ArticleLiterature Review
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Preparations from Echinacea purpurea are among the most widely used herbal medicines. Most uses of E. purpurea are based on the reported immunological properties. A series of experiments have demonstrated that E. purpurea extracts do indeed demonstrate significant immunomodulatory activities. Among the many pharmacological properties reported, macrophage activation has been demonstrated most convincingly. Phagocytotic indices and macrophage-derived cytokine concentrations have been shown to be Echinacea-responsive in a variety of assays. Activation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and natural killer cells has also been reasonably demonstrated. Changes in the numbers and activities of T- and B-cell leukocytes have been reported, but are less certain. Despite this cellular evidence of immunostimulation, pathways leading to enhanced resistance to infectious disease have not been described adequately. Several dozen human experiments--including a number of blind randomized trials--have reported health benefits. The most robust data come from trials testing E. purpurea extracts in the treatment for acute upper respiratory infection. Although suggestive of modest benefit, these trials are limited both in size and in methodological quality. Hence, while there is a great deal of moderately good-quality scientific data regarding E. purpurea, effectiveness in treating illness or in enhancing human health has not yet been proven beyond a reasonable doubt.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (milk thistle) Silybin, silymarin (a) Silybin inhibits synthesis of leukotriene B4 (IC50 15 μmoL/L); no effect on the prostaglandin E2 formation at concentration up to 100 μmoL/L in isolated Kupffer cells of rats (b) Silymarin inhibits NF-κB DNA binding activity-dependent gene expression induced by okadaic acid (c) Silymarin inhibits leukotriene synthesis via 5-lipoxygenase pathway and formation of prostaglandins [34,35] Astragalus (a) Low absorption due to high molecular weight, low lipophilicity, poor intestinal permeability, and their paracellular transport in Caco-2 cells (b) Astragalus IV combines with plasma protein was found to be 83%-90% and eliminated slowly by hepatic clearance of 0.004 L/kg/min (c) Maternal toxicity for astragalus IV-1.0 mg/kg and fetal toxicity-higher than 0.5 mg/kg (with no teratogenic effects in rabbits and rats) (d) Bioavailability in rats 3.66% and beagle was 7.4% for Astragalus IV after oral administration [37][38][39][40] 3 Curcumin (a) A complete plasma clearance results within 1 h with low intravenous doses of curcumin (40 mg/kg) and 1.8 ng/mL peak plasma concentration with 500 mg/kg oral dose (b) The mean plasma levels after 1 h was 11.1-0.6 nmol/L, which remained constant for a month in 15 colorectal cancer patients given 0.4-3.6 g of curcumin (c) Plasma concentration in micromolar level show poor absorption and low systemic bioavailability with 4-8 g of oral curcumin (d) Curcumin via reductases is converted into dihydrocurcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin transforms via β-glucuronide enzymes into dihydrocurcumin glucuronide and tetrahyrocurcumin glucuronide and then reduced to hexahydrocurcumin, tetrahydrocurcumin, octahydrocurcumin, and hexahydrocurcuminol (e) 75% in faces and negligible amount in urine with oral dose of 1 g/kg of curcumin, 11% in urine when administered intraperitoneally (f) Poor absorption due to low solubility of almost 11 ng/mL at 5.0 pH results in low dissolution rate, poor intestinal permeability in caco-2 cells of 0.07 × 10-6 cm/s, and extensive first-pass metabolism-hence low bioavailability [41][42][43] 4 Danshen (a) Danshensu and tanshinone IIA were noticed to absorb rapidly after oral administration in various animal studies (b) For danshensu, half-life of the drug, 32 min; steady-state volume of distribution, 149 mL/kg; mean residence time, 48 min; and total clearance, 3.13 mL/min/kg (c) Degradation of lithospermic acid B resulted in protocatechuic aldehyde, danshensu, lithospermic acid, and their isomers (d) Lithospermic acid B in Caco-2 cell monolayer system of rats resulted in low permeability and low bioavailability because of poor absorption and substantial metabolism (e) Excreted in urine; active phenolic compounds underwent metabolic transformation in liver and colon. 87% of the urine metabolite fraction constituted of caffeic acid, danshensu, and protocatechuic aldehyde [44,45] Continued 328 [46,47] 6 ...
... Numerous pharmacological activities are linked to curcumin such as antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, and antiinflammation. Curcumin suppressed the inflammatory response via inhibition of the induction of iNOS and COX-2 and the production of cytokines like interferon-γ due to the suppression of JAK(Janus kinase)/STAT signaling cascade by exerting effect on the SHP-2 (Src homology 2 domain) having protein tyrosine phosphatase [41]. In vitro and in vivo studies have proven that it is well founded for various inflammation-stimulated conditions such as chronic anterior uveitis, pancreatitis, arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and cancer [69]. ...
... Numerous clinical studies on curcumin depict a clear pattern on the pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion). Curcumin is poorly absorbed but rapidly metabolized, which leaves only certain distributed portion in the kidney and spleen, which decreases with time and rapidly excreted in feces that is indicative of low systemic bioavailability [41]. There are numerous studies in vitro and in vivo that revealed that dose and route of administration may be factors crucial for attaining beneficial results. ...
Chapter
Natural medicines have played an important role in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine against various inflammatory diseases from time immemorial. Scientific research is also focusing on naturally occurring products because of the inefficiency of modern drugs that causes immense adverse effect and toxicity. Extensive studies on these medicinal plants are in need because of their therapeutic effects on inflammatory diseases along with natural abundance, no side effects, and low toxicity. This chapter is an attempt to understand the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of different natural products that possess potential antiinflammatory activities that could trigger in promoting these products for further clinical studies.
... Azáltal, hogy a Szakosztály évente kiválaszt egy-egy gyógynövényt, amelyre felhívja a közvélemény figyelmét, azt szeretné elérni, hogy a gyógynövény hatásáról és szakszerű alkalmazásáról hiteles információ jusson el a szélesebb publikumhoz [1]. A kasvirág tartalmú készítmények a legkeresettebb étrend-kiegészítők közé tartoznak Európában és az USA-ban egyaránt [2,3]. A HerbalGram utolsó összesítése szerint, az USA-ban az Echinacea tartalmú készítmények a második legjobban eladott termékek, összesen több mint 110 millió $ értékben 2018-ban, ez 15% fölötti növekedést jelent az előző évhez viszonyítva [4]. ...
... Az E. purpurea herbájának friss présleve heterogén poliszacharidokat, inulin-típusú frakciókat és elágazó láncú savas arabino-galaktán poli-szacharidokat tartalmaz [12,13]. A drogokban található különböző kémiai szerkezetű hatóanyagok, illetve azok kombinációja, eltérő hatásmechanizmusok révén, végső soron azonos hatáshoz és indikációhoz vezetnek [3,7] yFormattedCitation":" [3,7]. Számos klinikai vizsgálatot végeztek a kasvirág drogokkal. ...
... Az E. purpurea herbájának friss présleve heterogén poliszacharidokat, inulin-típusú frakciókat és elágazó láncú savas arabino-galaktán poli-szacharidokat tartalmaz [12,13]. A drogokban található különböző kémiai szerkezetű hatóanyagok, illetve azok kombinációja, eltérő hatásmechanizmusok révén, végső soron azonos hatáshoz és indikációhoz vezetnek [3,7] yFormattedCitation":" [3,7]. Számos klinikai vizsgálatot végeztek a kasvirág drogokkal. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to explore dietary supplements containing Echinacea on the Romanian market and their qualitative characterization. The products available on the market were aggregated in 2018, through an electronic search based on the register of the Romanian Medicine Agency (Agenția Națională a Medicamentului şi a Dispozitivelor Medicale din România – ANMDMR) and the list of dietary supplements registered by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (Institutul Național de Cercetare-Dezvoltare pentru Bioresurse Alimentare – IBA București, Serviciul național pentru plante medicinale, aromatice și produse ale stupului). There are no Echinacea containing medicines registered in Romania. However, there are 58 dietary supplements in the register, 52% of which are mono-components, 29% contain other herbs, plant extract or vitamins, while 19% are registered as tea. The label of 80% of monocomponent products and 76% of multicomponent supplements contains insufficient information: the plant name, its used part and processing methods (grist, extract, quantity) are not clearly identified. Among the listed dietary supplements, the 12 most commonly used formulations in pharmaceutical practice were subjected to phytochemical chromatographic evaluation: TLC and/or HPLC analysis were used. Three of seven monocomponent products showed proper chromatographic fingerprint, by TLC analysis. One monocomponent sample did not have an adequate chromatographic fingerprint. The labelling of multicomponent products was not appropriate. The TLC test suggests that based on the resulting fingerprint they contain E. purpureae herba. However, due to the presence of other components, the TLC does not allow a clear conclusion regarding the exact composition of the products. The developed HPLC method enables quantification of the concentration of caffeic acid, chicoric acid, echinacoside, chlorogenic and caftaric acids mixture in dietary supplements. None of the tested products contained echinacoside, which is a specific component of E. angustifolia and E. pallida root. In our method, the quantification of caftaric acid is approximate, because it partially overlaps the chlorogenic acid, which is a common component of plant samples, but negligible in Echinacea sp. The tested dietary supplements have a caffeic acid content of 20-140 µg/g, a chicoric acid content of 0.19-2.64 mg/g; the mixture of chlorogenic and caftartic acid is about 0.23-2.07 mg/g.
... Animal studies of various preparations of Echinacea species showed generally low toxicity (69). In acute toxicity test, the LD50 value was estimated at 2500 mg/kg in an intraperitoneal injection of the plant's polysaccharides fraction into female mice (69). ...
... Animal studies of various preparations of Echinacea species showed generally low toxicity (69). In acute toxicity test, the LD50 value was estimated at 2500 mg/kg in an intraperitoneal injection of the plant's polysaccharides fraction into female mice (69). In other studies, oral and intravenous LD50 values for plant juice were estimated to exceed 30g/kg and 10g/kg in mice, and 15g/kg and 5g/kg in rats (70). ...
... Kanıtlar, ekinezya'nın vücudun virüsler veya enfeksiyonlarla savaşmasına yardımcı olabilecek bağışıklık sistemini güçlendirmeye yardımcı olabileceğini göstermiştir (33).Birçok çalışma, ekinezya'nın soğuk algınlığının süresini kısaltabildiğini, semptomlarının şiddetini azalttığını ve hatta onu önleyebildiğini bulmuştur (33). En azından, bu sıcak bitkisel içecek, soğuk algınlığı hissederseniz boğaz ağrınızı yatıştırmaya veya tıkalı burnunuzu temizlemeye yardımcı olabilir (34). ...
