellules épithéliales bronchiques humaines(BEAS-2B), les mécanismes cellulaires et moléculaires impliqués dans sa toxicité pulmonaire.Les particules ultrafines (PUF), générées par le soudage à l'arc de l’acier inoxydable, avaientdes caractéristiques physico-chimiques proches de celles généralement rencontrées en milieuprofessionnel. Nos résultats ont clairement démontré le rôle crucial joué par les PUF des FS,très riche en métaux, dans la production d’un stress oxydant, causant des dommagesoxydatifs, des altérations génétiques et épigénétiques, et activant certaines voies designalisation cellulaire critiques. Ils ont aussi souligné l’urgence d'inclure les PUF des FS dansles futures normes de qualité de l'air.
... Studies about the hazardous effects of welding fumes have reported adverse respiratory effects such as airway irritation, decreased lung function, asthma, bronchitis, pneumoconiosis, and lung cancer (5). However, little information exists about the non-respiratory effects of welding fumes, particularly neurological effects (6). ...
Article
Background: Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for the human body, but it can cause adverse effects on the Central Nervous System at high doses. Exposure to manganese fumes during welding can harm welders' health. Objectives: The current study aimed to measure manganese produced by shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) in the breathing zone air and blood of welders and investigate the relationship between manganese concentrations in air and blood. Methods: In this descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study, 35 welders were enrolled as the exposed group and 40 office workers as the control group. Manganese concentration in air was measured according to NIOSH method 7301. Air and blood sample analyses were carried out by ICP-OES. Statistical analysis was performed with MINITAB 17. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, one-sample t-test, paired t-test, and logistic regression. The significance level was set at P < 0.05. Result: The mean concentration of welding respirable particles and manganese fumes were 9.56 ± 1.67 and 0.45 ± 0.08 mg/m3, three and 22 times the exposure limit recommended by ACGIH, respectively. Average manganese was significantly higher in the welders’ blood (0.16 ± 0.02 µg/mL) than in the controls’ blood (0.04 ± 0.002 µg/mL). There were strong and significant correlations between the welding respirable particles and manganese concentration in welders’ breathing zone and blood manganese levels. Also, with each year of work experience, the manganese concentration in the welders’ blood increased by 1.5%. Conclusions: Welders are at risk of contamination with manganese. Manganese exposure reduction through more efficient ventilation systems, reducing welder’s exposure time, staff training, and appropriate respiratory protection equipment should be applied to reduce manganese exposure among welders and prevent health complications.
... Welders are a large occupational group being exposed to welding fumes inevitably created during the welding process. Welding fumes have been associated with many respiratory health outcomes including bronchitis, airway irritation and inflammation (Antonini 2003;Riccelli et al. 2020) and have recently been reclassified as group 1 carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC 2017). Welding is performed in a large variety of occupational settings and it may, for instance, not completely be avoided for some manual operations to take place in confined, poorly ventilated spaces. ...
Article
Welders are a large occupational group exposed to metal-containing particles in the fumes generated during the welding process. Exposure to welding fumes has been linked to several respiratory health effects which serves as a driving force to develop new methods that generate less toxic fumes. The individual contribution of the various metals found in welding fumes is not fully understood, but the carcinogen hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) has been proposed to be largely involved in the toxicity of stainless steel welding fumes. To explore the role of released metals for welding particle-induced toxicity and test the hypothesis that a reduction of the Cr(VI) content in the fumes of FCWs results in welding fume particles less hazardous to welders, we compared the toxicity of stainless steel welding fume particles generated with standard flux cored-wire (FCWs) electrodes to those generated with Cr(VI)-reduced FCWs in vitro. The endpoints of cell viability, DNA damage and inflammation were examined using human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC-3kt) and human monocyte derived macrophages (THP-1) as models. To elucidate the role of particles versus released metals, the cells were exposed to either the welding fume particles or solely its released metal fraction. The welding fume particles generated with Cr(VI)-reduced FCWs released small levels of Cr(VI), indicating a successful development and they were further found to be considerably less cyto- and genotoxic compared to the those of standard FCWs. The released fraction of the fumes generated with standard FCWs, being predominantly Cr(VI), was concluded to be toxic and may therefore explain a large part of the cytotoxicity and DNA damage observed in response to the particles. In contrast, an increase in the release of inflammatory cytokines was observed in response to all welding fumes, independent of Cr(VI)-reduction. The released metal fractions of the welding fumes did not induce similar inflammatory effects as the particles, indicating this endpoint not to be dependent on the release of Cr(VI). In conclusion, these results suggest the release of Cr(VI) to be at least partly responsible for the acute toxicity of standard FCW generated stainless steel welding fumes. This suggests a potential benefit of substituting standard FCWs with Cr(VI)-reduced wires to reduce the toxicity of the welding fumes and improve the occupational environment of welders.
... It is estimated that more than ten million people worldwide are occupationally exposed to welding fumes. Several scientific data points to the effects caused on workers exposed to these vapors and their association with DNA damage and cancer risk (Antonini 2003). In a recently published study of welders, the CBMN-Cyt assay was used to assess the effects of this exposure on isolated lymphocytes. ...
... Thus investigating its effect on human health will contribute to improving both occupational environment conditions and worker's health status and possibly of reduced insurance costs. It is well documented that both welding and solvent fumes and suspended particles, as well as ELF-MF in various occupational environments, possess a serious threat to human health 1-6, 9-21, [58][59][60][61][62][63][64] . In the meantime, results that indicate no threat to human health were also reported [65][66][67] . ...
Article
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Shipyards are industrial areas where workers are likely exposed to environmental pollutants such as welding fumes, fine organic solvent and dye dust, that render the occupational environment a high risk one. Assessing the risk that workers are exposed to is a high critical factor in improving their working conditions. The present study aims to investigate the potential genetic damage to workers exposed to a harsh environment in a Greek shipyard. It is focused on assessing the percentage of induced micronuclei, as well as on changes in the various cell types of shipyard workers’ oral mucosa epithelium by implementing the buccal micronucleus cytome assay. Exposed workers appeared with statistically significant induced micronuclei as compared to office employees. Statistically, significant cell lesions were detected and are related to workers’ exposure to environmental conditions. The workers’ smoking habit contributed as well to the observed buccal epithelial cell alterations. The observed data signify the high-risk workers are exposed; resulting in the shipyard’s management the need to implement measures improving the working environment conditions and to reevaluate the workers’ personal protective equipment requirements.
... Certain metals commonly found in base metals or consumables may carry a risk to a worker's health. Chromium (Cr) and hexavalent chromium (Cr 6 ) have been associated with work-related skin problems, lung cancer, and fertility issues [3]- [6], while zinc has been associated with metal fume fever, nickel with lung cancer, and manganese and aluminum potentially with diseases of the nervous system [4]. During welding activities, these metals can take different forms and become airborne ultrafine particles, which are able to penetrate the lungs and lung tissues and enter the blood stream, making welders vulnerable to ill-health. ...
