Elias MF, Elias PK, Sullivan LM, Wolf PA, D’Agostino RB. Lower cognitive function and the presence of obesity and hypertension: The Framingham Heart Study

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
International Journal of Obesity (Impact Factor: 5). 03/2003; 27(2):260-8. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ijo.802225
Source: PubMed


To determine the independent effects of obesity and hypertension on cognitive functioning.
Using a prospective design, male (n=551) and female (n=872) participants of the Framingham Heart Study were classified by presence or absence of obesity and hypertension based on data collected over an 18-y surveillance period. All subjects were free from dementia, stroke, and clinically diagnosed cardiovascular disease up to the time of cognitive testing. Statistical models were adjusted for age, education, occupation, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, total cholesterol, and a diagnosis of type II diabetes. Body mass index status (nonobese or obese) and blood pressure status (normotensive or hypertensive) were then related to cognitive performance (learning, memory, executive functioning, and abstract reasoning) on tests administered 4-6 y later.
Adverse effects of obesity and hypertension on cognitive performance were observed for men only. Obese and hypertensive men performed more poorly than men classified as either obese or hypertensive, and the best performance was observed in nonobese, normotensive men.
The adverse effects of obesity and hypertension in men are independent and cumulative with respect to cognitive deficit.

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Available from: Merrill F Elias, May 12, 2014
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    • "In the last decade, obesity, and dietary fats were identified as risk factors for cognitive decline and various types of neurodegenerative dementias (Kalmijn, 2000; Solfrizzi et al., 2003; Gustafson, 2008; Craft, 2009; Sellbom and Gunstad, 2012). Indeed, human epidemiological studies revealed a correlation between a high-fat diet (HFD) and cognitive impairment (Elias et al., 2003; Morris et al., 2004; Zhang et al., 2006), as well as between body mass index and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) development (Benito-León et al., 2013; Reinert et al., 2013). In particular, it was demonstrated that a diet enriched with saturated and trans fatty acids is associated with increased risk for AD (Kalmijn et al., 1997; Luchsinger et al., 2002; Morris et al., 2003). "
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