... Kanıtlar, ekinezya'nın vücudun virüsler veya enfeksiyonlarla savaşmasına yardımcı olabilecek bağışıklık sistemini güçlendirmeye yardımcı olabileceğini göstermiştir (33).Birçok çalışma, ekinezya'nın soğuk algınlığının süresini kısaltabildiğini, semptomlarının şiddetini azalttığını ve hatta onu önleyebildiğini bulmuştur (33). En azından, bu sıcak bitkisel içecek, soğuk algınlığı hissederseniz boğaz ağrınızı yatıştırmaya veya tıkalı burnunuzu temizlemeye yardımcı olabilir (34). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sağlıklı bir yaşam için hangi bitki çaylarını tüketmelisiniz? Bitki çayları yüzyıllardır var. Ancak ismine rağmen bitki çayları gerçek çaylar değildir. Yeşil çay, siyah çay ve oolong çayı da dahil olmak üzere gerçek çaylar, Camellia sinensis bitkisinin yapraklarından demlenir. Öte yandan bitki çayları kuru meyve, çiçek, baharat veya bitkilerden yapılır. Bu, bitki çaylarının çok çeşitli tat ve aromalarda bulunabileceği ve şekerli içeceklere veya suya cazip bir alternatif oluşturabileceği anlamına gelir. Bazı bitki çaylarının lezzetli olmasının yanı sıra sağlığa faydalı özellikleri de vardır. Aslında bitki çayları yüzlerce yıldır çeşitli rahatsızlıklarda doğal olarak kullanılmaktadır. Son yıllarda, Modern bilimin gelişmesiyle bitkisel çayların bazı geleneksel kullanımlarının daha çok araştırılması ile bunları destekleyen bilimsel kanıtların bulunması ile bitkisel çaylara olan ilgi dahada artmaya başladı. Sizler için kullanımda fayda sağlayacak 10 bitki çayı çeşitlerini hazırladık;
... Immunomodulatory assignment revealed a confirming effect on the host defense system, anti-proliferative impression on tumor cells, and increased human capacity to tolerate toxic compounds such as chemotherapeutics (Barrett, 2003;Nair et al., 2019). ...
... A constituent obtained from the root of E. grijsii, 5-(5, 6-dihydroxy-Hexa-1, 3-dinyl)-2-(prop -1-ynyl) -thiophene, also verified anti-proliferative operation against human colon cancer cells and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis was intended as a mechanism of action of thiophene in this process (Zhang and Ma, 2010) (Xu et al., 2015). Immunomodulators assignment revealed significant potential on the host defense system, anti-proliferative impression on tumor cells, and increased human capacity to tolerate toxic compounds such as chemotherapeutics (Barrett, 2003;Nair et al., 2019). The cells were exposed to increasing doses of the extract ranging from 1 to 200 mg. ...
Article
Medicinal plants expose a specific capacity in drug discovery due to their therapeutic capability that can cover the uncertainties and deficiency of modern medication by in vitro documents. This study was conducted to assess the functional groups, total phenolic and total flavonoid compounds, the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activity of Echinops setifer extract. Hence, functional groups in the ethanolic extract of Echinops setifer were analyzed by FT-IR analysis. The total phenolic compounds (TPC), flavonoid compounds (TFC), and the antioxidant activity of Echinops setifer were determined. The antiproliferative activity of the extract was elucidated against HT-29 cell lines through the intensification in concentrations. More ever, the antimicrobial potential of the extract in the lowest concentration developed the inhibition zone against all the studied bacteria except Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi, in both DDA and WDA methods. Listeria innocua by DDA method and Staphylococcus aureus through WDA method illustrated the highest inhibition zone in the maximum extract concentration. The MIC and MBC of ethanolic extract of E. setifer for Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria innocua, Bacillus cereus, P. aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and S. typhi were reported. Compelling, this research exposed that Echinops setifer extract had a great potential to fight free radical chain reaction, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity leading to a high value in the application for usage in therapeutic purposes.
... Echinacea has a long history of medicinal use for a wide variety of conditions such as infections (viral and bacterial), syphilis, as an ''antitoxin'' for snakebites, pathological skin conditions (boils and abscesses). Traditionally Echinacea was used for nasopharyngeal catarrh, pyorrhoea, tonsillitis, influenza-like infections, recurrent infections of the respiratory tract and lower urinary tract [61]. ...
... They identified the macamides octadeca-2E,4E,8E,10Z,14Zpentaene-12-ynoic acid isobutylamide (57), octadeca-2E,4E,8E,10Z,14Z-pentaene-12-ynoic acid 2 ′ -methyl-butylamide (58), hexadeca-2E,4E,9Z-triene-12,14-diynoic acid isobutylamide (59), and hexadeca-2E,4E,9,12-tetraenoic acid 2 ′ -methylbutylamide (60), from Heliopsis helianthoides var. Scabra, while N-(3-methoxybenzyl)-(9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadecatrienamide (61), N-benzyl-(9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadecatrienamide (62), and N-benzyl-(9Z,12Z)-octadecadienamide (63), were isolated from Lepidium meyenii. N-alkylamides (NAAs) have been reported to interact with the endocannabinoid system due to their similarity to endocannabinoids, displaying analgesic, anti-inflogosys and modulatory effects on immune system. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the major causes for the reduction of the quality of life. The endocannabinoid system is an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders due to its involvement in vasomotor control, cardiac contractility, blood pressure and vascular inflammation. Alteration in cannabinoid signalling can be often related to cardiotoxicity, circulatory shock, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Plants have been the major sources of medicines until modern eras in which researchers are experiencing a rediscovery of natural compounds as novel therapeutics. One of the most versatile plant is Cannabis sativa L., containing phytocannabinoids that may play a role in the treatment of CVDs. The aim of this review is to collect and investigate several less studied plants rich in cannabinoid-like active compounds able to interact with cannabinoid system; these plants may play a pivotal role in the treatment of disorders related to the cardiovascular system.
... Animal studies of various preparations of Echinacea species showed generally low toxicity (69). In acute toxicity test, the LD50 value was estimated at 2500 mg/kg in an intraperitoneal injection of the plant's polysaccharides fraction into female mice (69). ...
... Animal studies of various preparations of Echinacea species showed generally low toxicity (69). In acute toxicity test, the LD50 value was estimated at 2500 mg/kg in an intraperitoneal injection of the plant's polysaccharides fraction into female mice (69). In other studies, oral and intravenous LD50 values for plant juice were estimated to exceed 30g/kg and 10g/kg in mice, and 15g/kg and 5g/kg in rats (70). ...
Article
Full-text available
Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been incriminated as the causal agent of cervical cancer which has been rated as the second most common cancers among women in developing countries and seventh most common cancers in the developed world. In spite of the fact that HPV has been the major cause of cervical cancer, the dilemma lies in finding a cost-effective therapy. Approximately 291 million women are infected with HPV worldwide, 32% of whom are infected with HPV16 or HPV18. The estimated prevalence of HPV in sub-Saharan Africa is 24% and 11.7% globally. There have been studies reporting specific HPV prevalence rates in some part of Nigeria, with 37% in Abuja, 10% in Port Harcourt, and 26.3% in Ibadan. In the Nigeria population, awareness of HPV infections is low, HPV vaccines are inadequate, and the cost of HPV vaccination per person is beyond what an average citizen can afford. It has been suggested that herbal therapy such as Echinacea therapy reduces HPV replication and enhances the immune system. Although there is yet no scientific proof of the efficacy of Echinacea therapy against HPV infections, future emphasis should be placed on scientific research into this alternative therapy. There is need for more studies on development of antiviral agents against HPV, with a prospect of easy accessibility and affordability in Nigeria. Abstrait: Le papillomavirus humain (HPV) a été incriminé en tant qu'agent causal du cancer du col de l'utérus, classé comme le deuxième cancer le plus fréquent chez les femmes dans les pays en développement et le septième cancer le plus fréquent dans le monde développé. Malgré le fait que le VPH ait été la principale cause de cancer du col de l'utérus, le dilemme réside dans la recherche d'une thérapie rentable. Environ 291 millions de femmes sont infectées par le VPH dans le monde, dont 32% sont infectées par le VPH16 ou le VPH18. La prévalence estimée du VPH en Afrique subsaharienne est de 24% et 11,7% dans le monde. Des études ont signalé des taux de prévalence spécifiques du VPH dans une partie du Nigéria, avec 37% à Abuja, 10% à Port Harcourt et 26,3% Phytotherapy as alternative treatment of HPV infection Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2020; 21 (3): xxxx à Ibadan. Dans la population nigériane, la sensibilisation aux infections au VPH est faible, les vaccins contre le VPH sont inadéquats et le coût de la vaccination contre le VPH par personne dépasse ce qu'un citoyen moyen peut se permettre. Il a été suggéré que la thérapie à base de plantes telle que la thérapie à l'échinacée réduit la réplication du VPH et renforce le système immunitaire. Bien qu'il n'y ait encore aucune preuve scientifique de l'efficacité de la thérapie à l'échinacée contre les infections au VPH, l'accent devrait être mis à l'avenir sur la recherche scientifique sur cette thérapie alternative. Il est nécessaire de poursuivre les études sur le développement d'agents antiviraux contre le VPH, avec une perspective d'accessibilité et de prix abordable au Nigéria.
... Modern pharmacology studies on Echinacea have identified many bioactivities, such as antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antiviral activities (Barrett, 2003;Binns et al., 2002;Melchart et al., 1995). Caffeic acid derivatives, alkamides, polysaccharides, polyacetylenes, polyenes, flavonoids, and terpenoids have been linked to these bioactivities (Cao and Kindscher, 2016). ...
... However, the highly positive correlation also demonstrated that caftaric acid, chicoric acid, and echinacoside were the active ingredients of Echinacea species and were responsible for the antioxidant activities. Chicoric acid and echinacoside are considered the primary active compounds in Echinacea species (Barrett, 2003). Currently, chicoric acid and echinacoside are used as quality indicators, and most commercial Echinacea products are labeled with the chicoric acid and echinacoside contents. ...
Article
Full-text available
Echinacea species are important medicinal plants with significant therapeutic potential and are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. Different Echinacea species exhibit various chemical compositions and bioactivities. In the present study, the chemical differences, antioxidant ingredients, and diversity mechanisms of Echinacea species were studied. The aerial parts and roots of six different Echinacea species (E. purpurea (L.) Moench; E. pallida (Nutt.) Nutt.; E. angustifolia DC.; E. atrorubens (Nutt.) Nutt.; E. paradoxa (Norton) Britton var. paradoxa; E. sanguinea Nutt.) were collected for investigation. Through non-target metabolomics following targeted quantitative analysis, chicoric acid, caftaric acid, and echinacoside were found to be the main different components of Echinacea species. Coincidentally, these three chemicals were also the dominant antioxidant ingredients of Echinacea extracts, as determined by correlation analysis between chemical contents and in vitro antioxidant activities. Based on the cloning, sequencing, and measurement of the identified chicoric acid biosynthetic genes, the diversity of chicoric acid and caftaric acid among Echinacea species was determined by the precursor content, as well as by the expression levels of key biosynthetic genes. Overall, these results clarified the chemical differences and the possible mechanisms, as well as the bioactive ingredients, in Echinacea species and can guide the selection of Echinacea species for different industrial applications.
... Distinct species of the plant genus Echinacea have traditionally been used in North America against infectious diseases and wounds [1,2]. Currently, a wide variety of Echinacea preparations are used world-wide as complementary herbal remedy to improve the immune response to protect against common cold symptoms and influenza infections. ...
