ArticlePDF Available

Ten Principles of Grammar Facilitation for Children With Specific Language Impairments

Article

Ten Principles of Grammar Facilitation for Children With Specific Language Impairments

Abstract

Although they often have significant difficulties in other areas, most children with specific language impairment (SLI) have special difficulties with the understanding and use of grammar. Therefore, most of these children will require an intervention program that targets comprehension or production of grammatical form. Language interventionists are faced with the difficult task of developing comprehensive intervention programs that address the children's grammatical deficits while remaining sensitive to their other existing and predictable social, behavioral, and academic problems. The purpose of this article is to present and justify 10 principles that we regard as essential for planning adequate interventions for children with language-learning problems. These principles are relevant for all children with problems in the use of grammar, but they are especially appropriate for 3- to 8-year-old children with SLI. Although all of our examples are from English, the principles we have chosen are sufficiently broad to cut across many linguistic and cultural boundaries.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Ten principles of grammar facilitation for children with specific language im...
Marc E Fey; Steven H Long; Lizbeth H Finestack
American Journal of Speech - Language Pathology; Feb 2003; 12, 1; ProQuest Psychology Journals
pg. 3
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
... For example, Long (1996) suggested that SLP students should know that subject phrases, verb phrases, personal pronouns, and determiners are subcomponents of syntax. Other clinical forum papers (e.g., Fey et al., 2003;Kamhi, 2014) highlight skills that SLPs should utilize in providing intervention. Notably, Fey et al. (2003) identified that SLPs should select an intermediate language target that is based on a broader language category. ...
... Other clinical forum papers (e.g., Fey et al., 2003;Kamhi, 2014) highlight skills that SLPs should utilize in providing intervention. Notably, Fey et al. (2003) identified that SLPs should select an intermediate language target that is based on a broader language category. Fey et al. (2003) explained that this principle ensures that SLPs are thinking about the child's linguistic system instead of focusing on a specific target. ...
... Notably, Fey et al. (2003) identified that SLPs should select an intermediate language target that is based on a broader language category. Fey et al. (2003) explained that this principle ensures that SLPs are thinking about the child's linguistic system instead of focusing on a specific target. By thinking about broader language categories, the SLP is using planning procedures that will help a child learn efficiently. ...
Article
Full-text available
Children with developmental language disorder (DLD) exhibit weaknesses in the syntactic aspects of language that affect their spoken language (i.e., speaking and listening) and written language (i.e., reading and writing). Speech-language pathologists (SLP) who work with children with DLD are the team member with the greatest expertise in syntax. However, emerging data suggest that speech-language pathology (SLP) students and SLPs have limitations in their explicit syntax knowledge that may affect how they assess and treat the language and literacy knowledge and skills of children with DLD. Additionally, there is a lack of data on the outcomes of professional development specific to syntax. This paper reports on the effects of self-paced, online learning modules on SLP graduate students’ explicit syntax knowledge. Thirty-six SLP graduate students completed online syntax learning modules that taught four pairs of syntactic structures. SLP graduate students experienced a treatment effect from two of the four online training modules. Treatment effects seemed to be influenced by the syntactic skill being treated, by prior knowledge of that particular syntactic structure, and by other environmental factors, including training program. Although future studies should explore these factors further, the outcomes of this pilot study are the first to report on a way to improve SLP graduate students’, and potentially SLPs’, explicit syntax knowledge.
... Importantly, the abstract study of grammatical categories and forms as a separate aspect of language should not occur in preschool and primary school. The main aim of all grammatical influences is to help the child become more comfortable in understanding and using syntax and morphology for conversation, narration, presentation and other textual genres in both written and oral modality (Fey, Long, & Finestack, 2003). The educator must always choose "intermediate goals" on the path of holistic language acquisition. ...
... Some scholars also advise using imitation, complete constructions, as well as the opposition of simple and more complex forms. These and other recommendations are included in the ten facilitative principles of teaching grammar to children (Fey, Long, & Finestack, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