Technical Report
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This project extends work on the Women’s Health in Apprenticeship Trades—Metalworkers and Electricians (Whatme) project, a prospective cohort of women welders from across Canada, set up in 2010 by a research team from the University of Alberta at the request of the CSA W117.2 Technical Committee on safety in welding, cutting, and allied processes. The primary objective of the What-me project was to examine the effects on the fetus when welding during pregnancy and, secondarily, the effects on the health of the welders themselves. The project extension reported here was put in place to provide quantitative, validated estimates of exposures to particulates and metals during welding that could be used, in a second step, to evaluate levels of exposure associated with any observed adverse health outcomes in the What-me project. This report describes the methods and results of three stages in the estimates of exposure, (1) the literature search, extraction, and statistical modelling of published data from 179 articles producing a total of 2,965 summary statistics; (2) the collection and analysis of exposure data from 60 experimental welding sessions carried out in the Canadian Centre for Welding and Joining at the University of Alberta; and (3) the validation and calibration of statistical models using data from both sources. The resulting statistical models, presented here for total particulates, provide a tool for quantification of exposures within the What-me project. They will also be of use to other researchers and practitioners who have access to process description without the capacity for direct measurement of airborne exposures.
... Toxic metal pollution has become a growing public health concern with its potential to cause cardiovascular diseases resulting from increasing industrialization and its associated activities [1][2][3]. Welders are exposed to acute and long-term occupational welding fumes with metal particles, which are assumed to be more harmful than the normal ambient PM 2.5 exposure [4]. Hypothetical mechanisms of welding fume toxicity center on oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions, similar to the mechanism that link PM 2.5 and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) [5][6][7]. ...
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Background Occupational welding fumes contain varieties of toxic metal particles and may affect cardiovascular system like the Particulate Matters (PM). Few studies have focused on the effects of toxic metals on the hemodynamic balance; however, the reporting results were not consistent. This study aimed to investigate the association between toxic metals exposure (Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn) and Lead (Pb)) and blood hemostatic parameters status after a 3-week exposure cessation among workers exposed to welding fumes. Methodology Structured interviews and biological samplings were conducted for 86 male workers without a history of Anemia and Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and working in a confined space to construct crude oil tanks. Metal levels of Cr, Mn and Pb in urine were measured during the working days using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) method. The concentrations of hemostatic proteins in blood (White blood cell counts (WBC), Lymphocytes, Monocyte, Eosinophil, Neutrophil, Hematocrit (Hct) were assessed after a 3 weeks exposure cessation. Workers were divided into groups based on occupation type (welder group and non-welder group), and based on metal levels (high and low exposure groups) for comparison. Linear regression models were used to explore the association between metal exposure and multiple blood hemostatic parameters adjusted for age, Body Mass Index (BMI), and smoking status. Results Urine Mn and Cr level of the welder group was significantly higher than the non-welder group (Mn: 0.96 VS 0.22 ug/g creatinine, p < 0.001; Cr: 0.63 VS 0.22 ug/g creatinine, p < 0.01). The mean value of Hct in the welder group was 44.58 ± 2.84 vol%, significantly higher than the non-welder group (43.07 ± 3.31 vol%, p = 0.026). The median value of WBC in the high Mn-exposed group (6.93 ± 1.59 X 10 ⁶ Cell/ml) was significantly lower than the low Mn-exposed group (7.90 ± 2.13 X 10 ⁶ Cell/ml, p = 0.018). The linear regression analyses showed that there was a significantly negative association between log transformed WBC value and the Mn exposure groups (high and low) after adjusting for age, BMI, and smoking status (β = - 0.049, p = 0.045), but no significant result was found between WBC and occupation types (welder and non-welder) (p > 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis also showed positive association between Hct and occupational types (welder and non-welders) (β = 0.014, p = 0.055). The other hemostatic parameters were not different from controls when divided by occupation type or metal level groups. Conclusions Our results showed that welders were exposed to about 3 to 4 times higher Mn and Cr concentrations than non-welders. Moreover, one third of the non-welders were exposed to high-exposure groups of Mn and Cr metals. Regression models revealed a significant association of the WBC counts with the Mn exposure group. Therefore, we infer that Mn exposure may play a significant role on the blood hemostatic parameters of workers in the confined space. Hazard identification for non-welders should also be conducted in the confined space.
... Welding fumes are created as a by-product of the welding process and contain toxic metals including chromium, nickel and manganese that are of concern for occupational health. Approximately 10 million people are estimated to somehow be exposed to welding fumes in their occupational setting (IARC 2017), where the metal-containing fumes have been linked to several health outcomes including bronchitis, respiratory irritation, and inflammation (Antonini 2003;Zeidler-Erdely et al. 2012;Riccelli et al. 2020). Welding fumes are further established to be carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC 2017). ...
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Translating particle dose from in vitro systems to relevant human exposure remains a major challenge for the use of in vitro studies in assessing occupational hazard and risk of particle exposure. This study aimed to model the lung deposition and retention of welding fume particles following occupational scenarios and subsequently compare the lung doses to those used in vitro. We reviewed published welding fume concentrations and size distributions to identify input values simulating real-life exposure scenarios in the multiple path particle dosimetry (MPPD) model. The majority of the particles were reported to be below 0.1 μm and mass concentrations ranged between 0.05 and 45 mg/m ³ . Following 6-h exposure to 5 mg/m ³ with a count median diameter of 50 nm, the tracheobronchial lung dose (0.89 µg/cm ² ) was found to exceed the in vitro cytotoxic cell dose (0.125 µg/cm ² ) previously assessed by us in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC-3kt). However, the tracheobronchial retention decreased rapidly when no exposure occurred, in contrast to the alveolar retention which builds-up over time and exceeded the in vitro cytotoxic cell dose after 1.5 working week. After 1 year, the tracheobronchial and alveolar retention was estimated to be 1.15 and 2.85 µg/cm ² , respectively. Exposure to low-end aerosol concentrations resulted in alveolar retention comparable to cytotoxic in vitro dose in HBEC-3kt after 15–20 years of welding. This study demonstrates the potential of combining real-life exposure data with particle deposition modelling to improve the understanding of in vitro concentrations in the context of human occupational exposure.
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Innovation and technological development have led to a proliferation of various low-cost air quality monitors, most of which use light scattering techniques to detect airborne particles. As these monitors are used in various environments, their testing should also be performed in diverse environments and with different particle types. This study evaluated three Foobot units and three AirVisual Nodes in two laboratory environments and in one residential apartment when measuring five types of aerosols (0.72 and 2.00 µm polystyrene latex (PSL) spheres, Arizona Road Dust (ARD), nanosilver-based surface cleaner, and particles created by a cooking event). The low-cost monitors were highly correlated with the DustTrak DRX (TSI) for most aerosol types (r > 0.78), except when measuring nanosilver spray, where the r value decreased to 0.55. For PSL spheres, Foobot overestimated DRX PM2.5 concentrations while AirVisual's readings were closer to those of DRX and aligned relatively well with the 1:1 line. Both Foobot and AirVisual underestimated PM2.5 concentrations for ARD, nanosilver spray, and particles from a cooking event. Overall, the Foobots reported higher PM2.5 concentrations than the AirVisuals, except when measuring particles created by the cooking event. The paired monitors' precision error varied between 0.15 and 0.47, depending on the aerosol type and monitor pairs. The coefficient of variation ranged from 15.2% to 21.0% for the Foobots and from 12.5% to 28.7% for the AirVisuals. Both monitors showed high accuracy and precision when measuring temperature and humidity as compared to the IAQ Meter (TSI Inc.). AirVisual showed high accuracy and precision when measuring CO2, as compared to the IAQ meter. Foobot, however, didn't report accurate CO2 concentrations. Additionally, we found the AirVisual is easier to operate, and it provided more options to read, save, and download data. Copyright © 2020 American Association for Aerosol Research
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Welding fumes contain a complex mixture of metallic oxides that pose a risk to welders' respiratory systems. This study aimed to evaluate respiratory health disorders among workers in some Egyptian welding enterprises and their relationship to the workplace environment. This research was performed from January 1 st , 2019 to February 28 th , 2021 in welding enterprises in Birket El-Sabaa, a randomly selected district of Menoufia governorate, Egypt. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 110 welders and 110 non-occupationally exposed subjects. Environmental studies were carried out for total welding fumes, respirable dust, and manganese air levels. Spirometric measures and manganese levels in whole blood were applied. Analysis of the personal air samples revealed that the mean values of welding fumes, respirable dust, and manganese air levels were higher than the international permissible levels. Welders had a higher significant prevalence of respiratory manifestations (rhinitis, cough, expectoration, wheezes, dyspnea, and chronic bronchitis) as well as decreased spirometric measures (FVC%, FEV 1 %, FEV 1 /FVC%, and FEF 25-75 %) than controls. The mean value of whole blood manganese level was statistically significantly higher among welders than that of the controls (3.35 ± 0.5 and 1.81 ± 0.79 ng/mL; respectively). A significant relationship was reported between longer work time and the prevalence of respiratory manifestations and decreased spirometric measurements. The use of masks/respirators was associated with a reduced prevalence of respiratory manifestations. Finally, welders that are exposed to welding fumes at concentrations higher than the permissible levels in welding establishments suffer from adverse respiratory problems, as shown by increased prevalence of respiratory manifestations and lower spirometric measurements. Regular use of high-quality personal protective equipment, especially masks, as well as periodic medical examinations for welders, is highly urged.
