Article

Economic effects of echinococcosis

Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Shelbourne Road, Ballsbridge, 4, Dublin, Ireland.
Acta Tropica (Impact Factor: 2.27). 03/2003; 85(2):113-8. DOI: 10.1016/S0001-706X(02)00228-0
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) has a number of important economic effects. The most tangible of these is the cost of expensive medical treatment for human cases. Each confirmed case of CE can cost the health services or individual several thousand dollars. In addition to these costs, the additional cost of loss of edible offal from agricultural animals is well known. This may result in the entire loss of an infected organ or at least the trimming and downgrading of that organ, depending on local legislature. However, these losses may only be a relatively small percentage of the economic losses attributed to CE. Recent evidence suggests, through quality of life surveys, that patients treated for CE never fully recover and have a significant and permanent decreased quality of life. This has yet to be translated into monetary terms, but it almost certainly will result in the loss of income, possibly through a lower paid job, and/or the additional expense of increased ill health. Furthermore, in most reports, between 1 and 2% of CE cases are fatal. The death of these individuals results in the loss of the potential lifetime's economic output of these individuals. With alveolar echinococcosis the mortality rate is much higher and such consequences more severe. There is also a considerable amount of Soviet literature, and small amounts published elsewhere which suggests that CE also significantly affects animal productivity. Thus, infected sheep tend to give birth to fewer lambs, have lower levels of food conversion, produce less milk and have poorer quality fleeces then non-infected sheep. The total cost of the disease is the sum of the various costs to the health services, costs of morbidity and losses in animal productivity. Due to the uncertainty of many of these costs, it is appropriate to model these losses using techniques that can give a range of cost estimates. By using analytical techniques such as Monte-Carlo analysis, on parameters that are difficult to determine accurately, all such variables can be randomly varied simultaneously along likely frequency distributions. The results of this give a useful sensitivity analysis of economic costs. In addition, the purchasing power of money in the local economy must also be taken into account. One US $ buys much more in a developing country than in an industrialized economy. Consequently, each lost $ will be more acutely felt in poor countries. Estimates of the financial burden of disease are beneficial in deciding priorities for control. They are also potentially useful tools to lobby donors or non-governmental organizations to fund control programs in poor countries.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Paul R Torgerson, Apr 21, 2014
  • Source
    • "CE in livestock causes considerable economic losses due to condemnation of affected animal organs at the slaughterhouse, production losses (reduction in live weight gain, yield of milk, fertility rates, value of hide and skin) and losses related to treatment of animals and humans (Torgerson 2003). The economic burden of CE on the global livestock industry alone has been estimated to be over $2 billion per annum (Scala et al. 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in small ruminants and humans in Addis Ababa, central Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study involving systematic random sampling was conducted to estimate the prevalence of CE in 512 small ruminants (262 sheep and 250 goats) slaughtered at Addis Ababa Abattoir Enterprise between October 2011 and March 2012. Hydatid cysts were identified macroscopically during postmortem examination and their fertility and viability were determined. CE was observed in 21 (8.02%) sheep and 17 (6.80%) goats. In sheep 13 (4.96%) of the lungs, 10 (3.81%) livers and 1 (0.381%) heart were found to be infected with hydatid cysts. Involvement of lung and liver in goats was found to be 10 (4.0%) and 8 (3.2%) respectively, with no cysts recorded in the heart. Of the total of 77 and 47 cysts encountered in sheep and goats, 33 (42.85%) and 15 (31.91%) respectively were fertile. Viability of protoscoleces from fertile cysts in sheep (29 [87.87%]) was higher than in goats (6 [40.0%]). For humans, retrospective analysis covering five years of case reports at two major hospitals in Addis Ababa between January 2008 and December 2012 showed that of the total of 25 840 patients admitted for ultrasound examination, 27 CE cases were registered, a prevalence of 0.1% and mean annual incidence rate of approximately 0.18 cases per 100 000 population. Liver was the major organ affected in humans (81.5% in affected patients) followed by spleen (11.1%) and kidney (7.4%). Logistic regression analysis showed that prevalence of CE varied significantly in relation to host age in the small ruminants (OR = 3.93, P < 0.05) as well as in humans (95% CI, R = 4.8). This epidemiological study confirms the importance of CE in small ruminants and humans in central Ethiopia, emphasising the need for integrated approaches to controlling this neglected preventable disease.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015