The article presents a theoretical review of relevant sources on the topic in question and, consequently, formulates the basic principles, obstacles and guidelines for developing grammatically correct speech in preschoolers. The article contains the author’s linguodidactic model for developing grammatically correct speech in preschoolers, as well as pedagogical conditions for its implementation: ensuring the interrelation between the perspective trends in learning, speech activity and speech experience of children; developing preschoolers’ grammatical skills using the specially developed methodology; teaching preschoolers the rules of morphology and methods of word-formation in language lessons; applying different effective forms and methods of organizing learning and speech activity for preschoolers. The article proves that the consideration and implementation of these factors have contributed to developing the suggested linguodidactic model for developing grammatically correct speech in preschoolers. It has also allowed one to create and practically implement it within the framework of the quasi-experimental educational process. The article indicates certain noticeable shifts in children with high and sufficient levels in all parts of the language being analyzed. It indicates that mastering the methods of word-formation as a means of enriching vocabulary helps preschoolers to learn the rules of form change and word-formation. Besides, the article has proved the effectiveness of targeted development of grammatically correct speech in preschoolers. The article may be of interest to university teachers and theorists in teaching East Slavic languages as native (at the beginning of their study) or as foreign.
... Toutefois, leurs caractéristiquestelles que les auteurs les ont envisagées -restent généralement implicites. Afin de dégager les éventuels ingrédients actifs des interventions, nous avons décidé de répertorier des variables relatives aux procédures et processus d'apprentissage mis en jeu lors d'interventions cognitives [54][55][56][57] Certains termes employés par les auteurs sélectionnés et faisant référence à des méthodes qui regroupent parfois différentes techniques, ont été évités dans ce répertoire. À titre d'exemple, l'apprentissage sans erreur est défini comme « une méthode d'apprentissage de nouvelles connaissances dans un environnement absent d'erreurs » [58]. ...
Article
L’anomie est une des plaintes les plus courantes dans le cadre de la maladie d’Alzheimer (MA). De nombreuses études explorent des modèles de traitement et les thérapies dites lexico-sémantiques (TLS) seraient les plus probantes. Cette revue de la littérature offre une synthèse des effets de thérapies basées sur les théories lexico-sémantiques sur les performances communicationnelles et cognitives des patients présentant une MA au stade léger à modéré. Les ingrédients actifs employés dans ces études sont également relevés. La sélection a porté sur dix études d’intervention dont la moitié proposait une intervention langagière avec une composante lexico-sémantique et l’autre moitié proposait une intervention globale avec une composante lexico-sémantique. Les résultats globaux ont montré que les effets immédiats des TLS sont significatifs sur les performances langagières pour les interventions langagières spécifiques et plus faibles pour les interventions dites globales. Pour les deux tiers des études évaluant les performances cognitives indépendamment de celles du langage, les effets des TLS sont encourageants pour traiter l’anomie des patients présentant une MA au stade léger à modéré. Toutefois, il est crucial pour les recherches futures de recourir à des méthodologies plus claires ainsi qu’à des définitions opérationnelles des principes actifs utilisés afin d’assurer la réplication de ces données pour la recherche et leur transfert vers la pratique clinique.
Chapter
Full-text available
Resumen: El objetivo del estudio es caracterizar los elementos de una intervención pedagógica bajo los principios del DUA para el desarrollo de las habilidades psicolingüísticas en niños con TDL. El diseño de investigación corresponde al estudio de casos; la muestra, a profesoras de Educación Diferencial y psicopedagogas de la Región de Los Lagos-Chile; y el instrumento de recogida de datos es la entrevista semiestructurada. Los principales resultados reflejan la apropiación incipiente de prácticas de cooperación y pseudo-colaboración, y un bajo uso de estrategias de estimulación de las habilidades psicolingüísticas. Las conclusiones reflejan la necesidad de fortalecer los conocimientos teóricos y prácticos sobre las habilidades psicolingüísticas del alumnado, y sobre las dinámicas de intervención y colaboración profesional.
Article
Purpose: Syntax assessment and treatment is a major focus of speech-language pathologists who work with young children with language needs. The Index of Productive Syntax (IPSyn) provides an efficient method for the assessment of syntax of preschool-age children. The purpose of this tutorial is to illustrate how to hand-score an IPSyn from language sample transcripts and use this information to formulate appropriate syntactic goals. Method: We describe general methods and tips for facilitating hand-scoring. Two case study transcripts of a late talker at 36 and 48 months are provided. One case study transcript is fully scored in IPSyn with detailed explanations; the second case study is provided as a practice example with an IPSyn answer key. Relevant sample probes are provided to assist in the goal of obtaining a representative set of language structures. Results: We show how the IPSyn can be scored, subscale by subscale, and can highlight developmental stages of syntax following Brown's stages of grammatical development. We illustrate how the visual snapshot developmental nature of the instrument makes it ideal for deriving goals. Conclusion: The IPSyn is a practical and valuable tool for the assessment of syntax of preschool-age children.
Article
Conversational repair has been found to play a fundamental role in the acquisition of language. This paper describes existing research on conversational repair and its relationship to language learning, whether a first language or a second language, as well as its relevance to augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). A case is made for incorporating prompts to repair in conversation-based language interventions with children learning to use AAC. We argue that interventions targeting linguistic complexity should encourage self-repair in conversation in order to develop linguistic and operational competency as well as increase automaticity when using AAC. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