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This study aims to assess the metal fume exposure of welders and to determine exposure rates for similar exposure groups in a shipyard through the use of Near-field/Far-field (NF/FF) mathematical model and Bayesian decision analysis (BDA) technique. Emission rates of various metal fumes (i.e., total chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni)) were experimentally determined for the gas metal arc welding and flux cored arc welding processes, which are commonly used in shipyards. Then the NF/FF field model which used the emission rates were further validated by welding simulation experiment, and together with long-term operation condition data obtained from the investigated shipyard, the predicted long-term exposure concentrations of workers was established and used as the prior distribution in the BDA. Along with the field monitoring metal fume concentrations which served as the likelihood distribution, the posterior decision distributions in the BDA were determined and used to assess workers’ long-term metal exposures. Results show that the predicted exposure concentrations (Cp) and the field worker’s exposure concentrations (Cm) were statistically correlated, and the high R² (= 0.81–0.94) indicates that the proposed surrogate predicting method by the NF and FF model was adequate for predicting metal fume concentrations. The consistency in both prior and likelihood distributions suggests the resultant posterior would be more feasible to assess workers’ long-term exposures. Welders’ Fe, Mn and Pb exposures were found to exceed their corresponding action levels with a high probability (= 54%), indicating preventive measures should be taken immediately. The proposed approach provides a universal solution for conducting exposure assessment with usual limited number of personal exposure data.
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Occupational and environmental exposures contribute to the development and progression of most lung diseases, yet their impact is greatly under-recognized in clinical practice. Clinicians caring for patients with respiratory diseases should maintain a high index of suspicion for occupational and environmental contributing factors. Mastering occupational and environmental medicine clinical decision making requires specialized clinical skills. These skills include obtaining an appropriate work and exposure history; making an assessment of the magnitude and relevance of exposures and their contribution to a patient's respiratory disease; utilizing appropriate resources for evaluation and management of exposure-related disease; and considering socioeconomic and public health factors.
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Background: Welding is a hazardous occupation where welders expose to a variety of work-related hazards. These hazards might cause occupational health problems. Safe working environment and utilization of personal protective equipment (PPE) play a vital role in preventing problems and promoting their health, safety and wellbeing. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the prevalence of occupational health problems, workplace environment and utilization of personal protective equipment among welders. Methodology: A descriptive cross- sectional study design was used. Data was collected from 130 welders of 35 metal workshops in Banepa Municipality using semi-structured interview schedule in 2019. An observational checklist was used to collect information on the workplace environment of selected metal workshops. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 20 and described by using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results: The most prevalent problems experienced by welders were accidents and injuries (99.2%) and eye and ear problems (98.4%). The most available PPE in 35 metal workshops were protective goggles (100%) and insulated gloves (71.4%). Similarly, 90.6% welders always used safety goggles, 41% sometimes used facemasks and 65.4% never used helmets while working. Only 25.6% workshops had first aid kits available with no expired products and 11.4% had kept fire extinguishers in easily accessible locations. Almost all (97.1%) workshops did not have safety guidelines for their workers. Conclusion: Welders who work in metal workshops experience different types of occupational health problems (OHP) and do not use all types of PPE for their protection. Hence, metal workshops should develop safety guidelines for their workers and strictly implement it to prevent OHP.
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Indoor air quality (IAQ) directly affects the health of occupants. Household manufacturing equipment (HME) used for hobbies or educational purposes is a new and unexplored source of air pollution. In this study, we evaluated the characteristics of particulate and gaseous pollutants produced by a household laser processing equipment (HLPE). Various target materials were tested using a commercial HLPE under various operating conditions of laser power and sheath air flow rate. The mode diameters of the emitted particles gradually decreased as laser power increased, while the particle number concentration (PNC) and particle emission rate (PER) increased. In addition, as the sheath air flow rate quadrupled from 10 to 40 L/min, the mode diameter of the emitted particles decreased by nearly 25%, but the effect on the PNC was insignificant. When the laser induced the target materials at 53 mW, the mode diameters of particles were <150 nm, and PNCs were >2.0 × 10⁴ particles/cm³. Particularly, analyses of sampled aerosols indicated that harmful substances such as sulfur and barium were present in particles emitted from leather. The carcinogenic gaseous pollutants such as acrylonitrile, acetaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and C8 aromatics (ethylbenzene) were emitted from all target materials. In an actual indoor environment, the PNC of inhalable ultrafine particles (UFPs) was >5 × 10⁴ particles/cm³ during 30 min of HLPE operation. Our results suggest that more meticulous control methods are needed, including the use of less harmful target materials along with filters or adsorbents that prevent emission of pollutants.
Preprint
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This study aims to assess the metal fume exposure of welders and to determine exposure rates for similar exposure groups in a shipyard through the use of Near-field/Far-field (NF/FF) mathematical models and Bayesian decision analysis (BDA) technique. Emission rates of various metal fumes (i.e., total chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni)) were experimentally determined for the gas metal arc welding and flux cored arc welding processes, which are commonly used in shipyards. Then the NF/FF field model which used the emission rates were further validated by welding simulation experiment, and together with long-term operation condition data obtained from the investigated shipyard, the predicted long-term exposure concentrations of workers was established and used as the prior distribution in the BDA. Along with the field monitoring metal fume concentrations which served as the likelihood distribution, the posterior decision distributions in the BDA were determined and used to assess workers’ long-term metal exposures. Results show that welders’ Fe, Mn and Pb exposures were found to exceed their corresponding action levels with a high probability, indicating preventive measures should be taken immediately. The proposed approach provides a universal solution for conducting exposure assessment with usual limited number of personal exposure data.