... Different Echinacea purpurea extracts (different species, plant parts, manufacturing) or derived compounds showed antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and mosquitocidal activities in cell culture experiments [3], although absolute comparisons between studies with different preparations remain difficult [4,5]. Complex immunomodulatory actions of Echinacea have been described including both pro-and anti-inflammatory effects [2,3,6]. The compounds that contribute to these activities are alkylamides, glycoproteins, polysaccharides and caffeic acid derivates that may act independently or in synergy [1,3,[7][8][9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Herbal remedies of Echinacea purpurea tinctures are widely used today to reduce common cold respiratory tract infections. Methods Transcriptome, epigenome and kinome profiling allowed a systems biology level characterisation of genomewide immunomodulatory effects of a standardized Echinacea purpurea ( L.) Moench extract in THP1 monocytes. Results Gene expression and DNA methylation analysis revealed that Echinaforce® treatment triggers antiviral innate immunity pathways, involving tonic IFN signaling, activation of pattern recognition receptors, chemotaxis and immunometabolism. Furthermore, phosphopeptide based kinome activity profiling and pharmacological inhibitor experiments with filgotinib confirm a key role for Janus Kinase (JAK)-1 dependent gene expression changes in innate immune signaling. Finally, Echinaforce® treatment induces DNA hypermethylation at intergenic CpG, long/short interspersed nuclear DNA repeat elements (LINE, SINE) or long termininal DNA repeats (LTR). This changes transcription of flanking endogenous retroviral sequences (HERVs), involved in an evolutionary conserved (epi) genomic protective response against viral infections. Conclusions Altogether, our results suggest that Echinaforce® phytochemicals strengthen antiviral innate immunity through tonic IFN regulation of pattern recognition and chemokine gene expression and DNA repeat hypermethylated silencing of HERVs in monocytes. These results suggest that immunomodulation by Echinaforce® treatment holds promise to reduce symptoms and duration of infection episodes of common cold corona viruses (CoV), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV, and new occurring strains such as SARS-CoV-2, with strongly impaired interferon (IFN) response and weak innate antiviral defense.
... Another natural alternative treatment for acne is Echinacea, for which safety and efficacy have been reported in vivo for other skin lesions, including in wound healing [39,40]. Both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity has been attributed to Echinacea. ...
... An in vitro study reported that Echinacea was able to inactivate C. acnes and inhibit the derived proinflammatory cascade. Echinacea was also reported to exhibit antioxidant activity [39][40][41], which could be useful to reduce the free radical production in acne. Thus, considering the in vitro and in vivo activities on different [18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Treatments other than topical and systemic antibiotics are needed to restore the dysbiosis correlated with acne onset and evolution. In this view, probiotics and botanical extracts could represent a valid adjunctive therapeutic approach. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a dietary supplement containing probiotics (Bifidobacterium breve BR03 DSM 16604, Lacticaseibacillus casei LC03 DSM 27537, and Ligilactobacillus salivarius LS03 DSM 22776) and botanical extract (lupeol from Solanum melongena L. and Echinacea extract) in subjects with mild to moderate acne over an 8-week study period. Methods: Monocentric, randomized, double-blind, four-arm, placebo-controlled clinical study involving 114 subjects. Results: A significant (p < 0.05) effect on the number of superficial inflammatory lesions was reported over the study period in the subjects taking the study agent (group II) (-56.67%), the botanical extracts (group III) (-40.00%), and the probiotics (group IV) (-38.89%) versus placebo (-10.00%). A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in mean desquamation score, sebum secretion rate, and porphyrin mean count versus baseline was also reported, and the effect was most evident for group II. The analysis of log relative abundance after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment compared with baseline showed a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in Cutibacterium acnes and S. aureus, along with a contextually and significant (p < 0.05) increase in Staphylococcus epidermidis, especially in group II. No significant changes were reported for group I. Conclusion: The results from this study suggest that the administration of the dietary supplement under study was effective, safe, and well tolerated in subjects with mild to moderate acne and could represent a promising optional complement for the treatment of inflammatory acne as well as for control of acne-prone skin.
... Although Echinacea and related NHP products have been extensively studied for anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antifungal, and antibacterial activity [6], novel neurological activity was documented by Haller et al. [7,8] who reported that E. angustifolia and E. purpurea root preparations exhibited anxiolytic effects in rodents tested in elevated plus maze, social interaction, and shock-induced social avoidance paradigms. The pharmacological mode of action for these effects is believed to be related to Echi-naceaʼs capacity to modulate the ECS [9], which plays an important role in processes such as appetite, pain, memory, mood, and inflammation [10]. ...
... However, the interaction of AKAs or Echinacea extracts with ECS enzymes such as FAAH and MAGL has not been fully studied. CADs and polysaccharides appear most relevant for antimicrobial effects [6] and have not been linked to the ECS. However, since phenolic compounds such as kaempferol reportedly inhibit FAAH [16], the CADs may similarly affect ECS signaling. ...
Article
Recent research demonstrates that Echinacea possesses cannabimimetic activity with potential applications beyond common contemporary uses for relief of cold and flu symptoms. In this study, we investigated the in vitro inhibitory effect of root extracts of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia on fatty acid amide hydrolase, the main enzyme that degrades the endocannabinoid anandamide. The objective was to relate variation in bioactivity between commercial Echinacea genotypes to their phytochemical profiles and to identify determinants of activity using biochemometric analysis. Forty root extracts of each of species were tested for inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase and analyzed by HPLC-DAD/MS to identify and quantitate alkylamides and caffeic acid derivatives. Fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition ranged from 34 – 80% among E. angustifolia genotypes and from 33 – 87% among E. purpurea genotypes. Simple linear regression revealed the caffeic acid derivatives caftaric acid and cichoric acid, and the alkylamide dodeca-2E,4Z-diene-8,10-diynioc acid 2-methylbutylamide, as the strongest determinants of inhibition in E. purpurea (r* = 0.53, 0.45, and 0.20, respectively) while in E. angustifolia, only CADs were significantly associated with activity, most notably echinacoside (r* = 0.26). Regression analysis using compound groups generated by hierarchical clustering similarly indicated that caffeic acid derivatives contributed more than alkylamides to in vitro activity. Testing pure compounds identified as determinants of activity revealed cichoric acid (IC50 = 45 ± 4 µM) and dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10E-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide (IC50 = 54 ± 2 µM) as the most active. The results suggest that several phytochemicals may contribute to Echinaceaʼs cannabimimetic activity and that ample variation in genotypes exists for selection of high-activity germplasm in breeding programs.
... It is widely used around the world to 54 treat common cold and other infectious disorders. Numerous studies attest the health-55 promoting properties of extracts derived from plants of the genus Echinacea (Bauer and 56 Wagner, 1991;Grimm and Muller, 1999;Barrett, 2003). Echinacea treatment results in an 57 increase of various cytokines, lymphocytes, and phagocytosis activity (Sasagawa et al., 58 2006). ...
... Increase of phagocytic activity is a characteristic reaction associated with efficacy of 267 Echinacea (Barrett, 2003). Allen (2003) found a stimulation of the phagocytic response in 268 chickens provided with ground root preparations. ...
... Las plantas de equinácea se han utilizado tradicionalmente en América del Norte para la prevención y el tratamiento de los síntomas del resfriado y la gripe, y ahora son una de las plantas medicinales más utilizadas tanto en América del Norte como en Europa (32). Estudios han demostrado que todas las cepas de virus de la influenza humana y aviar probadas (incluida una cepa resistente al oseltamivir), así como el virus del herpes simple, el virus sincitial respiratorio y los rinovirus, han sido sensibles a la Echinacea purpurea estandarizada (33). ...
Article
Full-text available
El objetivo de la investigación fue realizar una revisión bibliográfica en base de datos en línea como Pubmed, Scopus, Medline y Elsevier, de las plantas medicinales con potencial antiviral relacionadas principalmente con las infecciones de las vías respiratorias y que puedan servir contra las infecciones COVID-19. Los estudios encontrados refieren al gran potencial que tienen ciertas plantas medicinales contra el virus de la influenza y otros que podrían servir de base en esta pandemia.
... Their whole plants contain phenolics, flavonoids (including caffeic acid derivatives), polysaccharides, and other compounds (Pellati et al., 2004). Plants of both Echinacea species possess various bioactive properties such as antioxidative, antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties, and they are often used to treat common cold and respiratory and urinary diseases (Barrett, 2003). However, the plant resource of Echinacea species cannot meet the market demand because of the instability of bioactive compound synthesis under natural environment, insufficient yield of the plant production, and other factors (Gao et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective In order to elucidate the biological activity of the co-cultured adventitious roots (ARs) of Echinacea pallida and Echinacea purpurea and provide theoretical basis for its application, and the anti-inflammatory activities and potential mechanisms of co-cultured ARs were studied. Methods The experimental materials were obtained by bioreactor co-culture technology and used in the activity research. In this study, mouse macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used as in vitro model. Different concentrations of AR extract (50−400 g/mL) were used to treat cells. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, and the inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B-α levels were determined by the Western blot analysis. Results In the co-cultured ARs, total flavonoids and total caffeic acid were determined, and the contents of both bioactive compounds were significantly higher than those ARs from the single-species culture. Compared with the control group, the large amount of pro-inflammatory mediators was released after LPS stimulation. However, in the extract groups with different concentrations (25, 50, and 100 g/mL), the production of these pro-inflammatory mediators was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the levels of phosphorylation of MAPK proteins, including p-p38, p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p-extracellular regulated protein kinases were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in the extract groups, revealing that the AR extract probably involved in regulating the MAPK signaling pathway. Conclusion Collectively, our findings suggested that the co-cultured ARs of E. pallida and E. purpurea can inhibit production of pro-inflammatory mediators in mouse peritoneal macrophages and possess the anti-inflammatory effect by regulating MAPK signaling pathways.
... E. purpurea stimulates various immune cells including macrophages and natural killer cells and has antiinflammatory effects (Barrett, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Echinacea purpurea L. (E. purpurea) is one of the most important medical herbs belongs to Asteraceae family. This plant contains many chemical compounds. It has also demonstrated numerous biological activities as both antioxidant and antibacterial. Methanol was used to extract green plant sample and consider as crud extract. This last one was partitioned into four solvents i.e. petrolium ether, CH2Cl2, C2H5COOCH3 and C4H9OH. The obtained fractions extracts were tested for their total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC). Antioxidant activities were carried out using three methods I.e phosphomolybdenum, reducing power and radical assay DPPH. Crude methanolic extract was subjected to six microbial strains included fungi, yeast and bacteria i.e: Aspergillus oryzae ,Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Alternaia solani and Escherichia coli (G-), Streptococcus faecalis (G +). E. purpurea extracts had the highest effect of on yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with average value of 15.0 mm 100 ppm extract. Results showed that the highest concentration of TPC for ethyl acetate extract was 90.6 mg GAE/g dw wheras pet. ether gave the lowest value of 33.83 mg GAE/g d.w. TFC was ranged from 146.53 to 322.23 mg QE/g dw for ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, respectively. Butanol extract showed the highest antioxidant activity with average value of 70.22 μg/ml.
