Article

Traits of Persons Who Drink Decaffeinated Coffee

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Abstract

Little is known about the traits of decaffeinated coffee drinkers, who are sometimes used to ascertain whether the health effects of coffee intake are due to caffeine or some other coffee ingredient. We studied these traits in 12,467 persons who reported type of coffee consumed at health examinations; 36% drank caffeinated only, 13% drank decaffeinated only, 27% drank both types and 24% drank no coffee. Odds ratios estimated from logistic regression analyses revealed that compared with regular (caffeinated) coffee drinkers or abstainers, decaffeinated coffee drinkers were less likely to be heavy coffee drinkers, smokers, alcohol drinkers, users of caffeinated soft drinks and medication and to be free of illness. Increased decaffeinated coffee drinking was associated with older age, female sex, African American ethnicity, use of special diets and cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, or neuropsychiatric symptoms. Persons on special diets were more likely to drink decaffeinated coffee whether they had heart disease or were free of any illness. These data suggest that decaffeinated coffee use is related to illness in some persons but to a healthy lifestyle in others. These potential and possibly conflicting confounding factors need to be considered when studying the health effects of coffee or caffeine.

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... The recent availability of good-quality decaffeinated coffee makes it a choice for coffee drinkers. A profile of decaffeinated coffee drinkers by Shlonsky et al. [13] revealed that decaffeinated coffee is generally consumed by people with health disorders or those in search of a healthier lifestyle; this population is characterized by a low rate of smoking, low alcohol consumption, and high consumption of health supplements. This health awareness appears to be responsible for the growth and expansion of the decaffeinated coffee market. ...
... Caffeine stimulates the central nervous system as an adenosine-receptor antagonist. Although caffeine is the most widely consumed and studied psychoactive substance in history, its effects on health are controversial [13]. While caffeine intake has been associated with high blood cholesterol, coronary diseases, and cancer, other studies suggest that its consumption may lower the incidence of suicide and hepatic cirrhosis [18]. ...
... Other amino acids (e.g., aspartic acid, threonine, and ␣-alanine) produce only acetaldehyde and thus need sugars as a source of glycolaldehyde to generate furan. Monosaccharides are also known to undergo degradation to produce both acetaldehyde and glycolaldehyde; however, 13 C-labeling studies have revealed that degradation of hexoses primarily results in aldotetrose derivatives to produce the parent furan. In addition, 4-hydroxy-2-butenal, a decomposition product of lipid peroxidation, was proposed as a precursor of furan originating from polyunsaturated fatty acids [195]. ...
Chapter
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Coffee is the most consumed beverage in the world. This chapter presents the main coffee species in the world market, the production of coffee and coffee-based beverages as well as their chemical composition. The chapter also explores the health benefits and quality of coffee, looking at it as both functional and speciality beverage.
... The recent availability of good-quality decaffeinated coffee makes it a choice for coffee drinkers. A profile of decaffeinated coffee drinkers by Shlonsky et al. [13] revealed that decaffeinated coffee is generally consumed by people with health disorders or those in search of a healthier lifestyle; this population is characterized by a low rate of smoking, low alcohol consumption, and high consumption of health supplements. This health awareness appears to be responsible for the growth and expansion of the decaffeinated coffee market. ...
... Caffeine stimulates the central nervous system as an adenosine-receptor antagonist. Although caffeine is the most widely consumed and studied psychoactive substance in history, its effects on health are controversial [13]. While caffeine intake has been associated with high blood cholesterol, coronary diseases, and cancer, other studies suggest that its consumption may lower the incidence of suicide and hepatic cirrhosis [18]. ...
... Other amino acids (e.g., aspartic acid, threonine, and ␣-alanine) produce only acetaldehyde and thus need sugars as a source of glycolaldehyde to generate furan. Monosaccharides are also known to undergo degradation to produce both acetaldehyde and glycolaldehyde; however, 13 C-labeling studies have revealed that degradation of hexoses primarily results in aldotetrose derivatives to produce the parent furan. In addition, 4-hydroxy-2-butenal, a decomposition product of lipid peroxidation, was proposed as a precursor of furan originating from polyunsaturated fatty acids [195]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Introduction Production of coffee and coffee-based beverages Natural coffee constituents Incidental coffee constituents Concluding remarks Acknowledgments References
... Young avoiders of caffeine-containing beverages are more likely to believe that caffeine had various negative effects on health (Page, 1987). Similarly, people with health problems have been reported to avoid caffeine (Shlonsky et al., 2003). Lower intake of caffeine (and other psychoactive substances – alcohol and nicotine) could represent a health choice, despite the potential benefits of caffeinated drink consumption. ...
... Caffeinated drink consumption or non-consumption The age profile for the drink groups was found to differ. De-caffeinated drink consumers were more likely to be over 30 and taking prescribed medication while the no tea/coffee group were more likely to be under 30 and not taking prescribed medication, consistent with previous research (Shlonsky et al., 2003). Some findings suggest a possible link between drinking decaffeinated drinks and other pro health behaviours. ...
... Some findings suggest a possible link between drinking decaffeinated drinks and other pro health behaviours. This too was consistent with previous research (Shlonsky et al., 2003). ...
Article
Purpose – The aim of this paper is to determine lifestyle factors associated with different drink choices as past research has suggested some differences. Design/methodology/approach – Caffeinated tea and coffee consuming habits in a South Wales sample were investigated by postal questionnaire. Multiple regression was used to determine odds ratios for demographic, health and lifestyle factors associated with drink patterns. There were 7,979 questionnaire respondents, 58 per cent of whom were female. Their mean age was 45.61 years (SD =18.00, range =16-97). Findings – Caffeinated tea/coffee consumption was associated with both alcohol and smoking behaviours. The results also suggested that non-consumers of caffeinated tea or coffee were not a homogeneous group, as different demographic and lifestyle profiles were identified for: those that did not drink tea or coffee at all; and those that drank only decaffeinated tea or coffee. Research limitations/implications – Future caffeine research may need to consider whether a broad distinction based on caffeine consumption or non-consumption alone is always appropriate. Originality/value – The findings suggest some differences within the caffeinated drink consuming population, including demographic profiles relating to whether consumers drank tea or coffee. They add to the data already available in comparing not only caffeine versus no caffeine, but also characteristics associated with different caffeinated drinks.
... Taken together, these findings seem to suggest that decaffeinated coffee intake is not associated with postmenopausal breast cancer. The apparent decrease in risk among nonconsumers of decaffeinated coffee maybe explained by findings of previous studies, which have suggested that decaffeinated coffee consumers may be unique in terms of lifestyle or medical history [37,38]. Decaffeinated coffee intake is related to illness in some persons but to a healthy lifestyle in others [37]. ...
... The apparent decrease in risk among nonconsumers of decaffeinated coffee maybe explained by findings of previous studies, which have suggested that decaffeinated coffee consumers may be unique in terms of lifestyle or medical history [37,38]. Decaffeinated coffee intake is related to illness in some persons but to a healthy lifestyle in others [37]. This is corroborated in the current study, where consumption of decaffeinated coffee was associated with a healthier lifestyle compared to non-consumption. ...
Article
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Introduction: Specific coffee subtypes and tea may impact risk of pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer differently. We investigated the association between coffee (total, caffeinated, decaffeinated) and tea intake and risk of breast cancer. Methods: A total of 335,060 women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC) Study, completed a dietary questionnaire from 1992 to 2000, and were followed-up until 2010 for incidence of breast cancer. Hazard ratios (HR) of breast cancer by country-specific, as well as cohort-wide categories of beverage intake were estimated. Results: During an average follow-up of 11 years, 1064 premenopausal, and 9134 postmenopausal breast cancers were diagnosed. Caffeinated coffee intake was associated with lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: adjusted HR=0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82 to 0.98, for high versus low consumption; Ptrend=0.029. While there was no significant effect modification by hormone receptor status (P=0.711), linear trend for lower risk of breast cancer with increasing caffeinated coffee intake was clearest for estrogen and progesterone receptor negative (ER-PR-), postmenopausal breast cancer (P=0.008). For every 100 ml increase in caffeinated coffee intake, the risk of ER-PR- breast cancer was lower by 4% (adjusted HR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93 to 1.00). Non-consumers of decaffeinated coffee had lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer (adjusted HR=0.89; 95% CI: 0.80 to 0.99) compared to low consumers, without evidence of dose-response relationship (Ptrend=0.128). Exclusive decaffeinated coffee consumption was not related to postmenopausal breast cancer risk, compared to any decaffeinated-low caffeinated intake (adjusted HR=0.97; 95% CI: 0.82 to 1.14), or to no intake of any coffee (HR: 0.96; 95%: 0.82 to 1.14). Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee were not associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Tea intake was neither associated with pre- nor post-menopausal breast cancer. Conclusions: Higher caffeinated coffee intake may be associated with lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Decaffeinated coffee intake does not seem to be associated with breast cancer.