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This pilot study evaluated the ability of a lung deposition sampler (LDS) to estimate body burden by comparing lung-deposited and inhalable nickel and chromium exposures to biomarkers of internal dose. A cohort of stainless steel welders (N = 18) wore side-by-side inhalable and lung deposition samplers for two Monday shifts and urine samples were collected pre- and post-shift. Samplers were analyzed for inhalable and lung-deposited nickel and chromium and urine was analyzed for the respective biomarkers of internal dose. There were statistically significant relationships between lung-deposited nickel (βNi = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.05–0.16) and chromium (βCr = 0.07; 95% CI = 0.006–0.14) and their internal dose biomarkers. No relationship was found between inhalable metals and internal dose biomarkers. In moving towards a more physiologically relevant exposure metric, the LDS can provide better estimates for the total body burden of exposure than traditional penetration-based samplers.
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Background: The influence of welding-associated air pollutants on workers’ health is mainly regarded as a core issue in public health and occupational medicine. Previous studies have indicated that workers exposed to metal fumes had an increased risk of metabolic syndrome, which was correlated with decreased serum adiponectin levels. This study aimed to explore whether heavy metal exposure affects the concentration of adiponectin among welding workers. Methods: The study participants were recruited from a shipyard with 31 office workers and 100 welding workers in 2015. Urinary metal concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. Serum adiponectin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Inferential statistics on repeated measures were performed using generalized estimating equations (GEEs). A weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression model was conducted to examine the joint effect of the association of multimetal exposure with serum adiponectin. Results: After adjustment for all confounding variables through a GEE analysis, significantly negative associations of numerous urinary metals with serum adiponectin were detected in the welding workers, including Cr (β = -0.088; 95% CI: -0.148, -0.027), Mn (β = -0.174; 95% CI: -0.267, -0.081), Co (β = -0.094; 95% CI: -0.158, -0.029), Ni (β = -0.108; 95% CI: -0.208, -0.008), Cd (β = -0.067; 95% CI: -0.115, -0.018), and Pb (β = -0.089; 95% CI: -0.163, -0.015). The contributions of multiple urinary metal levels to serum adiponectin levels, determined individually by WQS regression, suggested that Pb was the greatest contributor. Conclusions: Welding workers exposed to heavy metals such as Pb, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, and Cd might have reduced serum adiponectin levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
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Knowledge, Attitude and Practice studies can be used for diagnostic purposes for which they describe the population's current knowledge, attitude and practice as well as being implemented to increase insights in a current situation and in appropriate specific interventions. Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude and use of eye protectors by welders in Umualum, a rural community in Owerri West, Imo State, Nigeria and to assess if there is a relationship between knowledge, attitude and their age, educational attainment and years of service. Materials and methods: Descriptive and cross-sectional survey was used. 260 welders participated in the study. A validated questionnaire was used for data collection and data analysed with descriptive statistics. The research hypotheses were tested using the Chi-square test. Result: There was a relatively high level of knowledge (86.2%) that use of eye protectors prevents work-related ocular hazards/injuries. Generally, the level of attitude of the welders towards use of eye protectors was poor (59.2%) and the constant use of eye protectors was low (34.2%) as compared to the level of knowledge. There was a significant relationship between age, educational attainment and years of service (P<0.001) and the level of knowledge of the use of eye protectors as well as the attitude of the welders towards the use of eye protectors (P<0.001; P=0.036). Conclusion: The attitude of the welders in Umualum should be modified through continuous eye health and occupational health and safety education for health safety and increased productivity.
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This study describes a comprehensive exposure assessment in a stainless steel welding facility, measuring personal inhalable PM and metals, time-resolved PM10 area metals, and the bioavailable fraction of area inhalable metals. Eighteen participants wore personal inhalable samplers for two, nonconsecutive shifts. Area inhalable samplers and a time-resolved PM10 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer were used in different work areas each sampling day. Inhalable and bioavailable metals were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Median exposures to chromium, nickel, and manganese across all measured shifts were 66 (range: 13-300) μg/m3, 29 (5.7-132) μg/m3, and 22 (1.5-119) μg/m3, respectively. Most exposure variation was seen between workers ( 0.79 < ICC < 0.55 ) , although cobalt and inhalable PM showed most variation within workers. Manganese was the most bioavailable metal from the inhalable size fraction (16 ± 3%), and chromium and nickel were 1.2 ± 0.08% and 2.6 ± 1.2% bioavailable, respectively. This comprehensive approach to welding-fume exposure assessment can allow for targeted approaches to controlling exposures based not only on individual measurements, but also on metal-specific measures and assessments of bioavailability.
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Welding fumes (WFs) can cause occupational pneumonoconiosis and other diseases in workers. WFs have complex chemical composition and morphology depending on the welding conditions. The WF surface is a key factor affecting those diseases. The objective of this study was to establish an analytical method focused on characterizing individual WFs and welding slags (WSs) formed during CO2 arc welding processes for knowledge acquisition of risk assessment. Especially, the characterization was focused on the elemental distributions near the surfaces obtained using fluxing agents and size of the WFs. WFs were collected using personal samplers. After welding, WS was also collected. The fluxing elemental distribution (e.g., Bi) near the surfaces WS and WFs were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. As a result, some of the micron-sized spherical particles (SPs) grew by incorporating nanosized primary particles composed of other metal species. The fluxing agents formed elemental distribution patterns on the SP surface. Bi were dotted in an agglomerate. Mn amount in WS depends on Mn amount in the WFs. These results obtained through the analysis of both the WS and WF surface as well as the particle sizes will facilitate the establishment of exposure assessment models.
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The use of chemical substances has commonly increased, there are such a number of chemical dangers all spherical us that it is probably almost now no longer feasible to feature if we centered constantly on the dangers. This is precisely why we need to don't forget the dangers. Everyone need to apprehend exactly what do in case of unstable contact with risky material. Previously we tested consciousness of Jordanian peoples and measured the employees’ interest of risky chemical compounds1. So this new seek aimed to research chemical symbols attentions, a questionnaire survey come to be executed among a whole of 245 peoples. The questionnaire come to be acquainted with flammable risky symbols as 90.6%, however handiest 7% for fitness chance symbol. Statistical assessment of the statistics come to be finished with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25. The effects show that the descriptive information confirmed that scholars proven truthful to excellent familiarity and expertise of chemical chance caution symbols. Most college students had bad to truthful attitudes closer to chemical laboratory protection; however, the evaluation of college students’ chemical laboratory protection practices found out truthful to suitable practices. While college students’ protection focus and practices, however now no longer attitude, at this college have been acceptable, protection tactics want to be applied inside an extra expert protection training and coherent threat and protection weather management
Chapter
The welding torch with an exhaust hood can effectively capture welding fumes at the source of contamination. However, due to the high temperature of the welding fumes, the temperature of the welding torch handle is relatively high in a short time and the resistance of the ventilation handle is also too high, which makes it difficult to apply in practice. In order to reduce the resistance of the ventilation handle, and promote the smooth outflow of high-temperature welding fumes, the pressure loss of the three welding torch handle structures was studied in this paper by simulation. The structure models of the welding torch handle were established by Auto CAD, and the air distribution and resistance in the ventilation handle were simulated by Fluent. According to the simulation results, the influence of the different structures and air volumes on the resistance of the ventilation handle was analyzed. The result shows that the ventilation handle B of the welding torch has the least resistance and the resistance of the ventilation handles increases rapidly with the increase of air volume.
