The aim of the research described in the book was to check whether there are re�lationships between the parental mistakes that women who are bringing up pre�school children experienced in their families of origin (on the part of their mother
and their father) and any parental mistakes that they themselves make. It investi�gated how the experience of parental mistakes in families of origin and parental
mistakes made by mothers are related to traits of the mothers, such as: personality,
value system, satisfying needs, locus of control, mother’s parental goals and child’s
The study also examined whether mothers’ experiencing of parental difficul�ties (parental stress) is related to their inability to achieve their parental goals and
whether these difficulties determine their parental mistakes. It explored whether
women who experienced more child-rearing mistakes in childhood more strongly
experience difficulties in raising their own children, as a result of which they make
more child-rearing mistakes.
Ultimately, one of the most important research goals was to check whether one
can predict the level of parental mistakes made by mothers, given information
about parental goals, parental difficulties experienced and ways of dealing with
these difficulties (stress).
The study was conducted on a sample of 402 mothers with children aged three
to six years, i.e., preschoolers. There was an equal representation of mothers of girls
and boys in the sample. In the study sample, the largest group of mothers was be�tween 28 and 39 years old. The vast majority of mothers in the sample had a uni�versity degree.
In order to calculate the results and answer the questions posed in the work,
the method of structural equation modelling was used, which aimed to check the
correctness of the structural model, presenting the relationship between mothers
making parental mistakes, the inability of mothers to achieve their parental goals,
experiencing of parental difficulties and their stress response, namely, applying
pressure, withdrawing from the upbringing situation, seeking help or taking cog�nitive distance.
In order to answer the questions about the relationship between parental mis�takes experienced by mothers in childhood, their parental mistakes, their person�ality traits, needs, system of values, locus of control and parental goals and the
temperamental characteristics of their children, cluster analysis was used, which
calculate data mining algorithms. The text mining method was used to transform
qualitative data — such as words describing mothers’ parental goals — into nu�merical data. It was therefore used to prepare the database for analysis.
The results of this analysis confirmed the correctness of the structural model,
which assumed that the inability of mothers to achieve parental goals is related
to their experiencing parental difficulties (stress) as well as their use of non-adap�tive stress responses, such as applying pressure or withdrawing from the upbringing
situation. As a consequence of using non-adaptive reactions to stress, the mother
makes parental mistakes. The study revealed that among the mothers who experi�enced more parental mistakes in childhood, the structure discussed above is strong�ly interrelated. Among the mothers who experienced fewer parental mistakes, the
correlations between variables are weaker and some do not occur at all (the struc�ture breaks down). Given information about whether mothers can achieve their
parental goals, whether mothers experience parental difficulties and the nature
of their stress response, it is possible to predict the parental mistakes of aggression
and strictness as well as mothers’ self-accentuation and indulging the child. For
other parental mistakes, the prediction is moderate or weak.
The results also revealed that mothers who experienced fewer parental mistakes
in childhood also made fewer parental mistakes themselves, had more developed
“Plus” personality traits — particularly integrated personality traits — had needs
which were better met, had less of an external locus of control and demonstrated
certain values more strongly — especially values associated with kindness, reliability
and caring for others; these mothers also developed in their children the features
of an integrated personality and tried to prevent their children from developing
disharmonized personality traits. It was shown that the children of these mothers
were characterized by an easier temperamental type.
The mothers who experienced more parental mistakes in childhood also com�mitted more parental mistakes, had similar “Plus” and “Minus” personality traits
at a similar level — especially such values as power over resources and power over
people, but mostly had lower values — had lower needs and their children had
a much more difficult temperamental type than mothers who experienced fewer
Summing up, the research results allow us to conclude that certain parental
mistakes or a tendency to manifest parental mistakes is inherited. This may bedue to the fact that the mother, whether consciously or not, imitates the behavior
of her parents, and by modeling she learns how to be a parent. What’s more, the
findings regarding the stress response with parental mistakes revealed that the
group of mothers who experienced more parental mistakes is more prone to ex�periencing parental difficulties and stress. These mothers are less able to deal with
the difficulties they encounter in the upbringing process of their children and, as
a consequence, they make more parental mistakes