... One approach taken to distinguish between the effects of caffeine and other substances in coffee has been to compare the risk among caffeinated coffee consumers with that of decaf-feinated consumers. Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumers appear to differ in more ways than just coffee preference, however [32]. For example, decaffeinated coffee consumers are less likely to be heavy coffee drinkers, smokers, alcohol drinkers, users of caffeinated soft drinks, or to take medication and be free of illness but are more likely to be older, female, users of special diets, and to have cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, or neuropsychiatric symptoms [32]. ...
... Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumers appear to differ in more ways than just coffee preference, however [32]. For example, decaffeinated coffee consumers are less likely to be heavy coffee drinkers, smokers, alcohol drinkers, users of caffeinated soft drinks, or to take medication and be free of illness but are more likely to be older, female, users of special diets, and to have cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, or neuropsychiatric symptoms [32]. In addition, most epidemiologic studies do not distinguish between former users of caffeinated coffee who may have switched to decaffeinated coffee because of a health problem and never-users who may be avoiding caffeine as part of a healthy lifestyle. ...
Article
This review summarizes and highlights recent advances in current knowledge of the relationship between coffee and caffeine consumption and risk of coronary heart disease. Potential mechanisms and genetic modifiers of this relationship are also discussed. Studies examining the association between coffee consumption and coronary heart disease have been inconclusive. Coffee is a complex mixture of compounds that may have either beneficial or harmful effects on the cardiovascular system. Randomized controlled trials have confirmed the cholesterol-raising effect of diterpenes present in boiled coffee, which may contribute to the risk of coronary heart disease associated with unfiltered coffee consumption. A recent study examining the relationship between coffee and risk of myocardial infarction incorporated a genetic polymorphism associated with a slower rate of caffeine metabolism and provides strong evidence that caffeine also affects risk of coronary heart disease. Several studies have reported a protective effect of moderate coffee consumption, which suggests that coffee contains other compounds that may be beneficial. Diterpenes present in unfiltered coffee and caffeine each appear to increase risk of coronary heart disease. A lower risk of coronary heart disease among moderate coffee drinkers might be due to antioxidants found in coffee.
... Considerable detail about distributions and traits of persons in this population reporting caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee has been published. 14 Tea drinking was unrelated to arrhythmia risk. On average, tea contains less caffeine than coffee, [14][15][16] and tea drinkers in this population consume fewer cups per day than coffee drinkers do. ...
... 14 Tea drinking was unrelated to arrhythmia risk. On average, tea contains less caffeine than coffee, [14][15][16] and tea drinkers in this population consume fewer cups per day than coffee drinkers do. Thus, the absence of a relation to tea does not rule out a role for caffeine. ...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Population study data about relations of coffee drinking to arrhythmia are sparse. Objective: To study relations of coffee drinking to risk of cardiac arrhythmia in 130,054 persons with previous data about coffee habits.Design and Outcome Measure: We used Cox proportional hazards models with 8 covariates to study coffee-related risk in 3137 persons hospitalized for cardiac arrhythmia. We conducted a similar analysis of total caffeine-related risk in a subgroup with data about other caffeine intake (11,679 study participants; 198 hospitalized). Results: With non-coffee-drinkers as the referent, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for any arrhythmia at the level of <1 cup of coffee per day was 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.9-1.1; p = 0.7); for 1-3 cups/day, it was 0.9 (CI, 0.8-1.0; p = 0.2), and for ≥4 cups/day, it was 0.8 (CI, 0.7-0.9; p = 0.002). With coffee intake as a continuous variable, the HR per cup per day was 0.97 (CI, 0.95-0.99; p = 0.001). RESULTS were similar for several strata, including persons with history or symptoms of possible cardiore-spiratory disease and those without such history or symptoms. Coffee had similar relations to atrial fibrillation (48% of participants with arrhythmia) and most other specific arrhythmia diagnoses. Controlled for number of cups of coffee per day, total caffeine intake was inversely related to risk (HR highest quartile vs lowest = 0.6; p = 0.03). Conclusion: The inverse relations of coffee and caffeine intake to hospitalization for arrhythmias make it unlikely that moderate caffeine intake increases arrhythmia risk.
... It could reflect a strategy to enforce a supposedly healthier lifestyle. Shlonsky and co-workers (Shlonsky et al 2003) found that aTable 6. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence interval (CI) for being in the upper as compared with the lower tertile of a subjective health characteristic if coffee consumption is one cup/day higher, respectively, if reported sensitivity to coffee is one point higher (cross-sectional analyses)Table 7. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval (CI) for being in the upper as compared with the lower tertile of the 3.7-year change of a subjective health characteristic if the change in coffee consumption is one cup/day, respectively, if the change in reported sensitivity to coffee is one point higher ( large proportion of decaffeinated coffee drinkers not only avoided caffeinated coffee but also other vehicles containing caffeine and rigidly adhered to special diets, vitamin pills and rigorous exercise. ...
... The choice of decaffeinated coffee could be seen as a marker of fear for illness and for running a low risk on ill health. (Shlonsky et al 2003) compared 4 groups: 4,400 regular caffeinated coffee users, 1,545 only decaffeinated coffee drinkers, 3,307 subjects who consumed both coffee types and 2,837 non-users on medical history, current symptoms and special diets. A composite of cardiovascular ailments resulted in a decaffeinated-caffeinated OR of 1.5 (95% CI 1.3–1.7, ...
Article
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The question was whether health complaints are associated with coffee consumption and self reported sensitivity to coffee. Participants were 89 men and 107 women, all coffee drinkers. Questionnaires were used at 2 points of time with an interval of 3.7 years. The correlations among coffee consumption, sensitivity and health complaints were signifi-cant but were of low importance to health. Coffee consumption was significantly related to intestinal complaints (r=0.15) and sensitivity to coffee with sleep-wake complaints (r=0.30). An increase in sensitivity to coffee over almost 4 years went along with less health complaints. The interaction of coffee intake and sensitivity to coffee had no influence on subjective health. Since subjective sensitivity data were used, validation of the findings should be done with objectively measured sensitivity and caffeine levels. The main conclusion is that self-reported coffee intake is not related to subjective health, but claimed sensitivity is.
... Os autores ainda complementam que altas doses podem causar efeitos adversos significantes pelo conteúdo de cafeína, especificamente palpitações, dor de cabeça e vertigem. Segundo Shlonsky et al. 44 , a cafeína pode gerar efeitos como insônia e compli-cações gastrointestinais. Apesar de não existirem evidências de que a ingestão de cafeína em doses moderadas (~300mg/dia) seja prejudicial à saúde de um indivíduo normal, esta substância vem sendo continuamente estudada, pois persistem muitas dúvidas e controvérsias quanto aos seus efeitos adversos à saúde 43,44 . ...
... Segundo Shlonsky et al. 44 , a cafeína pode gerar efeitos como insônia e compli-cações gastrointestinais. Apesar de não existirem evidências de que a ingestão de cafeína em doses moderadas (~300mg/dia) seja prejudicial à saúde de um indivíduo normal, esta substância vem sendo continuamente estudada, pois persistem muitas dúvidas e controvérsias quanto aos seus efeitos adversos à saúde 43,44 . Alguns estudos recomendam que sua ingestão diária seja em doses moderadas (até 300mg/dia) 45 . ...
Article
Full-text available
The use of tea is widespread, second only to water in worldwide consumption. Green tea is rich in polyphenols, mainly catechins. Among a variety of beneficial health effects attributed to the consumption of the green tea, much attention has been given to its ability to reduce body fat. This study has the objective of presenting a description of the studies of green tea and/or its bioactive compounds related to cell biology and of experimental and epidemiological studies associated with lipid metabolism and the reduction of body fat. Epigallocatechin gallate is the main bioactive compound present in green tea and its anti-obesity effects are being investigated. Such effects are associated with several biochemical and physiological mechanisms and among them the following stands out: stimulation of lipid metabolism by combining catechin intake with regular physical activity. In spite of the promising effect of green tea and its bioactive compounds on the treatment of obesity, there is a need for controlled clinical trials. Finally, a proper diet associated with regular physical activity is the key to prevent obesity and its comorbidities.