... Especially cichoric acid was reported to have immune stimulatory properties, such as promotion of phagocyte activity and exertion of antiviral activity, e.g. HIV-1 integrase and viral replication inhibition (Barrett, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Salicylic-acid and methyl-jasmonate are phytohormonal eilicitors that play important roles in regulating a number of physiological and phytochemical processes. For this purpose, a research was conducted as factorial based on complete randomized block design (CRBD) with three replications at the research field of agricultural faculty of Zanjan university during farming years of 2017~2018 and 2018~2019. The first factor was salicylic-acid (0 (control), 50, 100 and 150 mM) and the second factor was methyl-jasmonate (0 (control), 50, 100 and 200 µM). In the first year of experiment, treatments were sprayed on plants (four plants per plot) in two stages (20 days apart). In the second year they were also sprayed on remaining plants as the first year. Results of ANOVA as factorial-split in time showed that at the level of one percent (p<0.01), the effect of salicylic-acid on catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzymes traits and the effect of methyl-jasmonate on antioxidant activity and catalase enzyme traits and the interaction of salicylic-acid and methyl-jasmonate on antioxidant activity, catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzymes traits were significant. Also, at the level of five percent (p<0.05), the effects of methyl-jasmonate on superoxide dismutase enzyme trait was significant. The interaction of salicylic-acid and methyl-jasmonate factor was also significant on total protein trait at the level of 10 percent (p<0.1). The highest amount of chlorogenic acid in the first year was in the treatment of 100 mM of salicylic-acid and 50 μM of methyl-jasmonate and the highest amount in the second year was in the treatment of 100 mM of salicylic-acid and 100 μM of methyl-jasmonate. Also, the highest amount of chicoric acid in the both years was in the treatment of 100 mM of salicylic-acid and 100 μM of methyl-jasmonate.
... Las plantas de equinácea se han utilizado tradicionalmente en América del Norte para la prevención y el tratamiento de los síntomas del resfriado y la gripe, y ahora son una de las plantas medicinales más utilizadas tanto en América del Norte como en Europa (32). Estudios han demostrado que todas las cepas de virus de la influenza humana y aviar probadas (incluida una cepa resistente al oseltamivir), así como el virus del herpes simple, el virus sincitial respiratorio y los rinovirus, han sido sensibles a la Echinacea purpurea estandarizada (33). ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of the research was to carry out a bibliographic review in online databases such as Pubmed, Scopus, Medline and Elsevier of medicinal plants with antiviral potential mainly related to respiratory tract infections and that may be useful against COVID-19 infections. The studies found refer to the great potential that certain medicinal plants have against the influenza virus and others that could serve as a basis in this pandemic. © 2021, Sociedad Europea De Medicina Naturista Clasica. Seccion Espanola. All rights reserved.
... The high availability of these medicinal herbs with few side effects, and the benefit of having several treatment options make medicinal herbs useful as complementary drugs that can sensitize conventional medicines [16,25]. Echinacea purpurea (EP) has attracted attention due to its wide biological effects to relieve cold symptoms, pain, seizure, wound healing, and chronic arthritis [26]. The plant derivatives have a reputation for their immunemodulating and anti-inflammatory effects since their administration enhances immune reactions and suppresses inflammation using different pathways [16,27]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Considering the advantages of using medicinal herbs as supplementary treatments to sensitize conventional anti-cancer drugs, studying functional mechanisms and regulatory effects of Echinacea purpurea (as a non-cannabinoid plant) and Cannabis sativa (as a cannabinoid plant) are timely and required. The potential effects of such herbs on lung cancer cell growth, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, caspase activity and their cannabinomimetic properties on the CB2 receptor are addressed in the current study. Methods The cytotoxic effect of both herb extracts on the growth of lung cancer cells (A549) was assessed using the MTT assay. The annexin-V-FITC staining and propidium iodide (PI) staining methods were applied for the detection of apoptosis and cell cycle distribution using flow cytometry. The cellular level of ROS was measured using 7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) as a fluorescent probe in flow cytometry. The caspase 3 activity was assessed using a colorimetric assay Kit. Results Echinacea purpurea (EP) root extract induced a considerable decrease in A549 viable cells, showing a time and dose-dependent response. The cell toxicity of EP was accompanied by induction of early apoptosis and cell accumulation at the sub G1 phase of the cell cycle. The elevation of cellular ROS level and caspase 3 activity indicate ROS-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis following the treatment of A549 cells by EP extract. The observed effects of EP extract on A549 growth and death were abrogated following blockage of CB2 using AM630, a specific antagonist of the CB2 receptor. Increasing concentrations of Cannabis sativa (CS) induced A549 cell death in a time-dependent manner, followed by induction of early apoptosis, cell cycle arrest at sub G1 phase, elevation of ROS level, and activation of caspase 3. The CB2 blockage caused attenuation of CS effects on A549 cell death which revealed consistency with the effects of EP extract on A549 cells. Conclusions The pro-apoptotic effects of EP and CS extracts on A549 cells and their possible regulatory role of CB2 activity might be attributed to metabolites of both herbs. These effects deserve receiving more attention as alternative anti-cancer agents. Graphical abstract
... The total sales of products from E. purpurea, E. angustifolia, and E. pallida, reached US$ 120.2 million on the US market alone in 2019 and grew by 90.9% in the first half of 2020, partially due to the COVID-19 pandemic 2 . The main bioactives in Echinacea are caffeic acid derivatives (CADs) 3 . Chicoric acid is the principal CAD and provides an index for the quality of raw material and commercial preparations of Echinacea 4 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Purple coneflower ( Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench) is a popular native North American herbal plant. Its major bioactive compound, chicoric acid, is reported to have various potential physiological functions, but little is known about its biosynthesis. Here, taking an activity-guided approach, we identify two cytosolic BAHD acyltransferases that form two intermediates, caftaric acid and chlorogenic acid. Surprisingly, a unique serine carboxypeptidase-like acyltransferase uses chlorogenic acid as its acyl donor and caftaric acid as its acyl acceptor to produce chicoric acid in vacuoles, which has evolved its acyl donor specificity from the better-known 1- O -β-D-glucose esters typical for this specific type of acyltransferase to chlorogenic acid. This unusual pathway seems unique to Echinacea species suggesting convergent evolution of chicoric acid biosynthesis. Using these identified acyltransferases, we have reconstituted chicoric acid biosynthesis in tobacco. Our results emphasize the flexibility of acyltransferases and their roles in the evolution of specialized metabolism in plants.
... Echinacea is one of the few medicinal plants currently known to have immunity-enhancing and antiinflammatory effects. It has a wide range of uses in treatment, and stable and discriminating curative effects (2,4). Studies have shown that macrophages, peripheral blood monocytes and ATCII synthesise and secrete many cytokines and inflammatory mediators, including TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 (6,24). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Inflammation is one of the main causes of impaired health in livestock and some of its processes weaken animal productivity and impact human health. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of echinacea extract (cichoric acid – CA) on yak peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), inflammatory-related factors, and the toll-like receptor (TLR)4 signalling pathway induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in these PBMCs. Material and Methods Yak PBMCs were co-cultured with LPS and CA in vitro . The proliferative activity of cells was detected using the cell-counting kit-8 method, the optimal stimulation concentration of LPS was selected, the effect of CA on the content of inflammation-related factors was evaluated using an ELISA kit, and the mRNA expression of these factors was detected by RT-PCR. Results CA inhibited the inflammatory response of yak PBMCs induced by LPS. CA inhibited gene and protein expression of key nodes of the TLR4 signalling pathway in yak PBMCs. Conclusion It is suggested that CA has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects on yak PBMCs via the TLR4 pathway.
... Echinacea angustifolia (E. angustifolia) is one of the popular medical plants belonging to this genus with medicinal value, including antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities [14,15]. E. angustifolia have been reported to exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity for several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria like Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis [16]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, continues to be a global threat. The number of cases and deaths will remain escalating due to the lack of effective therapeutic agents. Several studies have established the importance of the viral main protease (Mpro) in the replication of SARS-CoV-2 which makes it an attractive target for antiviral drug development, including pharmaceutical repurposing and other medicinal chemistry approaches. Identification of natural products with considerable inhibitory potential against SARS-CoV-2 could be beneficial as a rapid and potent alternative with drug-likeness by comparison to de novo antiviral drug discovery approaches. Thereof, we carried out the structure-based screening of natural products from Echinacea-angustifolia, commonly used to prevent cold and other microbial respiratory infections, targeting SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Four natural products namely, Echinacoside, Quercetagetin 7-glucoside, Levan N, Inulin from chicory, and 1,3-Dicaffeoylquinic acid, revealed significant docking energy (>-10 kcal/mol) in the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro catalytic pocket via substantial intermolecular contacts formation against co-crystallized ligand (< -4 kcal/mol). Furthermore, the docked poses of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro with selected natural products showed conformational stability through molecular dynamics. Exploring the end-point net binding energy exhibited substantial contribution of Coulomb and van der Waals interactions to the stability of respective docked conformations. These results advocated the natural products from Echinacea angustifolia for further experimental studies with an elevated probability to discover the potent SARS-CoV-2 Mpro antagonist with higher affinity and drug-likeness.
... Echinacea purpurea (EP, Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant with an important immunostimulatory effect (9). Extracts of EP have been used in North America for wound and infection treatments (10). This extract also shows antimicrobial and antiviral activities (11). ...
Article
Full-text available
As lifestyle changes, the prevalence of diabetes increases every year. Diabetes-induced male reproductive dysfunction is predominantly due to increased oxidative stress and then results in sperm damage and infertility. Echinacea purpurea is a traditional medicinal herb and is well-known for its immune-modulatory, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antiviral activities. The Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a critical role in innate immune responses leading to nuclear factor (NF)-κB phosphorylation and release of proinflammatory cytokines including nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. However, the relation between Echinacea purpurea extract and TLR4 remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects on male reproduction of Echinacea purpurea ethanol extract (EPE) against diabetic rats and whether the anti-inflammatory effects were through the TLR4 pathway. Diabetic male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were induced by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) and nicotinamide (230 mg/kg). EPE was tested in three doses (93, 279, and 465 mg/kg p.o. daily) for 4 weeks. Besides, metformin administration (100 mg/kg/day) was treated as a positive control. Results indicated that EPE administration for about 4 weeks improved hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Additionally, EPE increased sperm motility, protected sperm morphology and mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as protein for testosterone synthesis enzyme. In sperm superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione antioxidants were increased, whereas proinflammatory cytokines, such as NO, IL-1β, and TNF-α were decreased. The testis protein content of TLR4 and downstream phospho-NF-κB p65 also were reduced. The EPE might reduce the production of proinflammatory cytokines via TLR4 pathways and improve diabetes-induced male infertility.
... For the first time, a small increase in body temperature was found in the calves treated with EP. This effect might be due to immune stimulating effects of EP as already reported previously (Ayrle et al., 2016a;Barnes et al., 2005;Barrett, 2003). On the contrary, cytokines and other mediators involved in the development of fever (IL-1β and TNFα) have been reported to be downregulated after EP treatment in mice and humans (Ritchie et al., 2011;Zhai et al., 2007). ...
Article
The objective of this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded field trial was to investigate the effects of oral administration of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L. (EP)) on performance, health and immune parameters in calves. Calves (n = 27) were enrolled to three groups (9 calves per group): 0.5 g EP/calf per day (ECL), 5 g EP/calf per day (ECH) or placebo. Calves were vaccinated with Bluetongue-Virus (BTV) serotype 4 vaccine to investigate EPs effects on seroconversion. Clinical and performance parameters, inter alia body weight, health and milk intake were recorded for 57 days. Blood samples were analyzed for BTV antibodies and IgG by ELISA, white and red blood cell counts by flow cytometry and mRNA abundance of various inflammatory markers in leukocytes (IL-1β, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) and prostaglandin E synthase) was studied. The findings demonstrated no differences between groups regarding performance parameters. In all groups, calves suffered from diarrhea for a minimum of 2 days, but EP reduced the number of diarrhea days by 44% in ECL and increased the body temperature. Interestingly, ECL resulted in an increased number of respiratory disease days during the follow-up period. EP did not change blood cell and IgG counts, whereas eosinophil granulocytes were reduced in ECL. Decreased levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit were found in ECH. Prostaglandin E synthase levels in leukocytes were higher in ECL and ECH, whereas no differences were obtained for IL-1β, IL-8, TNFα and Cox-2. Due to the unexpected occurrence of BTV seropositive calves before the first vaccination, 13 calves were excluded from the evaluation on seroconversion and no statistical analyses could be performed regarding antibody production. BTV-4 antibodies were not produced in 4 placebo-calves, whereas 4 of 5 and 1 of 6 ECL- and ECH-calves produced antibodies. Further investigations are needed to draw final conclusions on mode of action and efficacy of EP in calves.
