Article

# The Cytokine Markers in Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis of Bovine Mammary Gland

Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources, King Faisal University, PO Box 35252, Al-AHSAA, 31982 Saudi Arabia.
(Impact Factor: 1.57). 05/2003; 50(3):105-11. DOI: 10.1046/j.1439-0450.2003.00628.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

TaqMan real time PCR was used to study the transcriptional activity of the bovine IL-2, IL-6, IL-12p40, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor of whole milk cells in bovine mammary gland experimentally infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Cytokine transcriptional activity was monitored at 7, 24 and 32 h Post-infection (Pi). IL-12 and TNF-alpha levels were significantly elevated at 24 h Pi followed by sharp decrease at 32 h pi. IL-2 level was decreased at 32 h pi. IL-12 and IFN-gamma showed a significant interaction at 24 h pi. The significant elevations of the IL-12 and TNF-alpha transcriptional level most likely indicate their important role in regulation of the immune responses of bovine mammary gland in S. aureus infection. Depression of IL-2 could reflect the suppressive nature of the S. aureus mastitis.

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Available from: Christian Leutenegger, Aug 07, 2014
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• "However, all of these studies involve cattle of the Holstein breed. Based on these studies, the genes involved in the immune response have been indicated as likely candidates for understanding resistance and susceptibility to mastitis (Alluwaimi et al., 2003; Fonseca et al., 2009, 2011; Oviedo-Boyso et al., 2007). An ample analysis of the orchestrated interaction of cytokines and chemokines during mastitis caused by a specific pathogen can help to better understand the regulation of the immune response in the udder to this pathogen (Schukken et al., 2011). "
##### Article: Gene expression profile in zebu dairy cows (Bos taurus indicus) with mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae
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ABSTRACT: Mastitis is an inflammatory response in the mammary gland caused by an influx of somatic cells, composed mainly of neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes. The speed and efficacy of the host's immune response to the invasive pathogen affects the establishment, persistence and severity of the infection. To characterize the gene expression and response mechanism to infection by Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in zebu dairy cows of the Gyr breed, we carried out a transcriptome study of the cells present in the milk from 17 animals. Milk samples were collected before inoculation (hour 0) and 4, 9 and 24 h after inoculation of the bacteria into one of the quarters and at 0 and 24 h from one of the quarters not inoculated. The transcriptome analysis was done by the microarray and real-time PCR techniques. The microarray technique revealed the existence of 32 differentially expressed genes between inoculation and 4 h afterward. The validation of these results by real-time PCR was done for eight genes. Besides these eight genes, the expression of six others was evaluated by real-time PCR even though they did not present a significant difference by the microarray technique. Of the 14 genes analyzed by real-time PCR, all showed a significant difference in expression for at least one of the comparisons between times. This analysis indicated an increase in the expression of all the genes that presented a significant difference in relation to hour 0, with most of them presenting maximum expression 24 h after inoculation of the pathogen. Comparison of the gene expression between the inoculated and non-inoculated quarters showed greater expression in nine genes in the inoculated quarters. Analyses of gene networks revealed three modules with distinct characteristics 24 h after inoculation and showed that some mechanisms are altered in Gyr dairy cows after infection of the mammary gland by S. aga-lactiae. In this study it was possible to verify changes in the expression of at least 14 genes related to the immune response of zebuine animals against intramammary infection caused by S. agalactiae. These genes can play important roles in fighting intramammary infection and maintaining the tissue during infection.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Livestock Science
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• "Several workers have reported that IL-2 plays a significant role in cattle diseases like mastitis (Alluwaimi et al. 2003), Leishmaniasis and Trypanosoma cruzi infection (Diez et al. 1991), and trypanosomosis (Mansfield 1989). In recent years, IL-2 gene polymorphism and association studies related to these polymorphic loci have been reported. "
##### Article: Molecular Cloning, Characterization, Polymorphism, and Association Study of the Interleukin-2 Gene in Indian Crossbred Cattle

Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Biochemical Genetics
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• "Bannerman (2009), Griesbeck-Zilch et al. (2008), Riollet et al. (2000) IL-6 ↑ Griesbeck-Zilch et al. (2008), Hagiwara et al. (2001), Nakajima et al. (1997), Ohtsuka et al. (2001), Shuster et al. (1997) IL-8 ? (Bannerman 2009; Griesbeck-Zilch et al. 2008; Lee et al. 2006; Riollet et al. 2000; Tao and Mallard 2007) IL-10 ↑ Bannerman et al. (2004b) IL-12 ↑ Alluwaimi et al. (2003), Lee et al. (2006) TGF-α ↑ Bannerman et al. (2006), Sheffield (1997) TGF-β ↑ Bannerman et al. (2006) TNF-α protein – Bannerman et al. (2004a), Riollet et al. (2000) TNF-α RNA ↑ Bannerman et al. (2004a), Griesbeck-Zilch et al. (2008), Lutzow et al. (2008) LBP ↑ Bannerman et al. (2004a) C5a ↑ Bannerman et al. (2004a), Riollet et al. (2000) IL-15 ↑ Tao and Mallard (2007) IL-17 ↑ Tao and Mallard (2007) IL-18 ↑ Tao and Mallard (2007) S. uberis IFN-γ ↑ Bannerman (2009), Swanson et al. (2009) IL-1β ↑ Bannerman et al. (2004a), Rambeaud et al. (2003), Swanson et al. (2009) IL-6 ↑ Swanson et al. (2009) IL-8 ? Bannerman et al. (2004a), Rambeaud et al. (2003), Swanson et al. (2009) IL-10 ↑ Bannerman et al. (2004a), Swanson et al. (2009) IL-12 ↑ Bannerman et al. (2004a) TNF-α ↑ Bannerman et al. (2004a), Rambeaud et al. (2003), Swanson et al. (2009) C5a ↑ Bannerman et al. (2004a) Arrows indicate an increase (↑) or a decrease (↓); a question mark indicates that the relationship is suspected but not clearly demonstrated; a dash (–) indicates that no variation was observed milk with an SCC above 500,000 cells·mL −1 (Wedholm et al. 2008). "
##### Article: Mastitis Impact on Technological Properties of Milk and Quality of Milk Products—A Review
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ABSTRACT: The consequences of mastitis on the technological properties of milk and on the quality of milk products are widely reported in the literature. Besides, recent advances have shed light on the mechanisms involved in the udder response and subsequent milk changes in mastitis cases. This review gives an update on the literature regarding the impact of mastitis on milk composition and processing properties and collates recent data regarding the mechanisms involved in mastitis effects. It is an attempt to link field observations and experimental studies in order to better understand how mastites affect so dramatically the technological properties of milk. Both bovine and small ruminant milks are considered and a special emphasis is given on the role of staphylococci, streptococci, and Escherichia coli, the most common causative agents of mastitis. 摘要 关于乳房炎对乳的加工特性和乳制品质量影响的文献报道非常多。近年来关于此方面的研究重点在乳房炎对乳房的反应以及对影响乳成分变化的机制。本文对近年来乳房炎对乳组成和加工特性的影响及其影响机制方面的相关文献进行了对比和分析。目的是说明乳房炎的发生会对乳的加工特性产生巨大的作用。不但是对牛乳, 而且一些小反刍动物乳的加工特性都受乳房炎的影响。值得强调的一个现象是葡萄球菌、链球菌属和大肠杆菌是乳房炎发病最主要的原因。 KeywordsMastitis–Milk–Ruminant–Dairy product–Bacterial pathogen 关键词乳–反刍动物–乳制品–致病细菌
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Dairy Science and Technology