... One approach taken to distinguish between the effects of caffeine and other substances in coffee has been to compare the risk among caffeinated coffee consumers with that of decaf-feinated consumers. Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumers appear to differ in more ways than just coffee preference, however [32]. For example, decaffeinated coffee consumers are less likely to be heavy coffee drinkers, smokers, alcohol drinkers, users of caffeinated soft drinks, or to take medication and be free of illness but are more likely to be older, female, users of special diets, and to have cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, or neuropsychiatric symptoms [32]. ...
... Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumers appear to differ in more ways than just coffee preference, however [32]. For example, decaffeinated coffee consumers are less likely to be heavy coffee drinkers, smokers, alcohol drinkers, users of caffeinated soft drinks, or to take medication and be free of illness but are more likely to be older, female, users of special diets, and to have cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, or neuropsychiatric symptoms [32]. In addition, most epidemiologic studies do not distinguish between former users of caffeinated coffee who may have switched to decaffeinated coffee because of a health problem and never-users who may be avoiding caffeine as part of a healthy lifestyle. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of review This review summarizes and highlights recent advances in current knowledge of the relationship between coffee and caffeine consumption and risk of coronary heart disease. Potential mechanisms and genetic modifiers of this relationship are also discussed. Recent findings Studies examining the association between coffee consumption and coronary heart disease have been inconclusive. Coffee is a complex mixture of compounds that may have either beneficial or harmful effects on the cardiovascular system. Randomized controlled trials have confirmed the cholesterol-raising effect of diterpenes present in boiled coffee, which may contribute to the risk of coronary heart disease associated with unfiltered coffee consumption. A recent study examining the relationship between coffee and risk of myocardial infarction incorporated a genetic polymorphism associated with a slower rate of caffeine metabolism and provides strong evidence that caffeine also affects risk of coronary heart disease. Several studies have reported a protective effect of moderate coffee consumption, which suggests that coffee contains other compounds that may be beneficial. Summary Diterpenes present in unfiltered coffee and caffeine each appear to increase risk of coronary heart disease. A lower risk of coronary heart disease among moderate coffee drinkers might be due to antioxidants found in coffee.
... Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is an alkaloid generally responsible for ∼0.9-2.5% of coffee dry matter composition (1,2). Even though caffeine has been widely consumed and studied for centuries, research results are inconclusive about both adverse and beneficial relations of caffeine to several health outcomes (3). Low to moderate caffeine intake is generally associated with improvements in alertness, learning capacity, exercise performance, and perhaps mood (4,5). ...
... This in part accounts for discrepancies in results reported by epidemiological studies (Stavric et al. 1988). Kubo Shlonsky et al. (2003) demonstrated conflicting results and confounding factors associated with coffee-drinking. In a study of 12 467 adults, decaffeinated coffee was associated with illness in some but a healthy lifestyle in others. ...
Article
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Definitions of functional food vary but are essentially based on foods' ability to enhance the quality of life, or physical and mental performance, of regular consumers. The worldwide use of coffee for social engagement, leisure, enhancement of work performance and well-being is widely recognised. Depending on the quantities consumed, it can affect the intake of some minerals (K, Mg, Mn, Cr), niacin and antioxidant substances. Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown positive effects of regular coffee-drinking on various aspects of health, such as psychoactive responses (alertness, mood change), neurological (infant hyperactivity, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases) and metabolic disorders (diabetes, gallstones, liver cirrhosis), and gonad and liver function. Despite this, most reviews do not mention coffee as fulfilling the criteria for a functional food. Unlike other functional foods that act on a defined population with a special effect, the wide use of coffee-drinking impacts a broad demographic (from children to the elderly), with a wide spectrum of health benefits. The present paper discusses coffee-drinking and health benefits that support the concept of coffee as a functional food.
... The consumption of coffee in our country is high, and the range of exposure to caffeine was wide in our study. Moreover, persons who drink decaffeinated coffee may differ from those who drink ordinary coffee (31). The consumption of decaffeinated coffee in Denmark, however, is negligible: in the year 1997, consumption of decaffeinated coffee in Denmark was 1% of the total coffee consumption (32). ...
Article
Full-text available
It is not known whether the consumption of caffeine is associated with excess risk of atrial fibrillation. We evaluated the risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter in association with daily consumption of caffeine from coffee, tea, cola, cocoa, and chocolate. We prospectively examined the association between the amount of caffeine consumed per day and the risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter among 47 949 participants (x age: 56 y) in the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study. Subjects were followed in the Danish National Registry of Patients and in the Danish Civil Registration System. The consumption of caffeine was analyzed by quintiles with Cox proportional-hazard models. During follow-up (x: 5.7 y), atrial fibrillation or flutter developed in 555 subjects (373 men and 182 women). When the lowest quintile of caffeine consumption was used as a reference, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% CIs) in quintiles 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 1.12 (0.87, 1.44), 0.85 (0.65, 1.12), 0.92 (0.71, 1.20), and 0.91 (0.70, 1.19), respectively. Consumption of caffeine was not associated with risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter.
... In both cases there are still answers to be given but perhaps the most important is related to the acceptance of the product by coffee consumers. Part of the coffee consumers relates decaffeinated coffee with a healthy lifestyle [143] and might not accept a genetically modified product. In any case consumers will have three different options of decaffeinated coffee, the industrial, the naturally decaffeinated and the genetic modified products. ...
Article
Full-text available
Unquestionably, the popularity of the coffee beverage relies on its alerting attribute caffeine. However, susceptibilities to this purine alkaloid, quite frequently associated with health concerns, encouraged a significant market for decaffeinated coffee. The beans of Coffea arabica render the best beverage and a decaffeinated coffee has to preserve the desired organoleptic characteristics of this species. Consequently, besides technical removal of caffeine, the endeavors to attain a decaffeinated Arabica coffee range from traditional studies on genetic variability to advanced techniques to produce genetic modified coffee. The aim of this review is to recover part of this subject focusing mainly on the natural genetic variation for caffeine content in Arabica. We also present historical information about caffeine discovery and briefly discuss molecular approaches to reduce caffeine. We introduce here the term decaffito for coffee derived from Arabica plants with beans naturally low in or almost devoid of caffeine. In the near future, coffee drinkers avoiding caffeine will have the choice between basically three Arabica coffees, namely decaffeinated by (a) selection and breeding, (b) genetic modification and (c) industrial extraction. Although only the last decaf coffee is available for the consumers, we believe that the size of the market of each type will occupy in the future depend on the price and health aspects related to the way the decaffeinated coffee beans are obtained.
... The results for decaffeinated coffee may be due to bias introduced by reverse causation and by residual confounding. Since caffeine is regarded as an 'unhealthy' substance by some, individuals diagnosed with hypertension or heart disease may have switched to decaffeinated coffee after early signs of illness were noted (17) . Adjusted and unadjusted models within the MEC suggested that the protective effect of coffee intake is stronger for women than for men. ...
Article
Objective We evaluated the influence of coffee consumption on diabetes incidence among the Hawaii component of the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC).Design Prospective cohort.Setting Population-based sample residing in Hawaii.Subjects After exclusions, 75 140 men and women of Caucasian, Japanese American and Native Hawaiian ancestry aged 45–75 years were part of the current analysis. All participants provided information on diet and lifestyle through an FFQ. After 14 years of follow-up 8582 incident diabetes cases were identified using self-reports, medication questionnaires and health plan linkages. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated using Cox regression while adjusting for known covariates.Results The risk for diabetes associated with total coffee consumption differed by sex (P interaction < 0·0001). Women consuming ≥3 cups of any type of coffee daily had a significantly lower risk (HR = 0·66; 95 % CI 0·58, 0·77; P trend < 0·0001) than those reporting <1 cup/d, whereas the relationship in men was borderline (HR = 0·89; 95 % CI 0·80, 0·99; P trend = 0·09). The same difference by sex was seen for regular coffee consumption, with HR of 0·65 (95 % CI 0·54, 0·78; P trend < 0·0001) and 0·86 (95 % CI 0·75, 0·98; P trend = 0·09) in men and women, respectively. No significant association with diabetes was apparent for decaffeinated coffee in women (HR = 0·85; 95 % CI 0·72, 1·01; P trend = 0·73) or men (HR = 1·07; 95 % CI 0·93, 1·23; P trend = 0·71). Despite small differences by ethnicity, the interaction terms between coffee intake and ethnicity were not significant.Conclusions In this multiethnic population, regular, but not decaffeinated, coffee intake was much more protective against diabetes in women of all ethnic groups than in men.
... Decaffeinated coffee could be a good option for those who experience uncomfortable effects from caffeine stimulation. One survey in the USA showed that only about 10 % people inclusively consume decaffeinated coffee and its use was related to illness in some people but to a healthy lifestyle in others (58) . Besides, filtered coffee has been proved to be less cholesterol-raising than unfiltered coffee (43) . ...