Chapter
Fabrication processes are essential for manufacturing complex-shaped components. Welding is the most widely used fabrication process due to its inherent characteristics. Industries generally use fusion welding processes where the welders are exposed to hazardous gasses, fumes, vapors, spatter and radiations while doing welding. These are indeed health hazards for the welders. Thus, there is a need for an alternative joining process which is environmentally friendly and safe for the welders. Recently, friction stir welding (FSW) process which is a solid-state welding process has been evolved which does not involve application of filler materials and other consumables leading to a safe welding process from welder’s health viewpoint. FSW is not only a clean process but it also provides better mechanical properties of the joint as compared to fusion welding processes since it overcomes various problems leading to discontinuities/defects. This paper presents a comparison of FSW with fusion welding processes with respect to health and safety of the welder and mechanical properties of the joints.
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Ergonomics is one of the emerging fields of interest for the researchers of the twenty-first century but is being incorporated into unusual traits of human life from the period of prehistoric Greek civilization. On the former, it has been tried to present how Greeks have used ergonomics in the manufacture of various products. Later on, during the twentieth century, there have been many changes in the application of ergonomics in different aspects of the product design. In this paper, an attempt has been made to represent how ergonomics in product design has changed its face from the prehistoric Greek civilization to the present age and what are the future trends of ergonomic developments in product design.
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To investigate the disease process of pneumoconiosis induced by welding-fume exposure, a lung fibrosis model was established by building a stainless steel arc welding fume generation system and exposing male Sprague-Dawley rats for 90 days. The rats were exposed to welding fumes with concentrations of 57– 67 mg/m 3 (low dose) and 105–118 mg/m 3 (high dose) total suspended particulates for 2 h per day in an inhalation chamber for 90 days. The concentrations of the main metals, Fe, Mn, Cr, and Ni, were measured in the welding fumes, plus the gaseous compounds, including nitrous gases and ozone, were monitored. During the exposure period, the animals were sacrificed after the initial 2-h exposure and after 15, 30, 60, and 90 days. Histopathological examinations were conducted on the animals' upper respiratory tract, including the nasal pathway and conducting airway, plus the gas exchange region, including the alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli. When compared to the control group, the lung weights did not increase significantly in the low-dose group, yet in the high-dose group there was a significant increase from day 15 to day 90. The histopatholgical examination combined with fibrosis-specific staining (Masson's trichrome) indicated that the lungs in the low-dose group did not exhibit any progressive fibrotic changes. Whereas, the lungs in the high-dose group exhibited early delicate fibrosis from day 15, which progressed into the perivas-cular and peribronchiolar regions by day 30. Interstitial fibrosis appeared at day 60 and became prominent by day 90, along with the additional appearance of pleural fibrosis. Accordingly, it would appear that a significant dose of welding-fume exposure was required to induce lung fibrosis.
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With the way cleared for increased use of the fuel additive methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) in the United States, the issue of possible public health impacts associated with this additive has gained greater attention. In assessing potential health risks of particulate Mn emitted from the combustion of MMT in gasoline, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency not only considered the qualitative types of toxic effects associated with inhaled Mn, but conducted extensive exposure-response analyses using various statistical approaches and also estimated population exposure distributions of particulate Mn based on data from an exposure study conducted in California when MMT was used in leaded gasoline. Because of limitations in available data and the need to make several assumptions and extrapolations, the resulting risk characterization had inherent uncertainties that made it impossible to estimate health risks in a definitive or quantitative manner. To support an improved health risk characterization, further investigation is needed in the areas of health effects, emission characterization, and exposure analysis.
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A 26-year-old welder became ill after exposure to zinc and cadmium fumes at work. His initial clinical course was consistent with that of metal fume fever, but persistence of symptoms and signs beyond the usual duration in this condition led to suspicion of a toxic pulmonary reaction to cadmium. The finding of high percentages of both metals in the urine confirmed this diagnosis. Pulmonary function tests showed restriction of lung volumes, with increased elastic recoil and reduced diffusion, but no evidence of airways obstruction. Chest roentgenograms indicated central pulmonary edema, which cleared in 6 days. Follow-up assessment 2 years later showed incomplete improvement of the restrictive ventilatory defect.
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Welding fume particles collected from different welding procedures were tested for mutagenicity in Escherichia coli, with the inhibition zone in pol A- as compared to pol A+, and in Salmonella typhimurium, TA 100 strain. While no mutagenicity was found with mild steel welding, a mutagenic effect was established with samples from stainless steel welding. This mutagenicity was particularly associated with manual metal arc (MMA) welding, and less so with metal inert-gas welding. A decrease in or an elimination of the effect occurred with a liver microsomal metabolizing system (S-9 mix). The MMA samples produced the strongest mutagenic effect. More-detailed investigations on these samples showed that the mutagenic agent(s) is water soluble. An increased mutagenicity, which also revealed the induction of frame shift mutations, was found with TA 98. The same welding fume sample was used for a mutagenicity test (resistance to 6-thioguanine) with V 79 hamster cells. Because of the high toxicity of these welding fume particles on the cells, only very low concentrations could be tested, but the increase of mutations, when compared to the negative control, was significant. It is suggested that hexavalent chromium may be involved in the mutagenic effect of the welding fumes.
Article
The research described in this paper was undertaken to investigate the health hazard of fume agglomeration in the arc welding process. It is well known by health professionals that local ventilation and personal protection equipment are essential to protect the welder's respiratory system. The results of this investigation readily show that an appreciable fraction of welding fume is in the hazardous size range of 1-7 μm. Furthermore, within a relatively short time interval after welding, the fume particles below 1 μm begin to grow into this size range. The data gathered in this research suggest that approximately 2 min after welding ceases (agglomeration period of test 4), the fume begins to experience a significant growth in the smaller ranges. Thus the welder is exposed to a health hazard during and immediately after welding, but this hazard becomes more pronounced as the fume ages. Verification test B, discussed earlier, supports the assumption that this growth process continues well beyond the 4 min of agglomeration allowed in these tests. These results should be considered in light of the limited scope of this investigation. Here only one type of base metal and electrode was used and the welding period was limited to 30 seconds, although longer periods were investigated in the verification tests. All of the tests conducted in this research were influenced by difficulties in attempting to weld for precisely 30 s. Similarly, some difficulty was encountered in precisely controlling the equipment in the sampling train on each of the separate runs of each test. Despite the limitations and possible inaccuracies of this research, the vital need to protect the welder's respiratory system is clearly demonstrated. No person who welds, even with relatively harmless materials, should allow himself to inhale the fumes resulting from that process both during welding and following the process. This need may not seem apparent to the welder, since a large fraction of the fume may be invisible; furthermore, welding is frequently done in widespread, temporary locations. Despite these facts, the health hazards of these fumes are significant and more pronounced when more hazardous (e.g., chromium) fumes are generated. Welders, and management responsible for welding personnel, have an important responsibility to control welding fume and avoid inadvertent threats to health.
