Occurrence of gestational diabetes mellitus and the value of different screening indicators for the oral glucose tolerance test
The objective of the present study was to determine prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in terms of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes mellitus (DM), and the value of traditional anamnestic risk factors for predicting outcome of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
A prospective population-based study in a defined geographic area in Sweden. All pregnant nondiabetic women (n = 4918) attending maternal health care from July 1994 to June 1996 were offered a 75g OGTT in gestational weeks 28-32. Traditional anamnestic risk factors, as well as results of the OGTT in terms of fasting-B-glucose and 2h-B-glucose, were registered.
3616 (73.5%) women agreed to perform the OGTT. Sixty-one (1.7%) of those had GDM [47 (1.3%) had impaired glucose tolerance and 14 (0.4%) had diabetes mellitus]. 15.8% fulfilled traditional risk factor criteria. Traditional anamnestic risk factors as an indicator to perform an OGTT identified 29/61 GDM women and 9/14 women with DM. Among primiparas, 4/21 with gestational diabetes mellitus were detected.
Using traditional risk factors as an indicator to perform an OGTT gives a low sensitivity to detect GDM and even DM especially among primiparas.
Available from: Karin Zetterström
Available from: Margareta Persson
Available from: Martha Kaufer-Horwitz
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ABSTRACT: A standard breakfast was evaluated as a screening test (BT) for gestational diabetes in a case-control study. The breakfast had a high carbohydrate content and was designed based on women's preferences in a similar sample. Women were selected with a standard 50 g, 1 hour glucose screening test (GT). Fifteen women had a positive GT and 15 had a negative test. A glucose tolerance test (GTT) and a standard breakfast (719 kcal) were performed to all women. Age, weight, height, tricipital and subscapular skinfold thicknesses were obtained by previously standardized personnel and glucose levels were determined by an automatic technique (oxidase glucose). Ten women had gestational diabetes. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the GT and several values of the BT, in order to identify the threshold and optimum time. Concordance of both screening tests with GTT was calculated through Kappa test. For the BT, a sensitivity of 0.90 and specificity of 1.00 with a glucose level > or = 140 mg/L (7.2 mmol/L) at 60 and 90 minutes were found. The 60 minutes timing were preferred due to a shorter waiting time to performed the test. Concordance of GTT with GT and BT was 0.53 and 0.92 respectively, both statistically significant. GT had high frequency of false negative values (6/15) that explain the low kappa value. Standard breakfast can be used as an alternative method for assessing carbohydrate tolerance in pregnancy with a better physiological response in these women.
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