Article
Objective: We aimed to use the meta-analysis method to assess the relationship between coffee drinking and all-cause mortality. Design: Categorical and dose-response meta-analyses were conducted using random-effects models. Setting: We systematically searched and identified eligible literature in the PubMed and Scopus databases. Subjects: Seventeen studies including 1 054 571 participants and 131 212 death events from all causes were included in the present study. Results: Seventeen studies were included and evaluated in the meta-analysis. A U-shaped dose-response relationship was found between coffee consumption and all-cause mortality (P for non-linearity <0.001). Compared with non/occasional coffee drinkers, the relative risks for all-cause mortality were 0.89 (95 % CI 0.85, 0.93) for 1-<3 cups/d, 0.87 (95 % CI 0.83, 0.91) for 3-<5 cups/d and 0.90 (95 % CI 0.87, 0.94) for ≥5 cups/d, and the relationship was more marked in females than in males. Conclusions: The present meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies indicated that light to moderate coffee intake is associated with a reduced risk of death from all causes, particularly in women.
... Due to consumers' awareness of adverse physiological effects of caffeine and caution not to exceed the recommended daily intake without abstaining from the coffee consumption, the global decaffeinated coffee market size is growing, with a value of USD 1.65 billion in 2019, and is predicted to grow further [13]. Many consumers switch from caffeinated to decaffeinated coffee due to illness or symptoms [14], while the importance of health-promoting lifestyles for the currently most important segment of the consumer population, i.e., millennials, indicates movement toward a significant increase in functional and decaffeinated beverages on the market share [15]. Decaffeinated coffee used to be made from lower quality beans and the used processes significantly altered the flavor profile, resulting in quite poor sensory characteristics of these brews. ...
Article
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Considering the current trend in the global coffee market, which involves an increased demand for decaffeinated coffee, the aim of the present study was to formulate coffee blends with reduced caffeine content, but with pronounced antioxidant and attractive sensory properties. For this purpose, green and roasted Arabica and Robusta coffee beans of different origins were subjected to the screening analysis of their chemical and bioactive composition using standard AOAC, spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods. From roasted coffee beans, espresso, Turkish and filter coffees were prepared, and their sensory evaluation was performed using a 10-point hedonic scale. The results showed that Arabica coffee beans were richer in sucrose and oil, while Robusta beans were characterized by higher content of all determined bioactive parameters. Among all studied samples, the highest content of 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (14.09 mg g−1 dmb), 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (8.23 mg g−1 dmb) and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4.65 mg g−1 dmb), as well as caffeine (22.38 mg g−1 dmb), was detected in roasted Robusta beans from the Minas Gerais region of Brazil, which were therefore used to formulate coffee blends with reduced caffeine content. Robusta brews were found to be more astringent and recognized as more sensorily attractive, while Arabica decaffeinated brews were evaluated as more bitter. The obtained results point out that coffee brews may represent a significant source of phenolic compounds, mainly caffeoylquinic acids, with potent antioxidant properties, even if they have reduced caffeine content.
... However, the influence of caffeine consumption on telomere length cannot be entirely ruled out, because simultaneous adjustment for both total coffee and caffeine consumption in the model reduced statistical power (given that coffee is a major source of caffeine), which may also have contributed to the lack of statistical significance. Besides the different concentrations of chemicals in caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, caffeinated coffee drinkers have different personal traits than decaffeinated coffee drinkers (51), and these traits can modify or be potential confounders of the associations between consumption levels and telomere length. ...
Article
Background: Coffee is an important source of antioxidants, and consumption of this beverage is associated with many health conditions and a lower mortality risk. However, no study, to our knowledge, has examined whether varying coffee or caffeine consumption levels are associated with telomere length, a biomarker of aging whose shortening can be accelerated by oxidative stress. Objective: We performed a large comprehensive study on how coffee consumption is associated with telomere length. Methods: We used data from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), a prospective cohort study of female nurses that began in 1976. We examined the cross-sectional association between coffee consumption and telomere length in 4780 women from the NHS. Coffee consumption information was obtained from validated food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs), and relative telomere length was measured in peripheral blood leukocytes by the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Unconditional logistic regression was used to obtain ORs when the telomere length outcome was dichotomized at the median. Linear regression was used for tests of trend with coffee consumption and telomere length as continuous variables. Results: Higher total coffee consumption was significantly associated with longer telomeres after potential confounding adjustment. Compared with non-coffee drinkers, multivariable ORs for those drinking 2 to <3 and ≥3 cups of coffee/d were, respectively, 1.29 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.68) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.78) (P-trend = 0.02). We found a significant linear association between caffeine consumption from all dietary sources and telomere length (P-trend = 0.02) after adjusting for potential confounders, but not after additionally adjusting for total coffee consumption (P-trend = 0.37). Conclusions: We found that higher coffee consumption is associated with longer telomeres among female nurses. Future studies are needed to better understand the influence of coffee consumption on telomeres, which may uncover new knowledge of how coffee consumption affects health and longevity.
... The relationship between decaffeinated coffee consumption and health is sometimes used to determine whether the apparent effects of coffee are due to caffeine or other coffee ingredients. A study of the traits of decaffeinated coffee consumers in the US found that decaffeinated coffee consumption could be related to a history of illness in some people but to a healthy lifestyle in others [11]. Another study found that concerns associated with regular coffee could be voided almost entirely with a transition from regular to decaffeinated coffee [12]. ...
... Decaffeination and filtration are additional processing methods, which consist of the removal of caffeine and lipid fractions. Decaffeinated coffee is predominately consumed by people with health disorders [41]. During the last few years, at least 10% of coffee consumption is covered by decaffeinated coffee [42][43][44]. ...
Chapter
Tea and coffee are known to be the most popular beverages in the world. From the ancient time tea and coffee have been consumed intensively because of their attractive flavor and health benefits. They are the major dietary sources of phenolic acids. Phenolic acids are aromatic secondary plant metabolites found widely in plant based foods. Recent interests in plant phenolic acid have drawn increasing attention due to their high antioxidant properties and marked health benefits. Phenolic acids have been associated with color, sensory qualities, nutritional and antioxidant properties of foods. The relationship between the consumption of tea and coffee and their positive health benefits might be attributable to their phenolic acid contents. Main groups of phenolic acid are benzoic acid derivatives such as gallic acid and cinnamic acid derivatives such as caffeic, coumaric and ferulic acid. Cinnamic acid derivatives are higher in coffee whereas benzoic acid derivatives are higher in tea. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) derived from caffeic acid are the main phenolic fraction in green coffee beans. Over 30 CGA isomers are present in green coffee beans including caffeoylquinic acids, dicaffeoylquinic acids, feruloylquinic acid, p-coumaroylquinic acid etc. Tea is remarkably rich in gallic acid derivatives. These phenolic acids are strong antioxidants that possess anti-carcinogenic, antitumor, hepatoprotective, antidiabetics, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, immunoprotective, hypocholesterolaemia, antidepressant, antimicrobial and antihemorrhagic activities. 4-o-methylgallic acid in tea and isoferulic acid in coffee are also useful as biomarkers. The main objective of this chapter is to present an overview on the physiological effects of phenolic acid in tea and coffee on human health. Simultaneously, the foremost functional properties of the principle phenolic acid derivatives present in tea and coffee are summarized, and the associated beneficial effects on human health have been discussed in detail.
... People who drink decaffeinated coffee might be different from those who drink caffeinated coffee, and most coffee assessment tools do not adequately account for people who might have switched from caffeinated to decaffeinated coffee. 113 ...
Article
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Objectives To evaluate the existing evidence for associations between coffee consumption and multiple health outcomes. Design Umbrella review of the evidence across meta-analyses of observational and interventional studies of coffee consumption and any health outcome. Data sources PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and screening of references. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Meta-analyses of both observational and interventional studies that examined the associations between coffee consumption and any health outcome in any adult population in all countries and all settings. Studies of genetic polymorphisms for coffee metabolism were excluded. Results The umbrella review identified 201 meta-analyses of observational research with 67 unique health outcomes and 17 meta-analyses of interventional research with nine unique outcomes. Coffee consumption was more often associated with benefit than harm for a range of health outcomes across exposures including high versus low, any versus none, and one extra cup a day. There was evidence of a non-linear association between consumption and some outcomes, with summary estimates indicating largest relative risk reduction at intakes of three to four cups a day versus none, including all cause mortality (relative risk 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 0.88), cardiovascular mortality (0.81, 0.72 to 0.90), and cardiovascular disease (0.85, 0.80 to 0.90). High versus low consumption was associated with an 18% lower risk of incident cancer (0.82, 0.74 to 0.89). Consumption was also associated with a lower risk of several specific cancers and neurological, metabolic, and liver conditions. Harmful associations were largely nullified by adequate adjustment for smoking, except in pregnancy, where high versus low/no consumption was associated with low birth weight (odds ratio 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.67), preterm birth in the first (1.22, 1.00 to 1.49) and second (1.12, 1.02 to 1.22) trimester, and pregnancy loss (1.46, 1.06 to 1.99). There was also an association between coffee drinking and risk of fracture in women but not in men. Conclusion Coffee consumption seems generally safe within usual levels of intake, with summary estimates indicating largest risk reduction for various health outcomes at three to four cups a day, and more likely to benefit health than harm. Robust randomised controlled trials are needed to understand whether the observed associations are causal. Importantly, outside of pregnancy, existing evidence suggests that coffee could be tested as an intervention without significant risk of causing harm. Women at increased risk of fracture should possibly be excluded.