Chapter
In contrast to the effects of cutaneous application of chemical haptens, which cause cell-mediated hypersensitivity, their inhalation or oral administration may cause instead a specific immunological tolerance (Doe et al. 1982). Industrial metal fumes from stainless steel processing, e.g. metal arcwelding, contain mixtures of potential haptens such as chromium and nickel, which are capable of causing cutaneous sensitization (Hicks et al. 1979). Particulate components of such fumes are readily inhalable by exposed workers. There is thus a question of whether the haptens may lead to sensitization or if a state of immunological tolerance may result. However, effects of inhaled welding fumes are poorly documented with respect to humans, so these possibilities were investigated in the guinea-pig. Possible sensitizing or tolerance-inducing effects of material in aqueous solution from fumes generated by manual metal arc welding of stainless steel (MMA-SS), were investigated by pretreatments using three doses of solution at 2-day intervals, followed by a 9-day interval, after which the sequence was twice repeated. In different tests, oral, intratracheal or intrapulmonary routes of administration were employed. Subsequently, treated animals were subjected to skin sensitizing and challenge-testing procedures, using nickel sulphate or potassium dichromate solutions. Lung lavage and peritoneal exudate cells were used for macrophage migration inhibition tests “in vitro”, to indicate systemic senzitisation. Cutaneous application of MMA-SS solutions induced sensitization to chromium and nickel, but prior intratracheal or intrapulmonary injection sequences prevented such development of skin sensitization. Animals pretreated with potassium dichromate sequentially by these routes displayed a similar lack of response to cutaneous sensitization and challenge procedures. These effects were interpreted as production of states of tolerance. Pretreatments with intrapulmonary or intratracheal nickel sulphate provoked systemic sensitization and marginal tolerance respectively. It is suggested that inhalation of welding fume particles containing potential sensitizing haptens might induce immunological tolerance but under same circumstances sensitization might occur instead.
Article
The article deals with the generation of welding and cutting fumes, i. e. , gaseous and solid particles in cutting of steels, copper, and aluminum with oxygen, hydrogen, and plasma, and in resistance seam welding. The biological effects of these aerosols are examined and discussed.
Article
In this article the authors describe the development of stainless steel welding electrodes having a low level of toxic chromium in the fume through the use of a lithium silicate binder for the coatings. The implications relating to health and safety and performance are discussed. The presence of hexavalent chromium (CrVI) in welding fumes has received particular attention because its toxicity is well documented and it is known to be a carcinogen in chromium plating and chrome pigment manufacture. In the particular case of the welding industry it has not been proven that CrVI has caused any cases of cancer but medical research into the effects of welding fume is continuing in several centres.
Article
In an occupational mortality analysis of 486,000 adult male death records filed in Washington State in the years 1950-1982, leukemia and the non-Hodgkin's lymphomas show increased proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) in workers employed in occupations with intuitive exposures to electromagnetic fields. Nine occupations of 219 were considered to have electric or magnetic field exposures. These were: electrical and electronic technicians, radio and telegraph operators, radio and television repairmen, telephone and power linemen, power station operators, welders, aluminum reduction workers, motion picture projectionists and electricians. There were 12,714 total deaths in these occupations. Eight of the nine occupations had PMR increases for leukemia [International Classification of Diseases (ICD), seventh revision 204] and seven of the nine occupations had PMR increases for the other lymphoma category (7th ICD 200.2, 202). The highest PMRs were seen for acute leukemia: (67 deaths observed, 41 deaths expected; PMR 162), and in the other lymphomas (51 deaths observed, 31 deaths expected; PMR 164). No increase in mortality was seen for Hodgkin's disease or multiple myeloma. These findings offer some support for the hypothesis that electric and magnetic fields may be carcinogenic.
Article
Deaths from lung cancer among 3,247 welders in western Washington during the period 1950 through 1976 were identified. Relative to those among men of comparable age and race in the population as a whole, lung cancer mortality rates among the welders were elevated by 32% [p = 0.06]. When the analysis was restricted to the period beginning 20 years after first employment, the excess was 74% [p < 0.001]. An excess was also found when welders were compared to nonwelders in the same union: the attributable risk was 23.1 per 100,000 per year. A review of 11 published studies showed that most demonstrate an excess risk, with 6 of the 11 showing an excess in the range of 30 to 50%. © 1981 The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
Article
Manganese chloride (50–800 μg) was injected unilaterally into the right nostril of rats and its accumulation in the central nervous system (CNS) was monitored. Brain manganese levels were elevated in a dose-dependent, time-dependent, and tissue-dependent manner. Elevated levels of manganese were detected in the right olfactory bulb and olfactory tubercle within 12 hr after instillation and remained elevated for at least 3 days. As little as 100 μg of manganese chloride was sufficient to increase brain manganese levels. No changes were detected on the left side of the brain. The manganese content of the striatum, the target site for manganese neurotoxicity, was unchanged following acute administration, but was elevated when two injections were made 1 week apart. These results suggest that air-borne manganese can be retrogradely transported along olfactory neurons to the CNS and can reach deeper brain structures under appropriate exposure conditions.
Article
A patient with the clinical history of recurring zinc fume fever underwent an experimental welding exposure; this resulted in a systemic reaction and a distinct self-limiting response in the periphery of the lung, demonstrated by pulmonary function tests and bronchoalveolar lavage. These pulmonary changes observed for the first time in man were reproducible.
Article
The study was primarily concerned with the risk of lung cancer in certain occupations. One occupation, asbestos workers, was found to have a definite increased risk of lung cancer, and the risk increased with length of time in the occupation. No other occupation was found to have increased lung cancer hazard. Other causes of mortality were not found related to these occupations except for two groups that had excess mortality from both cancers of the mouth, pharynx, and larynx and from cirrhosis of the liver. These diseases are associated with alcohol consumption, and this is the most likely explanation. The problems involved in the case control and prospective study sequence are discussed. Also the possible masking effect of such a powerful etiologic factor as cigarette smoking is discussed.
Article
There is growing concern over the neurotoxic effects of chronic occupational exposure to metal fume produced by welding. Elevated iron and manganese levels in the brain have been linked to an increase in lipid peroxidation, dopamine depletion and predisposition to the development of a Parkinson's type condition in advanced cases. Chemical and toxicological analysis of selected welding fumes, generated by model processes, were used in order to evaluate their potential to release solutes that promote oxidation of dopamine and peroxidation of brain lipids in cell free assays. This study compared the effect of shield gas, electrode type and voltage/currect upon the dopamine and brain lipid peroxidation potential of selected welding fume, obtained from metal inert gas (MIG) welding systems. Overall, fume extracts were found to enhance dopamine oxidation and inhibit lipid peroxidation. Significant differences were also found in the oxidising potential of fume generated under differing process conditions; it may therefore be possible to determine the potential neurotoxicity of fumes using this system.
