ArticleLiterature Review

Chronopathological forms of magnesium depletion with hypofunction or with hyperfunction of the biological clock

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Abstract

The main mechanisms of the chronopathological forms of magnesium depletion associate a low Mg intake with various dysregulating biorhythms. The differentiation between forms with hyperfunction and forms with hypofunction of the biological clock is seminal and the main marker is the production of melatonin (MT). The clinical forms of the various patterns of the chronopathological forms of Mg depletion may be central or peripheral. The clinical forms with hyperfunction of the biological clock (marker: increase in MT) may associate diverse expressions of nervous hypoexcitability: depression (i.e. Seasonal affective disease); cephalalgias nocturnal, without photophobia (i.e. cluster headaches); dyssomnia LASPS (advanced sleep phase syndrome) particularly]; asthenia and myalgias (i.e. fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome). The main comorbidity is found with depressive states. The therapy relies on classical bright light phototherapy, sometimes associated with psychoanaleptics. The clinical forms with hypofunction of biological clock (marker: decrease in MT) may associate various signs of nervous hyperexcitability (HEN): anxiety (from generalized anxiety to panic attacks); cephalalgias diurnal with photophobia (mainly migraine); dyssomnia [DSPS (delayed sleep phase syndrome) particularly, jet lag, night work disorders, age related insomnia, sometimes with inappropriate behaviour; photogenic epilepsia, generalized or focal; some clinical forms of chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia. The main comorbidity is between migraine and epilepsia. The treatment relies on the diverse forms of darkness therapy, possibly with the help of some psycholeptics: anxiolytics and anticonvulsants. The indications of chromatotherapy remain to be validated.