... 1,11 These benefits are plausibly attributed to other constituents of coffee that produce decreases in systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. 1 It has, however, been observed that regular consumption of decaffeinated coffee is closely associated with beneficial behaviors including regular participation in vigorous physical activity and healthy dietary habits. 18 It is therefore tempting to speculate that increased levels of regular energy expenditure is the key common feature linked with reduced mortality in regular drinkers of both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee. ...
... Decaffeinated coffee (Figure 4.3B) fulfills the demand of consumers who have health problems like insomnia, anxiety, nervousness and stress or any other health disorder [97]. Market of decaffeinated coffee is increasing worldwide due to increasing the population of health conscious of persons [70,79,100]. ...
... Health outcomes among regular coffee drinkers are periodically compared with decaffeinated coffee drinkers in order to know whether a health effect is associated with caffeine or other components of coffee. A study in the USA indicated that decaffeinated coffee consumption is associated with a history of sickness in some (Mccusker, Goldberger, and Cone 2003) 72-130 mg (Brewed) and 58-76 mg (Espresso) (240 mL/cup) Diterpenes (Brewed and espresso) (Gross, Jaccaud, and Huggett 1997;Urgert et al. 1995) Cafestol and kahweol (Scandinavian, Turkish, and French cafetiere coffee) and (Filtered, percolated, and instant coffee) individual but to a healthy lifestyle in other individuals (Ai, Klatsky, and Armstrong 2003). From information reported in multiple studies, people who smoke and drink alcohol are more likely to drink coffee. ...
Article
Coffee is a composite mixture of more than a thousand diverse phytochemicals like alkaloids, phenolic compounds, vitamins, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals and nitrogenous compounds. Coffee has multifunctional properties as a food additive and nutraceutical. As a nutraceutical, coffee has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antidyslipidemic, anti-obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which can serve for the treatment and prevention of metabolic syndrome and associated disorders. On the other hand, as a food additive, coffee has antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microorganisms, inhibits lipid peroxidation (LPO), and can function as a prebiotic. The outcomes of different studies also revealed that coffee intake may reduce the incidence of numerous chronic diseases, like liver disease, mental health, and it also overcomes the all-cause mortality, and suicidal risks. In some studies, high intake of coffee is linked to increase CVD risk factors, like cholesterol, plasma homocysteine and blood pressure (BP). There is also a little evidence that associated the coffee consumption with increased risk of lung tumors in smokers. Among adults who consume the moderate amount of coffee, there is slight indication of health hazards with strong indicators of health benefits. Moreover, existing literature suggests that it may be cautious for pregnant women to eliminate the chances of miscarriages and impaired fetal growth. The primary purpose of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the findings of the positive impacts and risks of coffee consumption on human health. In conclusion, to date, the best available evidence from research indicates that drinking coffee up to 3-4 cups/day provides health benefits for most people.
... Health outcomes among regular coffee drinkers are periodically compared with decaffeinated coffee drinkers in order to know whether a health effect is associated with caffeine or other components of coffee. A study in the USA indicated that decaffeinated coffee consumption is associated with a history of sickness in some (Mccusker, Goldberger, and Cone 2003) 72-130 mg (Brewed) and 58-76 mg (Espresso) (240 mL/cup) Diterpenes (Brewed and espresso) (Gross, Jaccaud, and Huggett 1997;Urgert et al. 1995) Cafestol and kahweol (Scandinavian, Turkish, and French cafetiere coffee) and (Filtered, percolated, and instant coffee) individual but to a healthy lifestyle in other individuals (Ai, Klatsky, and Armstrong 2003). From information reported in multiple studies, people who smoke and drink alcohol are more likely to drink coffee. ...
Article
Coffee is a composite mixture of more than a thousand diverse phytochemicals like alkaloids, phenolic compounds, vitamins, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals and nitrogenous compounds. Coffee has multifunctional properties as a food additive and nutraceutical. As a nutraceutical, coffee has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antidyslipidemic, anti-obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which can serve for the treatment and prevention of metabolic syndrome and associated disorders. On the other hand, as a food additive, coffee has antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microorganisms, inhibits lipid peroxidation (LPO), and can function as a prebiotic. The outcomes of different studies also revealed that coffee intake may reduce the incidence of numerous chronic diseases, like liver disease, mental health, and it also overcomes the all-cause mortality, and suicidal risks. In some studies, high intake of coffee is linked to increase CVD risk factors, like cholesterol, plasma homocysteine and blood pressure (BP). There is also a little evidence that associated the coffee consumption with increased risk of lung tumors in smokers. Among adults who consume the moderate amount of coffee, there is slight indication of health hazards with strong indicators of health benefits. Moreover, existing literature suggests that it may be cautious for pregnant women to eliminate the chances of miscarriages and impaired fetal growth. The primary purpose of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the findings of the positive impacts and risks of coffee consumption on human health. In conclusion , to date, the best available evidence from research indicates that drinking coffee up to 3-4 cups/day provides health benefits for most people.
Article
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has been associated with many health conditions. This review examines the limitations of the classic epidemiological approach to studies of coffee and health, and describes the progress in systems epidemiology of coffee and its correlated constituent, caffeine. Implications and applications of this growing body of knowledge are also discussed. Population-based metabolomic studies of coffee replicate coffee-metabolite correlations observed in clinical settings but have also identified novel metabolites of coffee response, such as specific sphingomyelin derivatives and acylcarnitines. Genome-wide analyses of self-reported coffee and caffeine intake and serum levels of caffeine support an overwhelming role for caffeine in modulating the coffee consumption behavior. Interindividual variation in the physiological exposure or response to any of the many chemicals present in coffee may alter the persistence and magnitude of their effects. It is thus imperative that future studies of coffee and health account for this variation. Systems epidemiological approaches promise to inform causality, parse the constituents of coffee responsible for health effects, and identify the subgroups most likely to benefit from increasing or decreasing coffee consumption.
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Green Coffee Extract (GCE) is a food product and/or supplements that are derived from raw or unroasted, green coffee beans. It is also present in roasted coffee, but much of the active principle is destroyed during the roasting process. The GCE contained chlorogenic acid as a major ingredient and mediate many of the health benefits. Oral ingestion of GCE may reduce body weight in overweight and obese persons. But mechanisms of chlorogenic acids still unknown, although it thought to be related with the preventing carbohydrate uptake from the intestines after a meal. Chlorogenic acid protects neurons from hydrogen peroxide induced stress through a powerful antioxidant activity, ԝhich fights against the free radicals produced in our body as a byproduct of metabolism. It lowers the risk of liver, colon, breast, skin anԁ rectal cancers but the molecular mechanisms and target underlying the chemopreventive effects remain unknown. Ferulic acid, which is a metabolite of GCE containing chlorogenic acid, decreases blood pressure and improves vasoreactivity. GCE may be considered a novel antihypertensive food component. It reduces the risk of gylcemic disorders like Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), ԝhen people consume it for a long time, by inhibiting glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme, that promotes sugar formation in the liver by glycogenesis. GCE as supplemental or food products, may cause occupational type I allergies have been noted to be associated with green coffee dust, which may be due to the presence of a „Cof A 1‟ allergin and appears to be present in the plants Coffea canephora, Coffea Arabica and Coffea liberica.
