Article

GUGULIPID a natural cholesterol-lowering agent

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
Annual Review of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 8.36). 02/2003; 23(1):303-13. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.nutr.23.011702.073102
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The resin of the Commiphora mukul tree has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for more than 2000 years to treat a variety of ailments. Studies in both animal models and humans have shown that this resin, termed gum guggul, can decrease elevated lipid levels. The stereoisomers E- and Z-guggulsterone have been identified as the active agents in this resin. Recent studies have shown that these compounds are antagonist ligands for the bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR), which is an important regulator of cholesterol homeostasis. It is likely that this effect accounts for the hypolipidemic activity of these phytosteroids.

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    • "It yields not less than 27 percent of alcohol-soluble matter and not less than 53 percent of water-soluble matter. The genuine samples of guggulu contain 1 percent of volatile oil [2] and between 1.0 and 1.5 percent of guggulsterones (í µí± and í µí°¸) [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Guggulu is an oleo-gum resin which exudes out as a result of injury from the bark of Commiphora wightii (Arnott) Bhandari [syn. Commiphora mukul (Hook. Ex Stocks) Engl; Balsamodendron mukul (Hook. Ex Stocks); Family, Burseraceae]. It has been used in the Ayurveda since time immemorial for the treatment of variety of disorders such as inflammation, gout, rheumatism, obesity, and disorders of lipids metabolism. It is a mixture of phytoconstituents like volatile oil which contains terpenoidal constituents such as monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, and triterpenoids; steroids; flavonoids; guggultetrols; lignans; sugars; and amino acids. This review is an effort to compile all the information available on all of its chemical constituents which are responsible for its therapeutic potential. The wild occurrence of this species is restricted mainly to the dry regions of Rajasthan and Gujarat States of India, and the bordering regions of Pakistan. Oleo-gum resin, guggulu, tapped from the stems of this species, is consumed in high volumes by the Indian herbal industries. There has been a decline in its wild population over the last several decades, as a result of habitat loss and degradation, coupled with unregulated harvesting and tapping of oleo-gum resin. This species is consequently assessed as Critically Endangered and enlisted in the IUCN red list of threatened species.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
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    • "Furthermore, the utility of these currently available anti-hyperlipidemia drugs are limited by their adverse effects, including liver and kidney dysfunctions, myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (Jain et al., 2007). However, traditional herbal remedies such as " Affinal Drug and Diet " functional nutrients have evolved from ancient healing system and enjoyed a remarkable resurrection, which may be due to their better biocompatibility with the human system (Urizar and Moore, 2003). Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) "
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    ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cyclocarya paliurus Batal., native only to China, is widely consumed as a Chinese traditional folk medicine for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia, obesity, and diabetes. The aim of the study is to investigate the cholesterol-lowering effect and potential mechanisms of different polar extracts from Cyclocarya paliurus leaves in mice fed with high-fat-diet. Materials and methods: Cyclocarya paliurus leaves extracts were orally administered to diet-induced hyperlipidemic mice for 4 weeks. Simvastatin was used as a positive control. Body weight, food intake, histopathology of liver and adipose tissues, hepatic and renal function indices, lipid profiles in the serum and liver were evaluated. Total bile acid concentrations of the liver and feces were also measured. Furthermore, the activities and mRNA expression of cholesterol metabolism-related enzymes including 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) in the livers of the mice were analyzed. LC-MS detection was performed to identify the components in the active fraction of Cyclocarya paliurus extracts. Results: Different Cyclocarya paliurus polar extracts, especially ChE reduced the levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and hepatic TC and TG, enhanced the level of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), restored hepatic and renal function indices and histomorphology. HMG-CoA reductase activity and mRNA expression were decreased, while CYP7A1 activity and mRNA expression as well as the level of fecal and hepatic bile acid were increased by ChE. LC-MS analysis of ChE revealed the presence of six main triterpenoids, which might be responsible for its antihyperlipidemic bioactivity. Conclusions: Evidently ChE possesses the best antihyperlipidemic activity, and the cholesterol-lowering effect is at least partly attributed to its role in promoting the conversion of cholesterol into bile acids by upgrading the activity and mRNA expression of CYP7A1 and inhibiting those of HMG-CoA reductase to lower the cholesterol biosynthesis.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of ethnopharmacology
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    • "It is a complex mixture of various classes of chemical compounds such as lignans, lipids, diterpenoids and steroids (Hanus et al., 2005) and has been used to treat a variety of ailments. The classical Ayurvedic literature claims guggul to be efficient in treating rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, neurological diseases, hemorrhoids, urinary disorders, skin diseases, allied disorders and other therapeutic uses (Urizar and Moore, 2003). Pharmacological studies on the guggul resin have revealed that they have significant anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, hypocholesterolemic properties and used in treating cardiovascular diseases and cancer (Deng, 2007; Kimura et al., 2001; Satyavati, 1991; Satyavati et al., 1969). "
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    ABSTRACT: Guggul gum resin from Commiphora wightii (syn. Commiphoramukul) has been used for centuries in Ayurveda to treat a variety of ailments. The NMR and GC–MS based non-targeted metabolite profiling identified 118 chemically diverse metabolites including amino acids, fatty acids, organic acids, phenolic acids, pregnane-derivatives, steroids, sterols, sugars, sugar alcohol, terpenoids, and tocopherol from aqueous and non-aqueous extracts of leaves, stem, roots, latex and fruits of C. wightii. Out of 118, 51 structurally diverse aqueous metabolites were characterized by NMR spectroscopy. For the first time quinic acid and myo-inositol were identified as the major metabolites in C. wightii. Very high concentration of quinic acid was found in fruits (553.5 ± 39.38 mg g−1 dry wt.) and leaves (212.9 ± 10.37 mg g−1 dry wt.). Similarly, high concentration of myo-inositol (168.8 ± 13.84 mg g−1 dry wt.) was observed from fruits. The other metabolites of cosmeceutical, medicinal, nutraceutical and industrial significance such as α-tocopherol, n-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), trans-farnesol, prostaglandin F2, protocatechuic, gallic and cinnamic acids were identified from non-aqueous extracts using GC–MS. These important metabolites have thus far not been reported from this plant. Isolation of a fungal endophyte, (Nigrospora sps.) from this plant is the first report. The fungal endophyte produced a substantial quantity of bostrycin and deoxybostrycin known for their antitumor properties. Very high concentrations of quinic acid and myo-inositol in leaves and fruits; a substantial quantity of α-tocopherol and NMP in leaves, trans-farnesol in fruits, bostrycin and deoxybostrycin from its endophyte makes the taxa distinct, since these metabolites with medicinal properties find immense applications as dietary supplements and nutraceuticals.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Phytochemistry
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