... are recommended to treat colds and flu. These diseases have in the causal sphere both infection with various bacterial and viral pathogens, and deficiency of the immune system [131,132]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background. Nowadays, phytotherapy offers viable solutions in managing respiratory infections, disorders known for considerable incidence in both children and adults. In a context in which more and more people are turning to phytotherapy, finding new remedies is a topical goal of researchers in health and related fields. This paper aims to identify those traditional medicinal plants that show potentially antibacterial effects against four Gram-negative germs (Chlamydia pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis), which are considered to have high involvement in respiratory infections. Furthermore, a comparison with Romanian folk medicines was performed. Methods. An extensive review of books and databases was undertaken to identify vegetal species of interest in the context of the topic. Results. Some traditional Romanian species (such as Mentha × piperita, Thymus vulgaris, Pinus sylvestris, Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Ocimum basilicum, and Lavandula angustifolia) were identified and compared with the plants and preparations confirmed as having antibacterial effects against specific germs. Conclusions. The antibacterial effects of some traditionally used Romanian medicinal plants are poorly investigated, and deserve further attention.
... Echinacea purpurea is one of the most widely recognized immunostimulant plants which originates in southern Canada and North America [13]. The main bioactive compounds of E. purpurea are polysaccharides, alkanamides, glycoproteins, caffeic acid derivatives (cichoric acid), and melanins [14]. ...
Article
Oxidative damage and intestinal dysbiosis are regarded as crucial culprits in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). This study aimed to examine the protective effects of Echinacea purpurea polysaccharides (EPPs) against ALD and explore the underlying mechanisms based on hepatic oxidative stress, inflammation, and intestinal barrier function. Three polysaccharide fractions, namely, EPP40, EPP60, and EPP80, were obtained by stepwise ethanol precipitation, and their antioxidant activity in vitro was investigated. The results showed that EPP80 with Mw 11.82 kDa had the strongest radical-scavenging capacity against DPPH, ABTS, and •OH radicals. Besides, EPP80 comprised arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose, galacturonic acid, and glucuronic acid in molar ratios of 13.42:25.12:10.92:8.59:2.07:0.82. The in vivo results showed that EPP80 increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines both in mouse serum and liver. Moreover, EPP80 upregulated the expression of Occludin and ZO-1, revealing its protective effect against intestinal barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, EPP80 inhibited alcohol-induced oxidative damage by promoting the expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1 in the liver. In summary, EPP80 markedly scavenged free radicals in vitro and ameliorated alcohol-induced liver injury via Nrf2/HO-1 pathways in vivo. These findings suggested that EPP80 could provide effective supplementary support in preventing and treating ALD.
... Another molecular docking research in which one of the plant's components, L-chicoric acid was docked against the protein HIV-1 (Human immunodeficiency virus type 1) integrase, showed very good binding modes between the ligand and the viral integrase 13 . Animal studies of different preparations of Echinacea species have also demonstrated low toxicity 11 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: HPV 16 is the primary etiologic agent of cervical cancer and the presence of L1 and E6 oncoproteins are largely responsible for its virulence. It was the objective of this study to identify HPV16 isolates from suspected cases of cervical cancer at Specialist Hospital Sokoto and Sir Yahaya Memorail Hospiatal Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria and also to identifypotent HPV16’s L1 protein inhibitor using in silico analysis. Methods: A total of 144 cervical samples consisting of 21 low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 6 high grade lesion and 117 negative pap smears were collected. The samples were subjected for molecular detection using PCR targeting E6 gene of the virus. Data generated for the molecular prevalence was statistically analyzed using Chi-square method. AutoDock Vina was used to carry out the molecular docking between 2hr5 and Chicoric acid, curcumin and Echinacoside. Results: Out of the 144 samples, 24 samples were positive for the PCR representing 16.9% molecular prevalence rate. There is statistically significant association between cyto-diagnoses and presence of HPV16 (P < 0.05). Docking analysis showed that the Chicoric acid components of Echinacea purpurae have strong binding affinity (-8.7 kcal/mol) to the L1 protein of the HPV. Conclusion: This study provides data on HPV 16 epidemiology in northern Nigeria, and also provides novel evidence for consideration on certain interacting residues, when synthesizing Anti-HPV compounds in the wet lab. Keywords: HPV; Echinacea purpurae; chicoric acid; echinacoside; curcumin.
... Echinacea has immunostimulating properties, for which alkamides are thought to be responsible among the bioactive constituents of the plant (Rininger et al. 2000). The plant can also reduce the severity of symptoms in early infections of the common cold and flu, which is believed to be one of the outcomes of its stimulatory effect on the immune system (Barrett 2003). Echinacea purpureasupplementations decreased the death rates of chickens infected with Escherichia colibacteria, which might be due to the enhancement of immune response by the medicinal plant (Hashem et al. 2020). ...
... 7 / 0 / 3 2 1 / 0 / 1 Immunity / c Does echinacea boost immunity? Yes Natural immunomodulator [5]. Leads to antiretroviral medication failure [44]. ...
... Many bioactivities of EP have been discovered in modern pharmacological investigations, including immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral and antifungal activities [63,64]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (EP)is a perennial herbaceous flowering plant, commonly known as purple coneflower and it belongs to the Asteraceae family. The Echinacea genus is originally from North America, in the United States, and its species are widely distributed throughout. There are nine different species of Echinacea, but only three of them are used as medicinal plants with wide therapeutic uses: Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. and Echinacea angustifolia DC. Several significant groups of bioactive compounds with pharmacological activities have been isolated from Echinacea species. Numerous beneficial effects have been demonstrated about these compounds. The immunomodulatory effect was initially demonstrated, but over time other effects have also been highlighted. The present review gives a comprehensive summary of the chemical constituents, bioactive compounds, biological effects and therapeutical uses of purple coneflower. Research shows that such a well-known and recognized species needs to be further studied to obtain efficient products with a guarantee of the safety.
... The interest in this plant has increased due to its promising effects on human health and well-being. Echinacea spp. is extensively used in the treatment of certain diseases, mainly as an immunomodulator, and there is scientific evidence regarding the safety of products derived from this plant [89,90]. A patented sunscreen formulation successfully included Echinacea extracts, Cynara scolymus extract and organic or inorganic synthetic sun filters. ...
Article
Full-text available
Human skin works as a barrier against the adverse effects of environmental agents, including ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Exposure to UVR is associated with a variety of harmful effects on the skin, and it is one of the most common health concerns. Solar UVR constitutes the major etiological factor in the development of cutaneous malignancy. However, more than 90% of skin cancer cases could be avoided with appropriate preventive measures such as regular sunscreen use. Plants, constantly irradiated by sunlight, are able to synthesize specialized molecules to fight against UVR damage. Phenolic compounds, alkaloids and carotenoids constitute the major plant secondary metabolism compounds with relevant UVR protection activities. Hence, plants are an important source of molecules used to avoid UVR damage, reduce photoaging and prevent skin cancers and related illnesses. Due to its significance, we reviewed the main plant secondary metabolites related to UVR protection and its reported mechanisms. In addition, we summarized the research in Mexican plants related to UV protection. We presented the most studied Mexican plants and the photoprotective molecules found in them. Additionally, we analyzed the studies conducted to elucidate the mechanism of photoprotection of those molecules and their potential use as ingredients in sunscreen formulas.
Chapter
Bull fertility is an important economic trait in sustainable cattle production, as infertile or subfertile bulls give rise to large economic losses. Current methods to assess bull fertility are tedious and not totally accurate. The massive collection of functional data analyses, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, and epigenomics, helps researchers generate extensive knowledge to better understand the unraveling physiological mechanisms underlying subpar male fertility. This review focuses on the sperm phenomes of the functional genome and epigenome that are associated with bull fertility. Findings from multiple sources were integrated to generate new knowledge that is transferable to applied andrology. Diverse methods encompassing analyses of molecular and cellular dynamics in the fertility-associated molecules and conventional sperm parameters can be considered an effective approach to determine bull fertility for efficient and sustainable cattle production. In addition to gene expression information, we also provide methodological information, which is important for the rigor and reliability of the studies. Fertility is a complex trait influenced by several factors and has low heritability, although heritability of scrotal circumference is high and that it is a known fertility maker. There is a need for new knowledge on the expression levels and functions of sperm RNA, proteins, and metabolites. The new knowledge can shed light on additional fertility markers that can be used in combination with scrotal circumference to predict the fertility of breeding bulls. This review provides a comprehensive review of sperm functional characteristics or phenotypes associated with bull fertility.
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition of some herbal products consumed in Brazil through the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). The methodology used encompassed the selection of 14 plants' dried extracts and six ground plants. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of samples indicating the presence of As, and Pt in different concentrations. It is feasible that part of the contamination found in the herbal products come from the adjuvants/excipients used in the production process. Also, it was found that the extract production process seems to have a low efficiency for the extraction of the main chemical elements present in the ground plants. In the other hand, it has the benefit of reducing the contamination by harmful elements to health, such as heavy metals. EDXRF can replace atomic absorption spectrometry as low-cost and high precision technique to quantify all elements of interest in the pharmaceutical and food industries, within the limits established by regulatory agencies. Resumo O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a composição química de alguns produtos à base de plantas consumidos no Brasil por meio da Fluorescência de raios-X por energia dispersiva (EDXRF). A metodologia utilizada abrangeu a seleção de 14 extratos secos de plantas e seis plantas moídas. As análises qualitativas e quantitativas das amostras indicando a presença de As, Cr" Fe, Ni, Zn, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Rb, Zr, Cd, Sn, Ba, Hg, Pb, Bi, Mo e Pt em diferentes concentrações. Parte da contaminação encontrada nos produtos à base de plantas pode ser originária dos adjuvantes/excipientes utilizados no processo de produção. Além disso, constatou-se que o processo de produção do extrato parece ter baixa eficiência para a extração dos principais elementos químicos presentes nas plantas moídas. Por outro lado, tem o benefício de reduzir a contaminação por elementos nocivos à saúde, tais como metais pesados. A EDXRF pode substituir a espectrometria de absorção atômica como técnica de baixo custo e alta precisão para quantificar todos os elementos de interesse nas indústrias farmacêutica e alimentícia, dentro dos limites estabelecidos pelas agências reguladoras. Palavras-chave: Produtos de plantas. Fluorescência de raios-X por energia dispersiva (EDXRF). Extratos secos. Planta medicinal moída. Contaminação por metais pesados.