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A minority of persons at risk develop liver cirrhosis, but knowledge of risk modulators is sparse. Several reports suggest that coffee drinking is associated with lower cirrhosis risk. We studied 125,580 multiethnic members of a comprehensive prepaid health care plan without known liver disease who supplied baseline data at voluntary health examinations from 1978 to 1985. Subsequently, through 2001, 330 of them were diagnosed with liver cirrhosis. Review of medical records confirmed the diagnosis of cirrhosis and ascertained probable etiology. The association of coffee drinking with cirrhosis was estimated by Cox proportional hazards models with 7 covariates. We also did a cross-sectional analysis of baseline aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, studied by logistic regression. In the cohort study, relative risks of alcoholic cirrhosis (199 subjects) for coffee drinking (vs none) were less than 1 cup per day, 0.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4-1.1); 1 to 3 cups, 0.6 (95% CI, 0.4-0.8; P<.001); and 4 or more cups, 0.2 (95% CI, 0.1-0.4; P<.001). For 131 subjects with nonalcoholic cirrhosis, relative risks were less than 1 cup, 1.2 (95% CI, 0.6-2.2); 1 to 3 cups, 1.3 (95% CI, 0.8-2.1); and 4 or more cups, 0.7 (95% CI, 0.4-1.3). These relative risks for coffee drinking were consistent in subsets. Tea drinking was unrelated to alcoholic or nonalcoholic cirrhosis. In the cross-sectional analyses, coffee drinking was related to lower prevalence of high aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels; for example, the odds ratio of 4 or more cups per day (vs none) for a high aspartate aminotransferase level was 0.5 (95% CI, 0.4-0.6; P<.001) and for a high alanine aminotransferase level, 0.6 (95% CI, 0.6-0.7; P<.001), with stronger inverse relations in those who drink large quantities of alcohol. These data support the hypothesis that there is an ingredient in coffee that protects against cirrhosis, especially alcoholic cirrhosis.
Article
Coffee is a complex mixture of chemicals that provides significant amounts of chlorogenic acid and caffeine. Unfiltered coffee is a significant source of cafestol and kahweol, which are diterpenes that have been implicated in the cholesterol-raising effects of coffee. The results of epidemiological research suggest that coffee consumption may help prevent several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, Parkinson's disease and liver disease (cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma). Most prospective cohort studies have not found coffee consumption to be associated with significantly increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, coffee consumption is associated with increases in several cardiovascular disease risk factors, including blood pressure and plasma homocysteine. At present, there is little evidence that coffee consumption increases the risk of cancer. For adults consuming moderate amounts of coffee (3-4 cups/d providing 300-400 mg/d of caffeine), there is little evidence of health risks and some evidence of health benefits. However, some groups, including people with hypertension, children, adolescents, and the elderly, may be more vulnerable to the adverse effects of caffeine. In addition, currently available evidence suggests that it may be prudent for pregnant women to limit coffee consumption to 3 cups/d providing no more than 300 mg/d of caffeine to exclude any increased probability of spontaneous abortion or impaired fetal growth.
Article
Background Part of the health benefits of coffee reported in observational studies might be due to health status influencing coffee intake rather than the opposite. Objective We examined whether changes in health influenced subsequent reports of no coffee consumption in older adults. Methods Data came from 718 coffee drinkers aged ≥60 y recruited in the Seniors-Estudio de Nutrición y Salud Cardiovascular en España (ENRICA) cohort in 2008–2010 (wave 0) and followed-up in 2012 (wave 1), 2015 (wave 2), and 2017 (wave 3). Health status was measured with a 52-item deficit accumulation index (DAI) with 4 domains: functionality, self-rated health/vitality, mental health, and morbidity/health services use. Coffee intake was estimated with a validated diet history. We examined how changes in health status over a 3-y period (wave 0 to wave 1) influenced reports of no coffee consumption during the subsequent 5 y (wave 1 to wave 3) by using logistic regression models. Results Health deterioration over 3 y was associated with a higher frequency of reports of no regular coffee consumption during the subsequent 5 y (fully adjusted OR: 1.48 per 1-SD increment in DAI; 95% CI: 1.17–1.87). Deteriorating function (OR: 1.38 per 1-SD increment; 95% CI: 1.06–1.81) and mental health (OR: 1.34 per 1-SD increment; 95% CI: 1.04–1.73) were the DAI domains associated with increased reports of no regular coffee consumption. Also, individuals with worsened perceived health or hypertension onset were more likely to report no regular coffee consumption. No associations were found for decaffeinated coffee. Conclusions Health deterioration was associated with reports of no regular coffee consumption years after reporting regular coffee consumption among older adults in Spain. A potential implication of this finding is that part of the beneficial effect of coffee consumption on health in observational studies might be due to reverse causation, which should be confirmed in future research.
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Background: Chronic back pain is a known risk factor for unemployment, disability, and depression. This paper discusses the interaction of unemployment, depression, and history of prior spine surgery. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 629 patients who underwent spine surgery and who were between the ages of 25 and 65 years. We collected data on their employment status, history of depression, and history of prior spine surgery (yes or no). Three types of spine surgery were included in the study: lumbar microdiscectomy, anterior cervical decompression and fusion, and lumbar decompression and fusion. Results: Approximately 29% (183) of the patients were unemployed and 32% (200) had a history of depression. Unemployment was more common among depressed patients (44% vs 27%; p < 0.001), and depression was more common among unemployed patients (41% vs 24%; p < 0.001). A history of prior spine surgery was most prevalent in unemployed female patients with a history of depression. Conclusion: Unemployment and depression were strongly associated with a history of prior spine surgery in the female cohort of our study population.
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Clinical and observational studies have recently reported that coffee consumption is associated with cardiac arrhythmia, with increased serum cholesterol, blood pressure and affected heart rate variability, leading to an increased cardiovascular risk. Analysis of these papers shows that these data are controversial and strongly depend on methodology. Recent reports demonstrate the beneficial effects of coffee consumption due to anti-inflammatory actions mediated by antioxidant compound of the beverages.
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Numerous studies have reported inverse associations of coffee, tea, and alcohol intake with risk of type 2 diabetes, but none has reported results separately among African American women. We prospectively examined the relation of coffee, tea, and alcohol consumption to diabetes risk in African American women. The study included 46,906 Black Women's Health Study participants aged 30-69 y at baseline in 1995. Dietary intake was assessed in 1995 and 2001 by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. During 12 y of follow-up, there were 3671 incident cases of type 2 diabetes. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for diabetes risk factors. Multivariable RRs for intakes of 0-1, 1, 2-3, and ≥4 cups of caffeinated coffee/d relative to no coffee intake were 0.94 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.04), 0.90 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.01), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.93), and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.69, 1.01), respectively (P for trend = 0.003). Multivariable RRs for intakes of 1-3, 4-6, 7-13, and ≥14 alcoholic drinks/wk relative to never consumption were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.00), 0.68 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.81), 0.78 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.96), and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.98), respectively (P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of decaffeinated coffee and tea were not associated with risk of diabetes. Our results suggest that African American women who drink moderate amounts of caffeinated coffee or alcohol have a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes.
Conference Paper
The aim of this work was to develop new process for extracting and separating hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds from coffee beans using supercritical CO2 in water. In this work, experiments and simulation of the process has been conducted. Chlorogenic acid and caffeine from coffee beans were used as model compounds of hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds, respectively. Experiment was conducted in the semi-continuous flow extractor at various densities and ratios of coffee mass and water mass (C/W). Extracted compounds in SC-CO2 and in water were analyzed by HPLC-PDA detector, respectively. As expected, the extracted compound in SC-CO2 was containing 100% purity of caffeine. However, the extracted compound in water was containing caffeine and chlorogenic acid. It was due to the solubility of caffeine in water is higher than that in SC-CO2. Recovery of caffeine in SC-CO2 increased with increasing density and decreasing ratio of coffee mass and water mass (C/W). In addition, this process was also simulated using model based on mass transfer balance to estimate recovery of caffeine and to describe concentration profile inside of the extractor (both in SC-CO2 phase and water phase). Simulation was conducted using Visual Basic in Excel 2003. As in the experimental result, the recovery of caffeine in SC-CO2 increased with the increase in density. However, the effect of C/W on the recovery of caffeine in SC-CO2 yielded adversative result. In the simulation result, the recovery of caffeine in SC-CO2 decreased with decreasing C/W. The result can be explained that increasing mass of water caused increasing mass transfer rate of caffeine in water, thus the increasing mass transfer resistance in SC-CO2. Concentration profile of caffeine in SC-CO2 phase and in water phase inside of the extractor have also been simulated.
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The use of tea is widespread, second only to water in worldwide consumption. Green tea is rich in polyphenols, mainly catechins. Among a variety of beneficial health effects attributed to the consumption of the green tea, much attention has been given to its ability to reduce body fat. This study has the objective of presenting a description of the studies of green tea and/or its bioactive compounds related to cell biology and of experimental and epidemiological studies associated with lipid metabolism and the reduction of body fat. Epigallocatechin gallate is the main bioactive compound present in green tea and its anti-obesity effects are being investigated. Such effects are associated with several biochemical and physiological mechanisms and among them the following stands out: stimulation of lipid metabolism by combining catechin intake with regular physical activity. In spite of the promising effect of green tea and its bioactive compounds on the treatment of obesity, there is a need for controlled clinical trials. Finally, a proper diet associated with regular physical activity is the key to prevent obesity and its comorbidities.