  • Source
    • "CE in livestock causes considerable economic losses due to condemnation of affected animal organs at the slaughterhouse, production losses (reduction in live weight gain, yield of milk, fertility rates, value of hide and skin) and losses related to treatment of animals and humans (Torgerson 2003). The economic burden of CE on the global livestock industry alone has been estimated to be over $2 billion per annum (Scala et al. 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Cystic Echinocosis (CE) in small ruminants and humans in Addis Ababa, central Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study involving systemic random sampling was conducted to estimate the prevalence of CE in 512 small ruminants (262 sheep and 250 goats) slaughtered at Addis Ababa Abattoir Enterprise during the period between October 2011 and March 2012. Hydatid cysts were identified grossly during postmortem examination and their fertility and viability was determined. CE was prevalent in 21(8.02%) sheep, and 17 (6.80%) goats. In sheep 13 (4.96%) of the lung, 10(3.81%) of the liver and 1(0.381%) of the heart were found to be infected with hydatid cysts. The involvement of lung, liver in goats was found to be 10 (4.0 %), and 8(3.2%) respectively while no cysts were recorded on the heart. From the total of 77 and 47 cysts encountered in sheep and goats, 33(42.85%) and 15(31.91%) were fertile cysts respectively. The viability of protoscoleces from fertile cysts of sheep 29(87.87%) was higher than that from goats 6(40.0%). For humans, retrospective analysis covering 5 years of the case reports at two major hospitals in Addis Ababa conducted between January, 2008 and December, 2012, showed that out of the total of 25,840 patients admitted for ultrasound examination, 27 CE cases were registered, giving a prevalence of 0.1% and mean annual incidence rate of approximately case 0.18 per 100 000 population per year. Liver was the major organ affected in humans with an incidence of 81.5% followed by spleen (11.1%) and Kidney (7.4%). The prevalence of the parasite varied significantly in relation to host age classes in both the small ruminants (OR=3.93 : P<0.05) as well as in humans (95%CI: OR=4.8). This epidemiological study confirms the importance of CE in small ruminants and humans in central Ethiopia and emphasizes the need for integrated approaches for controlling this preventable neglected disease.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · The Onderstepoort journal of veterinary research
  • Source
    • "Hydatid infection often leads to a decline of health status that in turn translates into serious production losses to humans and livestock industries. Economic losses arise not only from the condemnation of infected viscera, but also from reduction in yield and quality of meat, milk, wool, hide value, birth rate, and fecundity [11] Humans are accidentally infected by ingestion of food or drinking of water contaminated with dog feces containing infective eggs [12] CE is considered an emerging and re-emerging disease in many parts of the world [13]. The global burden of CE is estimated at >1,000,000 DALYs (disability adjusted life years) lost, which gives CE a greater impact than onchocercosis, Dengue fever and Chagas disease, and approaches the burden caused by African trypanosomosis and schistosomosis [14] Human hydatidosis is typically a symptomatic because of the slow growth of metacestodes. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objectives of the present study were to investigate strain identification of Echinococcus granulosus infecting camel and human in Qalyubia, Egypt. Therefore partial sequences were generated after gel purification of nested PCR amplified products of mitochondrial NADH 1gene of Echinococcus granulosus complex. Sequences were further examined by sequence analysis and subsequent phylogeny to compare these sequences to those from known strains of E.granulosus circulating globally and retrieved from GenBank. All isolates are homologous to the camel strain, E. canadensis (G6) genotype. Nucleotide mutations generate polymorphism at position of 275 nucleotide, where a thymine replaced a cytosine and at the levels of 385 and 386 nucleotides, where two cytosine substituted a guanine and a thymine respectively. KF815488 Egypt showed typical identity (99.5%) with JN637176 Sudan, HM853659 Iran, AF386533 France and AJ237637 Poland with 0.5% diversion.. Phylogenetic analysis showed a robust tree clustering all isolates with sequences belonging to the camel genotype (G6) variant with strong bootstrap values at relevant nodes and the evolutionary distance between groups is very short. There are two mutations in the sequences of amino acids at the position of 92, where an Alanine is changed to a Valine and at the position of 129, where a Valine is transformed to a Proline. Our record of a single genotype determined a strain which could be incriminated for camel and human infectivity and responsible for its persistence in the endemic areas. Such epidemiological data could guide the application of efficient control strategies of hydatidosis in Egypt
    Full-text · Article · May 2014
Show more