Chapter
This chapter describes the hepatotoxicity activity of plant extracts. The major physiological functions of the liver are the secretion, storage, and metabolism of bile. The diseases that affect this vital organ, called hepatic diseases, are among the major worldwide health problems. They are caused by different factors including hepatotoxins, which are the chemical compounds that cause liver injury. In addition, herbal drugs used to treat various diseases, when used for the long term, result in hepatotoxicity ranging from mild liver enzyme changes to chronic liver disease, leading to liver failure. In traditional and modern medicine, some herbal drugs from medicinal plants cause herb-induced liver injury (HILI). The objective of this chapter is to summarize the effects of plant extract-induced hepatotoxicity, the mechanisms of toxicity, and the identification of plants that cause liver damage.
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, it is trying to reintroduce into the culture different medicinal plants, given the growing interest of the phytotherapeutic community for the benefit of the human body in stopping and ameliorating diseases. Romania has an old and rich tradition in this field, currently over 300 medicinal and aromatic plants are known, and over 50 of them have developed cultivation technologies. Lavandula officinalis L. is cultivated for its aromatic and phytotherapeutic properties, Calendula officinalis L. is cultivated to stimulate the wound healing process, Echinacea purpurea Moench. for its proprieties in stimulating immunity and Salvia officinalis L. is cultivated for pronounced antisudor effect. The method of setting up the crop was carried out differently, for each species, depending on the mode of immersion (seedlings, seedlings, seed), optimal planting time, optimal distances between plants per row and between rows, with direct influences on the fresh and dried plant material. The present paper aims to highlight several elements of technology to improve the production and direct connection between the obtained material and after drying it.
Chapter
The chapter describes molecular aspects of herbal medicine toxicity. Several studies have shown that certain medicinal herbs can be poisonous and may produce a variety of undesirable or adverse reactions that are life-threatening and even deadly. In industrialized countries, the craze for products of natural origin is a relatively recent phenomenon, developed, in particular, in favour of aggressive marketing campaigns inducing in the public mind notions as false as they are dangerous such as the assertion “what is natural is harmless”. Several intoxications, often deadly, after herbal treatments have been reported which draws attention to the dangers of excessive use and the no control on this therapeutic model.
Article
In phytotherapy, Echinacea purpurea L. is generally used in the form of water-alcohol extracts, which contain phenylpropanoids exhibiting anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and moderate antiproliferative effects. The relevance of using plants of the genus Echinacea as a phytomaterial is due to the high demand of consumers; nowadays, the level of sales of water-alcohol extracts in the world is quite high. Considering the importance of using these plants, the present work aimed to determine phenolic compounds in water-alcohol extracts of echinacea obtained by various extraction methods. The biological activity of echinacea is related to hydroxycinnamic acids and their derivatives (chlorogenic, caftaric and chicoric acids). In this study, conditions for the identification and determination of phenolic compounds using such chromatographic methods as HPLC-DAD-MS and GC-MS allowing to expand the range of target analytes in water-alcohol extracts of echinacea have been proposed. A number of unknown compounds of phenolic nature and monosaccharides have been identified in water extracts of echinacea by implementing the SPAD technique on a sorbent for solid-phase extraction - Strata C18-E. The effectiveness of various extraction methods and their influence on the composition of extracted phenolic compounds from plant raw materials was studied. Subcritical extraction at 120°C was established to provide maximum extraction of rutin, caffeic and caftaric acids. Chlorogenic and chicoric acids are most effectively extracted by traditional methods described in the Pharmacopoeia. The influence of growing conditions on the total content of phenolic compounds in echinacea was studied; the increase in the altitude above sea level results in higher contents of phenolic compounds. The assessment of the content of phenolic compounds in industrially manufactured preparations based on echinacea was carried out. The possibility of using the ratio of chicoric to caftaric acids as an indicator of the quality and authenticity of extracts and preparations based on them was shown.
Article
Background Echinacea, one of the most popular herbs with double function of immunity and anti-inflammatory activity, has now attracted much interest for a possible alternative for the treatment of hepatopathy. This review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of Echinacea regarding its chemical composition, pharmacological action against various hepatopathy, and safety. Methods A comprehensive search of published articles was conducted to focus on original publications related to Echinacea and hepatopathy till the end of 2020 using various literature databases, including China National Knowledge Infrastructure, PubMed, and Web of Science database. Results Echinacea exhibited excellent activities in resisting a variety of hepatopathy induced by different causes in preclinical experiments and clinical trials by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis, antioxidant defense mechanism, voltage-gated sodium channels, lipid metabolism, circadian rhythm, p38 MAPK signaling pathway, JNK signaling pathway, Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway, PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, and Akt/GSK3 beta signaling pathways. The high efficacy of Echinacea is related to its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. The main ingredients of Echinacea include caffeic acid derivatives, alkylamides, and polysaccharides, which have been well established in preclinical studies of liver diseases. Studies on acute and subacute toxicity show that Echinacea preparations are well-tolerated herbal medicines. Conclusion Echinacea may offer a novel potential strategy for clinical prevention and treatment of liver diseases and related diseases. Extensive studies are necessary to identify the underlying mechanisms and establish future therapeutic potentials of this herb. Well-designed clinical trials are still warranted to confirm the safety and effectiveness of Echinacea for hepatopathy.
Book
Inflammation and Natural Products brings together research in the area of the natural products and their anti-inflammatory action in medical, nutraceutical and food products, addressing specific chronic inflammatory diseases like cancer and the mechanistic aspects of the mode of action of some key natural products. Inflammation is a complicated process, driven by infection or injury or genetic changes, which results in triggering signalling cascades, activation of transcription factors, gene expression, increased levels of inflammatory enzymes, and release of various oxidants and pro-inflammatory molecules in inflammatory cells. Excessive oxidants and inflammatory mediators have a harmful effect on normal tissue, including toxicity, loss of barrier function, abnormal cell proliferation, inhibiting normal function of tissues and organs and finally leading to systemic disorders. The emerging development of natural product formulations utilizing the unique anti-inflammatory compounds such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, terpenes, fatty acids, proteins and several other bioactive components has shown notable successes. Inflammation and Natural Products: Recent Development and Current Status provides a comprehensive resource, ranging from detailed explanation on inflammation to molecular docking strategies for naturally occurring compounds with anti-inflammatory activity. It is useful for graduate students, academic and professionals in the fields of pharmaceutical and medical sciences and specialists from natural product-related industries.
Article
Full-text available
Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae) is a medicinal herb that has broad spectra of pharmacological properties. It is a perennial herb with immune-stimulant and anti-inflammatory properties. Due to its vast pharmacological properties, this plant has attracted the attention of scientists to evaluate other beneficial biological effects. The plant has shown antidepressant, anxiolytic, anti-mutagenic, cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial properties. The objective of this review is to highlight the importance of Echinacea purpurea. Different databases were used to search literature in the English language. Clinical studies are still not found due to its adverse effects. But some plant studies have shown the best biological responses, with no serious side effects, while some studies have reported severe adverse effects on the skin such as rashes, urticaria and itching, abdominal cramps, pain, nausea and labored breathing. Cichoric acid and alkamides analysis have been developed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) by using different detectors, for example, coulometric detectors, ionization mass spray detectors and Uv-vis detectors. Instead of controversial results of different studies on this plant, some activities show the best results, But some questions are still there. Echinacea purpurea plant has a lot of work that needs to be done in the future by considering the mechanism of action.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Purple coneflower, Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, has long been used in herbal remedies to prevent and treat a wide range of diseases like common cold, simple cough, pulmonary infections, dermatologic disorder and chronic diseases due to immunodeficiency. Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of salicylic acid and yeast extract foliar application on caffeic acid derivatives production in coneflower. Methods: Two factorial experiments were performed individually under greenhouse conditions during the years 2017-2018. In the first experiment, the effect of salicylic acid (0, 80, 160 and 320 mg/L) and each at four exposure times (24, 48, 72 and 96 hours) was studied. Also, in the second experiment, the effect of yeast extract (0, 0.75, 1 and 1.5 g/L) and each at four exposure times was investigated. Results: The results indicated that main effects and interactions of different concentrations of salicylic acid and yeast extract at different exposure times on caffeic acid derivatives content were significant (P ˂ 0.01). The highest cichoric acid, caftaric acid and echinacoside production was obtained after 96 hours of treatment at 160 mg/L salicylic acid treated plants. The highest cichoric acid production 7.150 mg/g DW was obtained after 96 hours of treatment at 1.5 g/L yeast extract treated plants, this was 3.58-fold higher compared to respective control. The lowest level of caffeic acid derivatives production was observed in control plants. Conclusion: In conclusion, salicylic acid and yeast extract foliar application have a positive effect on caffeic acid derivatives production in Echinacea purpurea aerial parts.
Article
Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench is an important medicinal herb; its roots, leaves and, flowers have been used by the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, DNA protection, antimicrobial, antioxidant-enzyme inhibition, and antiproliferative activities of water, methanol (MeOH), and ethyl acetate (EA) extracts of leaves and flowers of E. purpurea were evaluated. In addition, total phenolics and flavonoids, as well as individual compounds, were identified using colorimetric assays and HPLC-ion trap mass spectrometry, respectively. Chicoric acid and its isomer were the most abundant natural compounds, with concentrations similar to previous studies of E. purpurea. All extracts had antimicrobial activity against a broad range of bacteria, particularly Enterococcus faecalis. The antiproliferative activity of the extracts on the HeLa cells was shown. The lowest value of IC50 (73 μg/ml) came from the 24 h MeOH extract of flowers. The water extract of leaves showed strong antioxidant activity with the DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, and FRAP assays. EA and MeOH extracts of leaves showed a significant inhibition ability of cholinesterase and tyrosinase, respectively. The presented study suggested that E. purpurea extracts had promising therapeutic properties. Further investigation at the cellular level could be done to highlight the mechanism behind these biological activities.
Article
Full-text available
Mercury (Hg) is a persistent and dangerous heavy metal with genotoxic properties. Echinacea purpurea L. is a well-known therapeutic plant with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor properties. In this study, multi-protective role of Echinacea purpurea L. extract against toxicity caused by mercury(II) chloride (HgCI2) on Allium cepa L. investigated in a multifaceted way. As a consequence of 100 mgL⁻¹ HgCI2 administration, root elongation, weight increase, germination rate, and mitotic index were reduced, whereas micronucleus frequency, chromosomal abnormalities frequency, meristematic cell injuries severity, malondialdehyde level, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity were increased. On the other hand, co-administration of increasing doses of E. purpurea extract (265 mgL⁻¹ and 530 mgL⁻¹) and HgCI2 gradually alleviated all observed toxic effects of HgCI2. Protective role of E. purpurea extract against HgCI2-toxicity on A. cepa were clearly demonstrated in this study. The results of this study will lead to future researches investigating use of E. purpurea extract against genotoxic contaminants.
Article
Full-text available
Nanoparticles reveal unique properties due to their application in many fields. The easy, eco-friendly, and cost-effective method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from the aerial part of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench was demonstrated in this work. The synthesized AgNPs were elucidated by Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) spectroscopic analyses. The UV-Vis spectrum revealed the maximum absorption at 481 nm and SEM spectral analysis displayed the formation of spherical shape silver nanoparticles with an average size of 68.24 nm. XRD spectral analysis at 2θ degrees of 38.1°, 44.3°, 64.4°, and 77.4° can be indexed to the (111), (200), (220), and (311) Bragg’s reflections of the face-centered cubic crystalline structure. Antioxidant activity of AgNPs and water extract were executed using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•) scavenging, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS•+) scavenging, and reducing power assays. AgNPs and extract exhibited excellent antioxidant activity that could be promising for food and pharmaceutical utilization.