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Research findings remain inconsistent whether caffeine consumption is associated with invasive breast cancer. We aimed to examine the association between caffeine intake from coffee and tea and incident invasive breast cancer among postmenopausal women. We included 79 871 participants in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study in the current analysis. Incident invasive breast cancers were identified through September 30, 2015. Caffeine intake (mg/day) from caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and tea was estimated based on self-reported frequency (cups/day) and average caffeine amount in each beverage. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Subgroup analyses were conducted to explore whether associations of caffeine intake from coffee and tea with invasive breast cancer were different by age, race and ethnicity, smoking status, body mass index, history of hormone therapy use, alcohol intake, and subtypes of breast cancer. During a median follow-up of 16.0 years, 4719 incident invasive breast cancers were identified. No significant association was found between caffeine intake from coffee and tea and invasive breast cancer incidence after adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and reproductive factors: HRs (95% CIs) for increasing quartiles of caffeine intake compared to the lowest were 1.03 (0.94, 1.12), 1.04 (0.95, 1.13), and 1.03 (0.94, 1.13), respectively (P-for-trend = 0.54). No significant associations of coffee and tea intake (cups/day) with overall breast cancer risk were found. Our findings are consistent with others showing no clear association of caffeine consumption with invasive breast cancer among postmenopausal women. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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The decaffeinated coffee market has been expanding increasingly in the last years. During decaffeination, aroma precursors and bioactive compounds may be extracted. In the present study we evaluate the changes in the chemical composition of C. arabica and C. canephora produced by decaffeination using dichloromethane. A significant change in the chemical composition of both C. arabica and C. canephora species was observed, with differences between species and degrees of roasting. Major changes were observed in sucrose, protein and trigonelline contents after decaffeination. Changes in the levels of total chlorogenic acids and in their isomers distribution were also observed. Lipids and total carbohydrates were not affected as much. The sensory and biological implications of these changes need to be investigated.
Chapter
Impact of coffee consumption on risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is not extensively studied. To date, three observational studies have investigated the relation between coffee intake and risk of VTE, and all of these studies point toward an inverse association, i.e., coffee consumption seems to protect against VTE. However, these findings must be interpreted with caution because observational studies are subject to confounding and bias. Potential mechanisms for the inverse association between coffee intake and risk of VTE are not fully elucidated. Polyphenols in coffee may promote favorable alterations in the coagulation- and fibrinolytic systems, platelet functions, and endothelial functions that may protect against VTE. Overall, more epidemiological and mechanistic studies are warranted to determine the underlying mechanism(s) for the inverse relation between coffee consumption and risk of VTE.
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The study evaluated the relationships between acute stress, lifestyle and coffee consumption, and acute lone atrial fibrillation (AF). The study group included 400 patients with mean age of 54 +/- 11 years, 205 of whom were men. They all presented with a first episode of AF. Patients underwent a series of cognitive tests to evaluate acute psychological stress (mean life acute stress score). Lifestyle and nutritional parameters (diet, alcohol and espresso coffee consumption, smoking and obesity) were investigated. An age-matched and sex-matched control group was selected and compared. Recent stress, high intake of coffee, and obesity were associated with greater risk of AF. Acute stress induces an increase in coffee consumption and changes in lifestyle. The increase in coffee consumption was more marked in nonhabitual drinkers, leading to a higher risk of developing AF [odds ratio (OR) 4.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.98-4.56; P < 0.001]. Spontaneous conversion of AF to sinus rhythm was observed in 191 patients (47%). Patients who experienced AF after an acute stress showed the highest probability of spontaneous conversion. High espresso coffee consumption (OR 0.86; 95% CI: 0.49-1.21; P < 0.01) and obesity (OR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.84-1.20; P < 0.01) were associated with a significantly greater risk of persistent AF. Acute stress induced changes in lifestyle, including an increase in coffee consumption, leading to a higher risk of AF. Patients who developed AF after an acute stress showed the highest probability of spontaneous conversion. High espresso coffee consumption and obesity were associated with an increased risk of persistent AF.
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Coffee consumption has been associated with elevated plasma cholesterol. One hundred eighty-one men consumed a standard caffeinated coffee for 2 mo followed by randomization to continue caffeinated coffee (control), change to decaffeinated coffee or no coffee for 2 mo. Plasma low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations increased significantly (0.12 +/- 0.65 mmol/L, P less than 0.025; 0.06 +/- 0.12 g/L, P less than 0.0004, respectively) in the group that changed to decaffeinated coffee. In a subgroup (n = 51), post-heparin lipoprotein lipase decreased significantly more (-270 mmol free fatty acids.L-1.h-1, P less than 0.003) in the decaffeinated-coffee group. Resting heart rate and blood pressure did not change significantly. Change from caffeinated to decaffeinated coffee increased plasma LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B whereas discontinuation of caffeinated coffee revealed no change. This finding suggests that a coffee component other than caffeine is responsible for the LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and lipase activity changes reported in this investigation.
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The association between coffee drinking and risk of coronary heart disease remains controversial despite many epidemiological studies. A meta-analysis was carried out on these studies to resolve some of the uncertainties. Particular attention was paid to details of study design. Eight case-control studies and 15 cohort studies were analysed. Weighted, fixed effects linear regression of log relative risks (or odds ratios) was used to pool the study results. The pooling procedures were performed separately by study design, sex, coronary heart disease end points, smoking habit, and period of study. The pooled case-control odds ratio (for the effect of drinking five cups of coffee/day v none) was 1.63 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.50 to 1.78). The pooled cohort study relative risk (five cups/day v none) was 1.05 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.12). The discrepancy between the pooled case-control and cohort study results could not be attributed to differences in the end points chosen, period of study, or to confounding by smoking status or sex. The cohort study data suggest very little excess risk of coronary heart disease among habitual coffee drinkers. The case-control data do not rule out an increased risk of heart disease among a subgroup of people who acutely increase their coffee intake. Further epidemiological studies are needed to assess the risk of drinking boiled or decaffeinated coffee.
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The popularity of coffee as a beverage is ever increasing despite the fact that there are reports antagonized to its consumption. Of the several factors cited, the alkaloid caffeine present in coffee can cause addiction and stimulate the central nervous system. It has an effect on the cardiovascular system with a slight increase in blood pressure and heart output. It undergoes biotransformation in the human body to form methylated derivatives of uric acid. In recent times, much effort has gone into the research on the removal of caffeine in coffee, resulting in a specialty product called decaffeinated coffee. Decaffeination methods mainly employ organic solvents or water or supercritical carbon dioxide. These methods with their attendant advantages and disadvantages are reviewed in this article.
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Total mortality showed no association with coffee usage in the four race-sex groups of Evans County, Georgia. Deaths of coronary heart disease (CHD) in white men and women and black men showed no statistically significant difference between high and low coffee consumers. In an area that has been designated as the "Stroke Belt," neither CHD nor cerebrovascular death rates seem related to coffee-drinking habits. However, to refute or confirm the allegations of a detrimental influence of high coffee intake, larger samples are needed. Nevertheless, our finding that mortality from all causes is not increased in the high coffee-consuming group means that a finding of increased CHD mortality with high coffee consumption would have to be compensated by a protective lower rate for other causes of death. ( Arch Intern Med 138:1472-1475, 1978)
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Six hundred and ninety-seven medical specialists were surveyed to determine whether there is any consensus on the harmful effects of caffeine. More than 75% of the specialists recommended reduction in caffeine in patients with anxiety, arrhythmias, esophagitis/hiatal hernia, fibrocystic disease, insomnia, palpitations, and tachycardia.**This research was funded by a Research Scientist Development Award (DA-00109) from the National Institute on Drug Abuse. This article was presented at the annual meeting of the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence, Philadelphia, June 15-16, 1987.
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Total mortality showed no association with coffee usage in the four race-sex groups of Evans County, Georgia. Deaths of coronary heart disease (CHD) in white men and women and black men showed no statistically significant difference between high and low coffee consumers. In an area that has been designated as the "Stroke Belt," neither CHD nor cerebrovascular death rates seem related to coffee-drinking habits. However, to refute or confirm the allegations of a detrimental influence of high coffee intake, larger samples are needed. Nevertheless, our finding that mortality from all causes is not increased in the high coffee-consuming group means that a finding of increased CHD mortality with high coffee consumption would have to be compensated by a protective lower rate for other causes of death.