Article
The objective of this study was to examine the pathogenesis of metal fume fever in humans by studying functional, cellular, and biochemical responses after exposure to zinc welding fume. We studied 14 welders recruited through public advertisements. Participants welded galvanized steel. We measured lung volumes, airflow, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and airway reactivity at baseline as well as either 6 or 20 hours after welding. We carried out bronchoalveolar lavage either 8 hours (early follow-up, 5 participants) or 22 hours (late follow-up, 9 participants) after welding, assaying the fluid for total and differential cell counts and bronchoalveolar lavage supernatant concentrations of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Changes in pulmonary function and airway reactivity were minimal. Cumulative zinc exposure and polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at late (r = 0.87; P less than 0.01) and early (r = 0.93; P less than 0.05) follow-up were positively correlated. Among the late follow-up group, the mean proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was 37% (range, 19% to 63%), a statistically greater proportion than the 9% (range, 2% to 21%) seen among the early follow-up group (P less than 0.05). We did not detect TNF or more than a trace amount ofmore » interleukin-1 in the bronchoalveolar lavage supernatant. Zinc oxide welding fume was associated with a marked dose-dependent increase in the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 22 hours after exposure but was not associated with a clinically significant change in pulmonary function or airway reactivity. Although we did not identify increases in either interleukin-1 or TNF levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, cytokines or a cytokine-like mechanism may mediate the syndrome of metal fume fever.« less
Article
Possible mechanisms were examined whereby welding fumes may elicit injury and inflammation in the lungs. The effects of different welding fumes on lung macrophages and on the in vivo production of two inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), were assessed. Fume was collected during flux-covered manual metal are welding using a stainless steel consumable electrode (MMA-SS) and gas metal are welding using a mild steel electrode (GMA-MS). For the in vitro study, bronchoalveolar lavage was performed on untreated rats to recover lung macrophages, and the effects of the welding fumes on macrophage viability and respiratory burst were examined. In vivo, additional rats were intratracheally instilled with the welding fumes at a dose of 1 mg/100 g body weight. These rats were lavaged 1, 14, and 35 days postinstillation, and indicators of lung damage (cellular differential, albumin, TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta release, and lactate dehydrogenase and beta-n-acetyl glucosaminidase activities) were measured. In vitro, the MMA-SS fume was more cytotoxic to the macrophages and induced a greater release of reactive oxygen species as measured by the respiratory burst compared to the GMA-MS fume. In vivo, evidence of lung damage was observed for both fumes I day postinstillation. By 14 days, lung responses to the GMA-MS fume had subsided and were not different from the saline vehicle control group. Significant lung damage was still observed for the MMA-SS group at 14 days, but by 35 days, the responses had returned to control values. One day after the instillations, both welding fumes had detectable levels of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta within the lavage fluid. However the MMA-SS particles caused a significantly greater release of both cytokines in the lavage fluid than did the GMA-MS group. The results demonstrate that MMA-SS fume caused more pneumotoxicity than GMA-MS. This increased response may reflect enhanced macrophage activation, the increased production of reactive oxygen species, as well as secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta.
Article
The control of occupational exposures to particulates, and to welding fumes in particular, is traditionally performed by hygienic monitoring on paper filters. Exposure limits for metals frequently depend on solubility, and are usually based on worst case data, which, in the case of the putative carcinogens Ni(II) and Cr(VI) are derived from historic industrial exposures which have resulted in detectable cancer overincidence. Towards this aim the absolute toxicity and transformation potency of a series of Cr and Ni compounds, and industrial metallic aerosols, including welding fumes from several processes (both mild steel without and stainless steel with Cr and Ni) are compared in a standardized procedure involving alternative collection, storage and bioassay protocols.
Article
The anatomical characteristics of the nasal cavities of various experimental animals and man have been presented along with particle deposition considerations. There are a number of differences and similarities between the species. Perhaps one of the most obvious examples of anatomical differences is in the structure of the turbinate regions. Some of the differences could affect deposition of various sized particles in the nasal cavities. A degree of caution, therefore, has to be exercised in extrapolating the nasal deposition characteristics from one species to another. Simple scaling calculations may not be sufficient.
Article
A significant annual increase in injuries associated with repair and maintenance has been noted throughout the mining industry. This was thought to be attributable partially to increased mechanization, but other causes, such as unsafe equipment, tools, or functions may have been major contributing factors. This study, therefore, was conducted to determine if such other factors existed and to what degree these factors were hazardous. Data were extracted from the Health and Safety Analysis Center computer bank in the categories of underground metal mining, underground nonmetal mining surface metal mining, surface nonmetal mining, sand and gravel pits, quarries and crushed stone, plants and metal and nonmetal mills. With the cooperation of industry, operational data were gathered relative to operating time, general maintenance, and welding for the respective categories. This information then was normalized to give a relative Hazard Index (H.I.) for specific equipment, tools, and functions. It was determined that haulage trucks were the most hazardous in the equipment category, followed closely by conveyors. In general, the study showed that improvement in welding protection and functions is paramount; also, regardless of what the job is, if a man must use force such as swinging a hammer or pulling hard on a wrench, the probability of injury is greatly increased.
Article
Deaths from lung cancer among 3,247 welders in western Washington during the period 1950 through 79-76 were identified. Relative to those among men of comparable age and race in the population as a whole, lung cancer mortality rates among the welders were elevated by 32% (p = 0.06). When the analysis was restricted to the period beginning 20 years after first employment, the excess was 74% (p < 0.001). An excess was also found when welders were compared to nonwelders in the same union: the attributable risk was 23.1 per 100,000 per year. A review of 11 published studies showed that most demonstrate an excess risk, with 6 of the 11 showing an excess in the range of 30 to 50%. (C)1981 The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Article
In a case-control study, 839 male hospital-based cases of primary lung cancer and the same number of population-based controls—matched by sex, age, and region of residence—were personally interviewed for their job and smoking histories. The study allows to quantify occupational asbestos exposure that was thought to be a welding-associated risk: 6% of cases and 2% of controls were classified into the occupational category “welders or burners” (odds ratio [OR] = 2.65). This OR was reduced to 1.93 (95% confidence limit [CL]: 1.03–3.61) after adjustment for smoking and asbestos. In contrast, a history of welding in general for at least a half-year is 28% among cases and 23% among controls, yielding an OR of 1.25 (95% CL: 0.94–1.65) after adjustment for both confounders. The OR of welding for more than 6,000 hr is 1.45 (95% CL = 1.04–2.02), reduced to 1.10 after adjustment for smoking and asbestos. Oxyacetylene welding for more than 6,000 hr lifelong is associated with an OR of 1.86 (95% CL = 1.01–3.43) reduced to 1.46 (n.s.) after adjustment for smoking and asbestos. The risk of oxyacetylene welding seems to be highest for oat cell carcinoma with an adjusted OR for ever-exposure of 1.46 (95% CL = 0.69–3.10). Therefore, the present study supports the hypothesis that some, but not all, of the excess risk of welders observed in the literature may be due to a history of cigarette smoking and occupanional asbestos exposure. The elevated risk for the subgroup of employees in the aircraft industry reported for the midterm evaluation of the study still prevails, though no longer statistically significant. However, employees in this industry who ever welded show an OR of 2.29 (95% CL = 1.19–4.42) after adjustment for smoking and asbestos. Am. J. Ind. Med. 33:313–320, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
Fumes generated from mild steel and stainless steel welding were collected on paper filters and tested in the BHK and SHE cell transformation assays. Fumes from the manual metal arc welding of stainless steel (MMA/SS) had a toxic and transforming effect attributable to their Cr(VI) content. The fumes from metal inert gas stainless steel (MIG/SS) welding also had a toxic effect but this was 2–3 times greater than that expected from their soluble Cr(VI) content based on the activity of soluble Cr(VI) from pure chromium compounds. When collected in an impinger, the fumes from MIG/SS were found to contain approximately 10 times the soluble Cr(VI) content of samples collected on filters. This additional Cr(VI), when collected in a water impinger, also exhibited a greater toxicity compared with that found for the additional Cr(VI) collected in an impinger filled with growth medium. This comparison implies the presence of a short-lived biologically active Cr(VI) species usually lost in conventional sampling techniques. It also implies that there is a detoxification step associated with the formation of Cr(VI) organic complexes. Relatively insoluble Cr(VI) compounds showed a higher toxic and transforming effect in the BHK assay than could be ascribed to the soluble Cr(VI) content of the medium, indicating the importance of phagocytosis as a pathway for the uptake of Cr(VI) and other toxic substances from particulates.