Article
Introduction Rapidly emerging diseases, such as viral infections, cancer, and autoimmune disorders are becoming an increasing global health concern. Natural products, including plant extracts and compounds, possess an enormous spectrum of pharmacological activities, including antiviral, anticancer, immunomodulatory, anti-asthma, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertension, and anti-rheumatism activities. Among them, the genus Uncaria (Rubiaceae family), rich in alkaloids and triterpenes, is believed to have vast therapeutic potential. This genus is mostly found in tropical regions, such as Africa, Southeast Asia, and Southeast America. In this review, we aim to summarize the studies on plant substances of genus Uncaria showing promising antimicrobial, anticancer, and immunomodulatory activities. Methodology A total of 814 studies were identified through database searches, of which 681 studies were excluded due to duplication and irrelevance to antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and pharmacology activity. 133 studies were included, out of which 16 studies were related to antimicrobial and 117 studies related to the pharmacology of Uncaria. Conclusion According to the collected data Uncaria species proved to have a broad range of pharmacological activities, which makes it more interesting for further studies, to explore more about its antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and other potential pharmacological properties.
Article
Environmental and occupational exposure to chromium compounds, especially hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], is widely recognized as a potential nephrotoxic in humans and animals. Its toxicity is associated with the overproduction of free radicals, which induces oxidative damage. Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench is an herbaceous perennial plant rich in phenolic components and frequently used for its medicinal benefits. The current work evaluated the effectiveness of E. purpurea (EP) against oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity induced by potassium dichromate in male rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, E. purpurea (EP; 50 mg/kg; once daily for 3 weeks), hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI); 15 mg/kg; single intraperitoneal dose), and EP + Cr(VI) where rats were pretreated with EP for 3 weeks before receiving CrVI, respectively. Results revealed that rats exposed to Cr(VI) showed a significant increase in PC, TBARS, and H2O2, kidney function biomarkers (Urea, creatinine, and uric acid), lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH), TNF‐α, IL‐18, nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), and IGF‐1 (Insulin‐like growth factor‐1) levels as well as a considerable decline in metallothionein (MT), glutathione (GSH) content, enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, and GST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and protein content. Cr(VI) induced apoptosis in kidney tissues as revealed by upregulation of Bax and caspase 3 and downregulation of Bcl‐2. Furthermore, EP treatment ameliorated the Cr(VI)‐induced histopathological and ultrastructure variations of kidney tissue, which was confirmed by the biochemical and molecular data. It is clear from the results of this study that EP exerts nephroprotective effects by improving the redox state, suppressing inflammatory reaction and cell apoptosis as well as ameliorating the performance of kidney tissue architecture, which is eventually reflected by the improvement of kidney function in rats.
Article
Full-text available
Are Echinacea products associated with a reduced incidence and a shorter duration of common colds compared with placebo? Individual prophylaxis trials show no association with prevention of the common cold, but exploratory meta-analysis suggests that Echinacea products may be associated with a small reduction in cold incidence. In treatment trials, there was no association of Echinacea products with a shorter duration of colds.
Article
Full-text available
Extrapolations from pharmacological research have led some authors to suggest restrictions or contraindications for the use of Echinacea. This article examines the known chemistry and pharmacology of the various Echinacea species and products, and challenges some of these popular concepts. In particular, the hypotheses that Echinacea is a T cell activator and that it will accelerate pathology in HIV/AIDS, are found to be unsupported by careful analysis of known data. These misunderstandings have arisen mainly from enthusiastic extrapolations of in vitro data on polysaccharide components. The low levels of polysaccharides in most Echinacea products, particularly traditional extracts and tinctures, and their poor bioavailability suggest in most cases the therapeutic activity of Echinacea is due to other component fractions, including the alkylamides. The suggestion that Echinacea should not be prescribed for extended periods of time will be examined in a second article.
Article
We measured the levels of the cytokines IL‐1‐α, IL‐1‐β, IL‐2, IL‐6, TNF‐α, and IFN‐γ in culture supernatants of stimulated whole blood cells derived from 23 tumor patients undergoing a 4‐week oral treatment with a spagyric extract from Echinacea angustifolia, Eupatorium perfoliatum, and Thuja occidentalis (Echinacea complex). All patients had had curative surgery for a localized solid malignant tumor. Blood was taken before treatment and after 2 and 4 weeks of therapy. Twelve untreated tumor patients at the same clinical stage, also after curative surgery, served as a control group. In the blood cell cultures of all patients, a rather wide range of cytokine levels was found. After therapy with Echinacea complex, no significant alteration in the production of the cytokines could be seen in comparison to the controls, and also the leukocyte populations remained constant. We conclude that at this application and dosage, the therapy with Echinacea complex has no detectable effect on tumor patients' lymphocytes activity as measured by their cytokine production. © 1996 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.
Book
Although lots of books have been published about herbal therapy, a comprehensive overview of the adverse effects of botanical medicines is not available. Yet such an overview is badly needed, because of the enormous rise in the use of herbal remedies. The book series will provide approximately 150 monographs on herbal remedies and plant-derived drugs. Each monograph will provide introductory information on Botany, Chemistry, Pharmacology and Uses, followed by an Adverse Reaction Profile subdivided according to organ and function. The World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (Copenhagen) has decided to support the book in the form of an acknowledgement that it has been preparedin cooperation with this Office.
Article
The US Phytotherapeutical Market still increases considerably. The article presents the different reasons which are responsible for this expansion and lists the most important herbal medicines of the USA including the categories of use. The US regulatory categories for herbal products are presented as well as the current efforts which are undertaken in order to guarantee product quality and to establish the effectiveness of herbal products.
Chapter
The terms “immunostimulants” and “adaptogens” both describe drugs capable of increasing the resistance of an organism against Stressors of variable origin. Both types of drugs achieve this enhancement primarily by nonspecific mechanisms of actions. Immunostimulants generally stimulate, in a non-antigen dependent manner, the function and efficiency of the nonspecific immune system in order to counteract microbial infections or immunosuppressive states. Adaptogens are believed to reinforce (increase) the non-specific power of resistance of the body against physical, chemical or biological noxious agents. With respect to the mechanisms of action immunostimulants influence primarily the humoral and cellular immune system, whereas adaptogens are thought to between the immune and endocrine system it is very often difficult or impossible to discriminate between the two mechanisms of action. Therefore, it is not surprising that both classes of drugs can influence both systems at the same time.
Chapter
In recent years, Echinacea preparations have developed into the best selling herbal immunostimulants. Most of the products are derived from either the aerial or the underground parts of Echinacea purpurea, and from the roots of E. angustifolia or E. pallida. The common products in Europe mainly represent expressed juice preparations or alcoholic tinctures. The different species and preparations can be clearly distinguished phytochemically by their typical constituents. The most relevant compounds for standardization are caffeic acid derivatives (cichoric acid, echinacoside), alkamides, polyacetylenes, and glycoproteins/polysaccharides. Pharmacological studies have shown that cichoric acid, alkamides, and glycoproteins/polysaccharides possess immunomodulatory activity. Therefore they might be considered as active principles and best suited for standardization purposes. Clinical effects have been demonstrated for the expressed juice of the aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea in the adjuvant therapy of relapsing infections of the respiratory and urinary tracts, as well as for alcoholic tinctures of E. pallida and E. purpurea roots as adjuvants in the therapy of common cold and flu.
Article
Two preparations of Echinacea purpurea and a preparation of Eleutherococcus senticosus increased the in vitro phagocytosis of Candida albicans by granulocytes and monocytes from healthy donors by 30-45%. The chemotactic migration of granulocytes in the Boyden Chamber was increased by 45% with an Echinacea purpurea extract. The two herbal preparations had no effect in either direction on intracellular killing of bacteria or yeasts. Echinacea and Eleutherococcus preparations did not induce in vitro transformation of lymphocytes. The mistel toe preparation examined (Viscum album) did not influence the tested functions of granulocytes, monocytes or lymphocytes of health donors.
Article
Echinacea, an herbal remedy originally used by the plains Indians of North America, has gained credibility as an immunostimulator, used especially for the treatment of incipient colds and "flu". We examined the effect of over-the- counter preparations of Echinacea, on mouse spleen cells in vitro. All products were diluted to provide equivalent amounts of Echinacea, based on the suggested product dose. We measured the effect on proliferation of BALB/c spleen cells and on production of IgM, IgG sub-classes, and IgA by the cultured cells. Of the 6 products tested, #1 (an extract in glycerol) showed a 10 fold stimulation of spleen cell proliferation, the same company's extract in alcohol (#2) showed an 8 fold stimulation, but the other companies' products (#s 3-6) showed from no effect to a maximum of 4 fold stimulation. With respect to immunoglobulin production, product #1 increased IgM production from 2 μg/ml in unstimulated cells to 18 μg/ml. None of the other products increased IgM production to above 4 μg/ml. IgG subclass production was stimulated to a different extent, depending on the subclass. IgA production was increased from 0.2 μg/ml to 3.4 μ/ml by product #1. We also prepared our own Echinacea extract and it showed stimulatory properties similar to those of commercial product #1. Preliminary results with human spleen cells paralleled those with mouse spleen cells. Our studies confirm that Echinacea extracts stimulate immune system cells, but as there was great discordance in the effects of the commercial preparations, our results support the necessity for increased regulation of herbal products.
Article
Limitations on the use of Echinacea preparations, specifically the duration and indications of use, have been proposed recently. It has been suggested that Echinacea not be used for extended periods of time, nor utilized in autoimmune disorders, due to the belief that Echinacea might have either harmful long-term effects on the immune system or may initiate immune stimulation in an already pathologically overstimulated immune system. These recommendations seem to be based on misinterpretations of the Echinacea research and/or a failure to take into account the strong traditional use of Echinacea. This article will show that the best way to overcome this clinical dilemma might be to view Echinacea as an immunomodulator, rather than as an immunostimulant.
Article
Ethanolic extracts of Echinacea purpurea, E. pallida and E. angustifolia roots were examined for immunological activity in the carbon clearance test with mice and in the granulocyte test. In the in vivo experiment all extracts, administered orally, were found to enhance phagocytosis significantly. These results correlate with the stimulation of phagocytosis in the in vitro granulocyte test. The lipophilic fractions of the extracts appeared to be more active than the polar fractions. All extracts were analyzed by HPLC in order to correlate the chemical constituents with the immunological activities.
Article
The effects of daily oral pretreatment for 28 days with the pressed juice of Echinacea purpurea (Echinacin EC31®) or magnesium supplements on the changes in immunological variables in response to a triathlon sprint (mean duration ± SD: 69.5 ± 10.1 min) were investigated in a randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel group study. Forty-two male triathletes (mean age 27.5 years), undergoing regular training, all with a VO(2max) > 52 ml/kg/min, were randomised to one of three treatments. Fluorescence activated flow cytometry analysis of blood cell populations, serum and urine levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sIL-2R) together with routine sports laboratory, clinical chemical and haematological variables were determined at baseline (day 0), after treatment (day 28) and 1 h and 20 h after the competition (days 29 and 30). Pretreatment with Echinacin produced slight changes in total peripheral (CD3+) T-lymphocytes, NK (CD3-CD56+) cells and CD8+ lymphocyte counts which remained within the range of baseline variation. In comparison to the placebo group, Echinacin markedly decreased sIL-2R in urine before the competition and enhanced the exercise-induced decrease in serum sIL-2R. It further enhanced the exercise-induced increases in urine IL-6 and serum cortisol. None of the Echinacin-treated athletes developed upper respiratory infections, which were reported by 3/13 and 4/13 subjects treated with magnesium and placebo, respectively. Echinacin appears to reduce sIL-2R release, facilitate IL-6 release in response to exercise and in the present study reduced the documented incidence of respiratory infections, possibly as a result of monocyte/macrophage stimulation.