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... The majority of headaches are idiopathic in origin. A clinical approach show a continuum ranging from mild to moderate then severe headache, with clinical symptoms, pathophysiological mechanisms and therapies similar in tension type headache and migraine [2][3][4]. Migraine may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, confusion. Sensitivity to light with photophobia-a clinical marker, noise and strong smells is also frequently reported during and between the algic attacks [3,4]. ...
... Migraine may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, confusion. Sensitivity to light with photophobia-a clinical marker, noise and strong smells is also frequently reported during and between the algic attacks [3,4]. The concept of hyperexcitability of the brain has arisen in the 15 last years, involving low cerebral magnesium levels, mitochondrial abnormalities, increased NO (nitric oxide) and calcium channelopathy [5][6][7][8]. ...
... The concept of hyperexcitability of the brain has arisen in the 15 last years, involving low cerebral magnesium levels, mitochondrial abnormalities, increased NO (nitric oxide) and calcium channelopathy [5][6][7][8]. In this regard, we showed two decades ago that the magnesium status and the Biological Clock (BC) function were strongly correlated and interacted between them [2,4,9]. One must distinguish between two types of magnesium deficit: Deficiency (a simple insufficient intake) and depletion (corresponding to a dysregulation of the magnesium status, due to the association of a reduced magnesium intake with various types of stress including BC dysrhythmias). ...
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Mg depletion is a type of Mg deficit due to a dysregulation of the Mg status. It cannot be corrected through nutritional supplementation only, but requires the most specific correction of the dysregulating mechanism. Among those, Biological Clock (BC) dysrhythmias are to be considered. The aim of this study is to analyze the clinical forms of Mg depletion with hypofunction of the Biological Clock (hBC). hBC may be due to either Primary disorders of BC [Suprachiasmatic Nuclei (SCN) and pineal gland (PG)] or Secondary with homeostatic response [reactive Photophobia (Pphi] to light neurostimulating effects [Nervous Hyper Excitability (NHE)]. The symptomatology is mainly diurnal and observed during fair weather (Spring,Summer). The elective marker of hBC is represented by a decrease in melatonin and in its metabolites in various fluids. The clinical forms of NHE due to Mg depletion with hBC are central and peripheral. The central forms associate anxiety, headaches and dyssomnia. The peripheral manifestations are neuromuscular: photosensitive epilepsia mainly. Three chronopathological forms of Mg depletion with hBC have been highlighted: 1. Headaches with Pphi: mainly migraine; 2. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS); 3. Multiple Sclerosis (MS).- Headaches with Pphi, migraine particularly. These cephalalgias are diurnal with Pphi and are aggravated during the fair seasons (particularly during midnight sun-summer). Migraine is their typical form with its dishabituation to visual stimuli and its occipital cortex hyperexcitability. Comorbidity with anxiety is frequent. In 2/3 of the cases, it appears first.- SIDS might be linked to an impaired maturation of both photoendocrine system and brown adipose tissue. MS may be associated with primary disorders of BC Clinical forms of Mg depletion with hBC in MS present diurnal exacerbations and relapses during fair seasons. They have been underestimated because they disagree with the dogma of the < latitude gradient >, presently questioned. Comorbidities with anxiety and migraine are frequent.hBC may be treated by using darkness therapy with a balanced Mg status. Absolute light deprivation should only be used only in acute indications and is time-limited. Partial substitutive therapy and chromatotherapy have not been validated yet and are still uncertain.
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Применение препаратов магния в медицине имеет давнюю историю. По некоторым данным, первые попытки употребления человеком магний- и кальцийсодержащих минералов внутрь, предположительно в лечебных целях, могли иметь место ещё в доисторические времена. Также к доисторическим временам относятся первые попытки применения природных магниево-кальциевых щелочных материалов для повышения биодоступности алкалоидов некоторых психоактивных растений, таких, как бетель, табак и кока. Позднее рядом античных авторов, в частности, Гиппократом II, Клавдием Галеном и Сораном Эфесским, были описаны слабительный эффект морской соли и измельчённого доломита, а также положительное воздействие на психику питья, приёма ванн и ректального введения минеральных вод из источников, которые, как было установлено современными исследованиями, были очень богаты солями магния, лития и брома. Слабительный эффект минеральных вод из некоторых источников, богатых магния сульфатом, или выпаренных из них солей – например, «Седлицкой соли» и «соли из Эгры» был хорошо известен в Средние века. В соответствии с доминировавшей тогда теорией о том, что слабительный эффект равнозначен «очищению организма» и полезен для «восстановления баланса хуморов», эти соли широко применялись для лечения самых разных заболеваний. Позднее Парацельс обнаружил, что эти соли могут быть полезными вовсе не только как слабительное, но и как успокаивающее и средство от нервных тиков и мышечных подёргиваний. В 1707 г. Массимилиано Валентини впервые получил оксид магния, который сразу же стал применяться в качестве антацидного средства, мягкого слабительного и присыпки. А в 1926 г. Жаком Лероем была впервые доказана жизненная важность магния для организма животных. В данной статье мы подробно освещаем историю применения препаратов магния и исследований его биологической роли с древности до наших дней. Ключевые слова: магний, кальций, литий, бром, история медицины, тетания, эпилепсия, спазмофилия, гуморальная теория Для цитирования: Беккер Р.А., Быков Ю.В., Шкурат А.О., Воронина А.С. Препараты магния в психиатрии, наркологии, неврологии и общей медицине. Часть I. Историческая. Acta biomedica scientifica. 2019; 4(3): 63-80. doi: 10.29413/ABS.2019-4.3.9 The use of magnesium preparations in medicine has a long history. According to some sources, first attempts by humans to consume magnesium- and calcium-rich minerals orally, presumably for medicinal purposes, could have occurred even in prehistoric times. First attempts to use natural magnesium-calcium alkaline materials to increase the bioavailability of the alkaloids of some psychoactive plants, such as betel, tobacco, and coca, also date back to prehistoric times. Later, several ancient authors, in particular, Hippocrates II, Claudius Galen and Soran of Ephesus, have described the profound laxative effect of sea salt and of crushed dolomite, as well as a positive effect on the psyche of drinking mineral waters from sources that were found by modern scientists to be rich in magnesium, lithium and bromine. The laxative effect of mineral waters from some sources rich in magnesium, or of salts that were extracted from such sources was known in the Middle Ages. Later, Paracelsus discovered that these salts could be useful not only as a laxative, but also as a sedative. In 1707, Massimiliano Valentini first obtained magnesium oxide, which immediately found its use in medicine, as an antacid, as a mild laxative and skin powder. In 1926, Jacques Leroy was the first to prove the vital importance of magnesium for the physiology of animals. In this article, we thoroughly review the history of the medicinal use of magnesium preparations and the history of studies of biological role of magnesium, from antiquity to modern times. Keywords: magnesium, calcium, lithium, bromide, history of medicine, tetany, epilepsy, spasmophilia, humoral theory For citation: Bekker R.A., Bykov Yu.V., Shkurat A.O., Voronina A.S. Magnesium preparations in psychiatry, addiction medicine,neurology and general medicine (Part I. History). Acta biomedica scientifica. 2019; 4(3): 63-80. doi: 10.29413/ABS.2019-4.3.9
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