A femoral neck fracture model in rabbits

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, 113-0033, Tokyo, Japan.
Journal of Biomechanics (Impact Factor: 2.75). 04/2003; 36(3):431-42. DOI: 10.1016/S0021-9290(02)00363-9
Source: PubMed


A technique was developed to create a reproducible femoral neck fracture in vitro using 5-month-old JW/CSK series male rabbits. Force attenuation of a newly developed damping material was also evaluated using this model. Ten pairs of the femora with smaller deviations in length and weight were harvested and cleaned of soft tissue. Either a right or left of each pair of the specimens was randomly selected and put into either the control or the experimental group, both of which contained equal numbers of the right and left femora. The specimens were attached to an L-shaped plate and embedded in a resin from the proximal diaphysis to the distal end so as to maintain a consistent position of the femora. They were mounted and fixed on a pedestal slanted in the coronal plane at 20 degrees. The impact load testing was conducted using an impact mallet dropped from a height of 3 cm. The impact load was applied onto the femoral head. To the specimens in the experimental group, attenuated impact forces were loaded through the damping material, but those in the control group were subjected to forces directly transmitted without the material. All the impact testing was performed in a temperature and humidity controlled chamber. All of the femoral specimens exposed to the direct impact forces (controlled group) sustained fracture at the neck. The fracture line passed from the base of the femoral head laterally and to the calcar area just proximal to the minor trochanter medially. The location of each fracture line was almost identical among the specimens. None of the specimens that were exposed to the impact force through the damping material (experimental group) sustained fracture macroscopically and roentgenographically.

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    • "By loading the head in compression with the distal femur fixed, we mimicked natural loading, and thereby tested the strength of the femoral neck in cantilever bending (Fig. 1). Similar techniques have been used in mice (Akhter et al., 2004b), rabbits (Ohnishi et al., 2003), and humans (Augat et al., 1996). Because of its lower cross-sectional area and moments of inertia, coupled to large bending moments, the femoral neck could be expected to be the most likely site of fracture. "
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