Article
In Northamerican folk medicine Echinacea purpurea L. Moench (purple coneflower) was used as a medicinal plant. Nowadays various formulations containing stabilized or dried pressed juice from Echinacea purpurea as an active ingredient are often administered to treat common colds. These preparations are very well tolerated and safe. Allergic reactions, mainly reversible skin reactions, may occur especially in persons showing hypersensibility after contact with plants from the Compositae family. Pharmacological data let assume purple coneflower pressed juice preparations stimulate the innate immune system and increase the resistance to common colds. In this context the stimulation of the oxidative burst as well as the modulation on monokine secretion by the pressed juice of purple coneflower are reviewed. Also relevant clinical studies are presented concerning the treatment of infections respectively of common cold.
Article
In about one third of cases the duration of pertussis may be reduced to five days by giving three repeated injections of echinacine (2 ml/day in children, 1 ml/day in infants) on three consecutive days; this procedure is particularly successful in an early stage of the disease. A combination of echinacine and antibiotic is not equally effective but may be superior to treatment with an antibiotic alone. Moreover, it must not be overlooked that the latter is only required in high risk children, although it is often claimed to be necessary with regard to 'elimination of bacteria' and 'prevention of complications'. Injections of echinacine are tolerated well; temperature rises up to 39° C on the day of treatment were only seen in isolated cases. Erythema and localized pain at the injection site were occasionally reported. The question as to whether the 'reduction' in the efficacy of echinacine during concurrent therapy with antibiotic is to be attributed to epithelial lesions by B. pertussis, cellular changes in the bronchial tract or inhibition of opsonification or phagocytosis due to antibiotics remains to be clarified and should be discussed further.
Article
▪ Objective: To determine whether naproxen, a propionic acid inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, alters the course of experimental rhinovirus colds. ▪ Design: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. ▪ Setting: Rhinovirus challenge model in volunteers cloistered in individual hotel rooms. ▪ Volunteers: Eighty-seven healthy young adults with serum neutralizing antibody titers of ≤ 1:2 to the challenge virus; 79 were evaluable. ▪ Intervention: Thirty-nine participants received naproxen (loading dose, 400 mg or 500 mg followed by 200 mg or 500 mg three times daily for 5 days). Forty participants received placebo. Treatment was started 6 hours after viral challenge. ▪ Measurements: Daily measurement of viral titers, symptoms, nasal mucus production, and nasal tissue use; incidence of infection and illness; and measurement of homotypic serum neutralizing antibody responses. ▪ Results: Viral titers and serum homotypic antibody responses were similar in the naproxen and placebo groups. Significant reductions in headache, malaise, myalgia, and cough occurred in the naproxen group. A 29% reduction was noted in the total (5-day) symptom score in the naproxen group (95% Cl, 16% to 42%). ▪ Conclusion: Naproxen treatment did not alter virus shedding or serum neutralizing antibody responses in participants with experimental rhinovirus colds, but it had a beneficial effect on the symptoms of headache, malaise, myalgia, and cough. Prostaglandins may be among the inflammatory mediators that play a role in the pathogenesis of rhinovirus colds.
Article
Objectives. —To assess incidence and preventability of adverse drug events (ADEs) and potential ADEs. To analyze preventable events to develop prevention strategies.Design. —Prospective cohort study.Participants. —All 4031 adult admissions to a stratified random sample of 11 medical and surgical units in two tertiary care hospitals over a 6-month period. Units included two medical and three surgical intensive care units and four medical and two surgical general care units.Main Outcome Measures. —Adverse drug events and potential ADEs.Methods. —Incidents were detected by stimulated self-report by nurses and pharmacists and by daily review of all charts by nurse investigators. Incidents were subsequently classified by two independent reviewers as to whether they represented ADEs or potential ADEs and as to severity and preventability.Results. —Over 6 months, 247 ADEs and 194 potential ADEs were identified. Extrapolated event rates were 6.5 ADEs and 5.5 potential ADEs per 100 nonobstetrical admissions, for mean numbers per hospital per year of approximately 1900 ADEs and 1600 potential ADEs. Of all ADEs, 1% were fatal (none preventable), 12% life-threatening, 30% serious, and 57% significant. Twenty-eight percent were judged preventable. Of the life-threatening and serious ADEs, 42% were preventable, compared with 18% of significant ADEs. Errors resulting in preventable ADEs occurred most often at the stages of ordering (56%) and administration (34%); transcription (6%) and dispensing errors (4%) were less common. Errors were much more likely to be intercepted if the error occurred earlier in the process: 48% at the ordering stage vs 0% at the administration stage.Conclusion. —Adverse drug events were common and often preventable; serious ADEs were more likely to be preventable. Most resulted from errors at the ordering stage, but many also occurred at the administration stage. Prevention strategies should target both stages of the drug delivery process.(JAMA. 1995;274:29-34)
Article
Background Echinacea products are among the most popular phytomedicines on the North American market. Since at least half of all pregnancies are unplanned, many women inadvertently use echinacea in their first trimester. Presently, there is a paucity of information regarding the gestational safety of this herb. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of echinacea in pregnancy when used for upper respiratory tract ailments. Patients and Methods The study group consisted of women who were prospectively followed up after contacting the Motherisk Program regarding the gestational use of echinacea. This cohort was disease-matched to women exposed to nonteratogenic agents by maternal age, alcohol, and cigarette use. Rates of major and minor malformations between the groups were compared. Results A total of 206 women were enrolled in the study group after using echinacea products during pregnancy; 112 women used the herb in the first trimester. There were a total of 195 live births, including 3 sets of twins, 13 spontaneous abortions, and 1 therapeutic abortion. Six major malformations were reported, including 1 chromosomal abnormality, and 4 of these malformations occurred with echinacea exposure in the first trimester. In the control group, there were 206 women with 198 live births, 7 spontaneous abortions, and 1 therapeutic abortion. Seven major malformations were reported. There were no statistical differences between the study and control groups for any of the end points analyzed. Conclusions This first prospective study suggests that gestational use of echinacea during organogenesis is not associated with an increased risk for major malformations.
Article
HPLC methods are described for the determination of cichoric acid and alkamides (dodecatetraenoic acid isobutylamides) with an aim towards standardization of Echinacea purpurea preparations prepared from expressed juice. Analysis of commercial samples reveals the present quality status of a selection of these preparations. Regarding alkamides, the content ranges from 0.1 to 1.8 mg/ml. The content of cichoric acid varies more dramatically (0.0–0.4%) likely due to inconsistent inhibition of the enzymatic degradation of cichoric acid.
Article
The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of different doses and preparations of Echinacea purpurea in the treatment of common cold. 246 of 559 recruited healthy, adult volunteers caught a common cold and took 3 times daily 2 tablets of either Echinaforce® (Echinacea purpurea-preparation from 95% herba and 5% radix), Echinacea purpurea concentrate (same preparation at 7 times higher concentration), special Echinacea purpurea radix preparation (totally different from that of Echinaforce®) or placebo until they felt healthy again but not longer than 7 days. The primary endpoint was the relative reduction of the complaint index defined by 12 symptoms during common cold according to the doctor's record. Echinaforce® and its concentrated preparation were significantly more effective than the special Echinacea extract or placebo. All treatments were well tolerated. Among the Echinacea groups the frequency of adverse events was not significantly higher than in the placebo group. Therefore, Echinacea concentrate as well as Echinaforce® represent a low-risk and effective alternative to the standard symptomatic medicines in the acute treatment of common cold.
Article
Immunostimulants [1, 2] or immunopotentiators are drugs leading predominantly to a non-specific stimulation of immunological defence mechanisms. Most of them are not real antigens but antigenomimetics or so-called mitogens. Non-specific and non-antigen dependent stimulants do not affect immunological memory cells and, since their pharmacological efficacy fades comparatively quickly, they have to be administered either in intervals or continuously. Some immunostimulants may also stimulate T-suppressor cells and thereby reduce immune resistance, hence the term immunomodulation or immunoregulation, denoting any effect on, or change of, immune responsiveness is also very often used.
Article
Preparations containing extracts of the plant Echinacea (family Cornpositae) are widely used by patients and practitioners in some European countries for preventing and treating upper respiratory tract infections as well as more generally for “stimulating the body’s own defense mechanisms.” At present, about 1000 preparations are obtainable which contain extracts of Echinacea alone or in combination with other plant extracts [1]. In 1993 German physicians prescribed over 3 million daily doses of the five leading preparations with a cost of 50 million DM [2]. As these preparations are often sold over the counter the actual overall use is probably much more widespread. Despite this frequent use, there is considerable debate about the effectiveness of Echinacea extracts, and doubts have been raised about safety in the (relatively rare)case of parenteral application [3,4].
Article
Plant extracts have been used for their therapeutic properties for thousands of years. Many of the well known drugs still in widespread use today, such as morphine, digoxin or salicylic acid, were originally isolated from plants such as the poppy, the foxglove and the willow [1–3]. Yet plant extracts, as such, still have a place in therapy alongside synthetic chemical products. With increasing concern among both practising physicians and the lay public about the possible risks associated with drug treatment, there is an understandable desire to treat with traditionally well-tolerated drugs. Over-the-counter medicines are being used increasingly in the developed countries, particularly for children, and concern has been expressed as to whether parents are sufficiently well-informed about the benefits and risks of the products they keep at hand in the kitchen cupboard [4]. Many plant-derived products are regarded as well-tolerated by their proponents and ridiculed as inefficacious by their critics. In this controversial atmosphere, it is important to assess objectively the facts about individual therapeutic products.
Article
Echinacea phytopharmaceuticals represent the most popular group of herbal immunostimulants in Europe and in the USA [1, 2]. According to a recent report, Echinacea products have been the best selling herbal products in natural food stores in the USA in 1997 with 11.93% (1996: 9.6%) of herbal supplement sales [3]. Including homeopathic preparations, more than 800 Echinacea-containing drugs are currently on the market in Germany. Most of the preparations contain the expressed sap of Echinacea purpurea aerial parts, or hydroalcoholic tinctures of E. pallida or E. purpurea roots. They are mainly used for the treatment of colds and infections [4]. Clinical effects have been demonstrated for the expressed sap of the aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea in the adjuvant therapy of relapsing infections of the respiratory and urinary tracts, as well as for alcoholic tinctures of E. pallida and E. purpurea roots as adjuvants in the therapy of the common cold and flu [5, 6]. In the USA, it is mostly encapsulated powders from roots and aerial parts, but also tinctures from the roots and aerial parts that are used. Many investigations of the constituents of Echinacea have been undertaken. So far, compounds from the classes of caffeic acid derivatives, flavonoids, polyacetylenes, alkamides, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, polysaccharides and glycoproteins have been isolated [7]. For the main interest of finding the active component, but also for standardization purposes, the question on the chemical composition of Echinacea herbs and preparations is essential. Therefore, the present knowledge on the chemical constituents, analysis, and immunomodulatory effects of Echinacea preparations shall be reviewed.