Article
The incidence of asthma was compared in welders welding in stainless steel (SS) or mild steel (MS). The study was comprised of welders who had been welding for at least 6 months during the preceding 10 year period in four companies, but who had not been welding occupationally prior to this time. The inclusion criteria were met by 42 SS welders with a total welding time of 196 years. Sixteen of these had left work, six because of airway symptoms. Eighty-five MS welders with a total welding time of 403 years were included. Forty-eight of these had left work, 10 citing airway symptoms as a main reason for leaving work, according to responses in a mailed questionnaire. Ex-welders with airway symptoms were in some cases further investigated with spirometry and bronchial provocation tests. In other cases, medical records gave a clear diagnosis.In addition, bronchial responsiveness and lung function were measured and airway symptoms were recorded in presently active welders. Twenty-three of the 26 active SS steel welders and 23 of the 37 active MS steel welders were examined, together with a reference group of 26 (out of 30 invited) vehicle assemblers.There was no difference in the incidence of welding-associated asthma (5% for SS, 7% for MS welders per 1,000 welding-years). Bronchial responsiveness and lung function in active welders was normal and did not differ between MS and SS welders or between welders and a reference group of vehicle fitters. Welders had a significantly higher prevalence of airway symptoms as compared to vehicle fitters.
Article
An epidemiological, cross-sectional study was conducted in order to assess non-neoplasic effects on the lung due to chronic exposure to arc welding fumes and gases. The study involved 346 arc welders and 214 control workers from a factory producing industrial vehicles. These workers (welders and controls) had never been exposed to asbestos. Respiratory impairments were evaluated by using a standardized questionnaire, a clinical examination, chest radiophotography and several lung function tests (spirometry, bronchial challenge test to acetylcholine, CO transfer tests according to the breath-holding and the steady-state methods, N2 washout test). The only significant differences between the welders overall compared to the controls were a slightly higher bronchial hyper-reactivity to acetylcholine and a lower lung diffusing capacity for CO in the welders. However, non-specific, radiologic abnormalities (reticulation, micronodulation) and obstructive signs were more frequent in the most exposed welders (welding inside tanks) than in welders working in well ventilated workplaces. The nature of the metal welded (mild-steel, stainless steel, aluminium) did not seem to have an influence on respiratory impairments. In the mild-steel welders, respiratory symptoms (dyspnoea, recurrent bronchitis) and obstructive signs were more frequent in the welders using a manual process than in the welders involved with the semi-automatic process (MIG). For all the workers (welders and controls), smoking had a markedly adverse effect on respiratory symptoms and lung function. Moreover, smoking seemed to interact with welding since CO lung transfer was more impaired in smoking welders than in smoking controls.
Article
The prevalence of respiratory symptoms, determined with the Medical Research Council's questionnaire, the impairment of lung function (FVC, FEV1, FEV%) and the occurence of pulmonary radiographic findings were investigated in a group of 157 electric arc welders and 108 controls. Environmental measurements were made in the workplaces of 88 of the examined welders. The welders had simple chronic bronchitis more often than did the unexposed men (p < 0.01), but no dose-response relationship was found when the prevalence of simple chronic bronchitis was compared with time and level of exposure. The means of the lung function values of the welders with and without simple chronic bronchitis did not differ from each other. The prevalence of mucopurulent chronic bronchitis was the same in the welders and the controls. No significant differences between the two groups were found for lung function, the radiographic findings and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, except for simple chronic bronchitis. However, the welders reported frequent colds, sore throats, hoarseness and fevers more often than the unexposed men did.
Article
In order to investigate occupational diseases related to welding fume exposure, such as nasal septum perforation, pneumoconiosis and manganese intoxication, we built a welding fume exposure system that included a welding fume generator, exposure chamber and fume collector. The fume concentrations in the exposure chamber were monitored every 15 min during a 2-h exposure. Fume (mg/m3) concentrations of major metals, including Fe, Mn, Cr, and Ni were found to be consistently maintained. An acute inhalation toxicity study was conducted by exposing male Sprague–Dawley rats to the welding fumes generated in this apparatus by stainless steel arc welding. The rats were exposed in the inhalation chamber to a welding fume with a concentration of 62 mg/m3 total suspended particulates for 4 h. Animals were sacrificed at 4 h and at 1, 3, 7, 10, and 14 days after exposure. Histopathological examinations were conducted on the animals’ upper respiratory tracts, including the nasal pathway and the conducting airway, and on the gas exchange region including the alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli. Diameters of fume particles varied from 0.02 to 0.81 μm and were distributed log normally, with a mean diameter of 0.1 μm and geometric standard deviation of 1.42. Rats exposed to the welding fume for 4 h did not show any significant respiratory system toxicity. The mean particle diameter of 0.1 μm resulted in little adsorption of the welding fume particles in the upper respiratory tract. Particle adsorption took place principally in the lower respiratory tracts, including bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli.
Article
As a result of recent research on the potentially adverse health effects of sub-micrometer aerosols, a generation chamber and sampling system was designed to characterize aerosols from a popular welding system that utilized either gas metal arc welding or flux cored arc welding techniques. The experimental apparatus allowed flexibility in changing arc welding parameters, sample locations, and was designed to promote the steady-state generation of fumes over several minutes. In contrast to prior studies where the particle size distribution was weighted by mass without regard to its time/temperature history, the welding aerosols in this study were temporally collected and weighted by a lower moment, particle number. The results demonstrated that the welding alloy had a marked effect on the particle size distribution, morphology and chemical aspects of the resultant fume. In addition, the particle size distributions from these processes were multi-modal and dynamically changed with time.
Article
Soluble and insoluble hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) agents are concomitantly released with ozone (O3) during welding. Although pulmonary/immunologic implications from exposure to each agent individually have been investigated, the effects from simultaneous exposure, as occurs under actual working conditions, are unclear. To investigate immunomodulatory effects of inhaled Cr6+, F-344 rats were exposed for 5 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 or 4 weeks to atmospheres containing soluble potassium chromate (K2CrO4) or insoluble barium chromate (BaCrO4), each alone at 360 μg Cr/m3or in combination with 0.3 ppm O3. One day after the final exposure, rats were euthanized, their lungs were lavaged, and pulmonary macrophages (PAM) were recovered for assessment of basal and inducible functions. Rats inhaling K2CrO4-containing atmospheres had greater levels of total recoverable cells, neutrophils, and monocytes in bronchopulmonary lavage compared to rats exposed to insoluble Cr6+atmospheres, O3alone, or air; these rats also had a reduced percentage of PAM, although total PAM levels remained unaffected. Although Cr exposure-related changes in PAM functionality were evident, any dependence upon Cr solubility was variable. K2CrO4-containing atmospheres modulated PAM-inducible interleukins-1 and -6, and tumor necrosis factor-α production to a greater degree than those containing BaCrO4. Conversely, BaCrO4-containing atmospheres affected PAM basal nitric oxide production and interferon-γ-primed/zymosan-stimulated reactive oxygen intermediate production to a greater extent than did those containing K2CrO4. In none of the PAM assays did co-inhalation of O3result in a modulation of the effects obtained with either Cr6+compound itself. The results indicate that, while immunomodulatory effects of inhaled Cr6+upon PAM are related to particle solubility, the co-inhalation of O3apparently does not cause further modifications of the metal-induced effects.