This article discusses early language predictors of later reading skills and considerations for screening and ways to foster development of preschoolers' language. You can access the full Summer 2020 Perspectives on Language and Literacy issue here: https://mydigitalpublication.com/publication/?i=671218
Chapter
Sprachliche Auffälligkeiten bei Kindern stellen sowohl für gelingende Bildung wie auch für die gesunde Entwicklung ein Risiko dar. Damit werden sie auf der einen Seite zum Gegenstand von Förderkonzepten des pädagogischen Systems und auf der anderen Seite zu Symptomen im klinischen Sinne, für die Therapieansätze zur Verfügung stehen. In diesem Kapitel beschreiben wir Formen der Sprachtherapie bei Kindern, wie sie als ärztlich verordnetes Heilmittel bei diagnostizierten Sprachentwicklungsstörungen (SES) zum Einsatz kommen. Einleitend erfolgt dazu die Gegenüberstellung der beiden Interventionsformen „Förderung“ und „Therapie“. Es soll – insbesondere am Beispiel sprachsystematischer Störungen im Kindesalter – nachvollziehbar werden, wann Therapie angezeigt ist, welche Ziele sie verfolgt, auf welcher Methodik sie beruht und was über ihre Wirksamkeit bekannt ist. Dabei gehen wir auf Therapieformen ein, die sich überwiegend auf die individuelle Arbeit zwischen Therapeut/-in und Kind ausrichten, und erläutern, welche unterschiedlichen Rollen die Eltern dabei einnehmen können. Auch Therapiemöglichkeiten und Besonderheiten der Therapie bei sprachentwicklungsgestörten Kindern mit mehrsprachigem Hintergrund werden angesprochen.
Chapter
Se explica, desde un caso simulado, cómo evaluar e intervenir en un niño con un trastorno del desarrollo del lenguaje
Article
Use of a trochaic template (S-w) stress pattern in early words and phrases has been documented in both normal and disordered populations. The purpose of this multiple baseline study was to determine the effectiveness of a prosodic intervention focusing on w-S stress patterns in phonological phrases and prosodic words, and its generalization to w-S patterns in untrained multi-syllabic words and phrases. Two children with speech and language impairments participated in a three-phase experimental treatment that focused on the article ‘the’ in phrases. Generalization probes designed to examine all phases of the therapy sequence and untrained stimuli were administered throughout therapy. Results indicate that the intervention procedures facilitated change in both children’s productions of w-S stress patterns in untrained multisyllabic words, although less so in untrained phrases.
Book
1. Linguistic Theory and Syntactic Development.- 1. Introduction.- 2. A Parameterized Theory of UG.- 3. An Overview.- 3.1 A Note on Methodology.- 4. The Theory of Grammar.- Notes.- 2. The Null Subject Phenomenon.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Structure of INFL.- 2.1 Rule R.- 3. Null Subjects and the Identity of AG.- 3.1 The Properties of PRO.- 3.1.1 Control of AG/PRO.- 3.1.2 Arbitrary Reference of AG/PRO.- 3.1.3 The Auxiliary Systems of Italian and English.- 4. Summary.- Notes.- 3. The AG/PRO Parameter in Early Grammars.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Null Subjects in Early Language.- 2.1 The Avoid Pronoun Principle.- 3. The Early Grammar of English (G1).- 3.1 The Auxiliaries in Early English.- 3.2 The Filtering Effect of Child Grammars.- 3.2.1 The Semi-Auxiliaries.- 3.2.2 Can't and Don't.- 3.3 G1 and the Syntax of Be.- 4. The Restructuring of G1.- 4.1 The Triggering Data.- 4.2 The Avoid Pronoun Principle in Child Language.- 5. Summary.- Notes.- 4. Some Comparative Data.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Early Grammars of English and Italian: A Comparison.- 2.1 Postverbal Subjects.- 2.2 Modals in Early Italian.- 2.3 Italian Be.- 3. Early German.- Notes.- 5. Discontinuous Models of Linguistic Development.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Semantically-Based Child Grammars.- 3. Semantically-Based Grammars: Some Empirical Inadequacies.- 3.1 Evidence from Polish and Hebrew.- Notes.- 6. Further Issues in Acquisition Theory.- 1. Summary.- 2. The Initial State.- 2.1 The Subset Principle.- 2.2 The Theory of Markedness.- 2.3 The Isomorphism Principle.- 3. Instantaneous vs. Non-Instantaneous Acquisition 168 Notes.- Index of Names.- Index of Subjects.
Chapter
Pragmatic approaches have dominated research efforts in child language disorder for approximately 10 years. These approaches are concerned with language use in context and focus on both linguistic and conversational rules. This chapter offers a synthesis of accumulating pragmatic information as it relates to children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and proposes a theoretical model that depicts the various levels of language production that accordingly seem intact or potentially problematic for these children.
Article
The present study aimed to investigate the nature and frequency of parental recasts (both mothers and fathers) to children with SLI as compared to normal language learning children of the same language stage including their younger siblings. The comparisons were made within the framework of discourse function to include behaviors related to conversational contingency and conversational breakdown. Results showed that children with SLI at the early stages of development experience a simple recast gap in their linguistic input. Qualitative differences in the context in which recasts occurred were also noted. Furthermore, some differences between mothers and fathers were found. These findings are discussed in light of previous research with particular reference to the Rare Event Theory and the Bridge Hypothesis.