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Since most heavy drinkers do not develop alcoholic cirrhosis, other causes or predisposing factors are probable. The authors studied traits of 128,934 adults who underwent health examinations at the Oakland and San Francisco, California, facilities of the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program from January 1978 to December 1985 in relation to subsequent hospitalization or death from cirrhosis of the liver. In analyses adjusted for nine covariates, past and current alcohol drinking were strongly related to cirrhosis risk, but usual choice of alcoholic beverage had no independent relation. Cigarette smoking was independently related to risk of alcoholic cirrhosis, with cigarette smokers of a pack or more per day at trebled risk compared with lifelong nonsmokers. Coffee drinking, but not tea drinking, was inversely related to alcoholic cirrhosis risk, with persons who drank four or more cups per day at one-fifth the risk of noncoffee drinkers. This inverse relation between coffee consumption and risk of alcoholic cirrhosis was consistent in many subsets, including persons free of gastrointestinal disease and those with 5 or more years before hospitalization or death. Cigarette smoking and coffee consumption were not consistently related to risk of hospitalization or death for nonalcoholic cirrhosis. These data could mean that cigarette smoking promotes alcoholic cirrhosis and that coffee drinking might be protective.
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Most US medical records lack socioeconomic data, hindering studies of social gradients in health and ascertainment of whether study samples are representative of the general population. This study assessed the validity of a census-based approach in addressing these problems. Socioeconomic data from 1980 census tracts and block groups were matched to the 1985 membership records of a large prepaid health plan (n = 1.9 million), with the link provided by each individual's residential address. Among a subset of 14,420 Black and White members, comparisons were made of the association of individual, census tract, and census block-group socioeconomic measures with hypertension, height, smoking, and reproductive history. Census-level and individual-level socioeconomic measures were similarly associated with the selected health outcomes. Census data permitted assessing response bias due to missing individual-level socioeconomic data and also contextual effects involving the interaction of individual- and neighborhood-level socioeconomic traits. On the basis of block-group characteristics, health plan members generally were representative of the total population; persons in impoverished neighborhoods, however, were underrepresented. This census-based methodology offers a valid and useful approach to overcoming the absence of socioeconomic data in most US medical records.
Article
--To determine the effect of filtered-coffee consumption on plasma lipoprotein cholesterol levels in healthy men. --Randomized controlled trial with an 8-week washout period followed by an 8-week intervention period during which men were randomly assigned to drink 720 mL/d of caffeinated coffee, 360 mL/d of caffeinated coffee, 720 mL/d of decaffeinated coffee, or no coffee. --Outpatient clinical research center in a university medical center. --One hundred healthy male volunteers. --Changes in plasma lipoprotein cholesterol levels during the intervention period. --Men who consumed 720 mL of caffeinated coffee daily had mean increases in plasma levels of total cholesterol (0.24 mmol/L, P = .001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.17 mmol/L, P = .04), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.08 mmol/L, P = .03). No significant changes in these plasma lipoprotein levels occurred in the other groups. Compared with the group who drank no coffee the group who drank 720 mL/d of caffeinated coffee had increases in plasma levels of total cholesterol (0.25 mmol/L, P = .02), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.15 mmol/L, P = .17), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.09 mmol/L, P = .12) after adjustment for changes in diet. --Consumption of 720 mL/d of filtered, caffeinated coffee leads to a statistically significant increase in the plasma level of total cholesterol, which appears to be due to increases of both low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.
Article
Acutely administered caffeine modestly increases blood pressure, plasma catecholamine levels, plasma renin activity, serum free fatty acid levels, urine production, and gastric acid secretion. It alters the electroencephalographic spectrum, mood, and sleep patterns of normal volunteers. Chronic caffeine consumption has no effect on blood pressure, plasma catecholamine levels, plasma renin activity, serum cholesterol concentration, blood glucose levels, or urine production. Caffeine does not appear to be useful for increasing the motility of hypomotile sperm in artificial insemination or in the therapy of minimal brain dysfunction, cancer, or Parkinson's syndrome, but it may be effective as a topical treatment of atopic dermatitis and as systemic therapy for neonatal apnea. Caffeine does not seem to be associated with myocardial infarction; lower urinary tract, renal, or pancreatic cancer; teratogenicity; or fibrocystic breast disease. The role of caffeine in the production of cardiac arrhythmias or gastric or duodenal ulcers remains uncertain.
Article
To investigate the possible association between changes in coffee consumption and serum cholesterol levels, information was obtained from 2109 healthy nonsmokers aged 25-65 years at two clinic visits to a preventive medical center between 1987 and 1991 (mean interval between visits: 16.7 months). After adjusting for age and changes in other potential confounders, about 2 mg/dl total cholesterol increase was associated with an increase of one cup of regular coffee per day (p < 0.001). A dose-response was found among those who decreased regular coffee consumption, those who continued the same dose, and those who increased consumption. The same trend was observed among those who quit drinking regular coffee, those who never drank coffee, and those who started to drink coffee. No change in cholesterol level was found among those continuing to consume the same quantity of regular coffee compared to those who never drank coffee. The change in cholesterol level was not related to consumption of decaffeinated coffee, regular tea, decaffeinated tea, or cola with caffeine. To our knowledge, this is the first follow-up study correlating change in coffee consumption with change in serum cholesterol in a large group of men and women.
Article
We sought to identify the illness risk factors associated with consumption of decaffeinated coffee in a sample of 2,677 adults. Women who drank decaffeinated coffee exclusively were more likely than other women to consume vitamin supplements and cruciferous vegetables, to use seat belts routinely, and to exercise regularly. Among men, those who drank decaffeinated coffee exclusively were more likely than others to have a low body mass index and to consume a low-fat diet and cruciferous vegetables. We conclude that people who drink decaffeinated coffee differ from others in ways that might provide information about the risk of illnesses.
Article
Except for conflicting evidence about coffee and risk of coronary disease, coffee and tea are not linked to major causes of death. Because of widespread use of both beverages and limitations of prior studies, concern persists. Using Cox models (ten covariates) we studied relations in 128,934 persons to 4501 subsequent deaths. Except for slightly increased risk from acute myocardial infarction among heavier (> or = 4 cups/d) coffee users (relative risk versus nondrinkers = 1.4, 95% confidence interval = 1.0 to 1.9, P = 0.07), there was no increased risk of mortality for all deaths (relative risk per cup of coffee per day = 0.99, 95% confidence interval = 0.97 to 1.01; relative risk per cup of tea per day = 0.98, 95% confidence interval = 0.96 to 1.00) or major causes in adjusted analyses. Coffee was related to lower risk of liver cirrhosis death (relative risk per cup of coffee per day = 0.77, 95% confidence interval = 0.67 to 0.89). Use of both beverages was related to a lower risk of suicide, progressively lower at higher coffee intake (relative risk per cup of coffee per day = 0.87, 95% confidence interval = 0.77 to 0.98). We conclude that coffee and tea have no overall relation to mortality risk. If coffee increases coronary risk, this is balanced by an unexplained lower risk of other conditions, notably cirrhosis and suicide.
Article
To determine patterns of lifetime caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee use, focusing on frequency and determinants for curtailing caffeinated coffee. Residents of Rancho Bernardo, a white, upper-middle class Southern California community, were surveyed about their lifetime coffee-drinking behavior; completed questionnaires were received from 69% (n = 2955; mean age was 64 years, age range: 30-105 years). Chi-square tests of differences between proportions in categorical data and t-tests for continuous data were used. Due to the large number of comparisons, statistical significance was defined as p<or=0.01. Respondents began drinking caffeinated coffee around age 20, and decaffeinated coffee around age 50. A few gender-related differences were observed; more women than men curtailed caffeinated coffee (p<0.001), or did so due to sleep problems (p<0.01), while more men curtailed coffee because their spouses stopped drinking it (p<0.001). Most who curtailed caffeinated coffee did so on their own initiative (80% for health concerns); but only 10% of coffee drinkers curtailed caffeinated coffee on advice of a physician. Past combined intake of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffees approached >or=5 cups/day only in those who curtailed caffeinated coffee on advice of a physician or for heart/circulatory problems. Curtailing of caffeinated coffee in this adult cohort was primarily due to health concerns, but few of those who curtailed caffeinated coffee attribute the change to the advice of a physician.
Article
The American public consumes a wide array of caffeinated products as coffee, tea, chocolate, cola beverages, and caffeine-containing medication. Therefore, it seems of value to inform both the scientific community and the consumer about the potential effects of excessive caffeine consumption, particularly by pregnant women. The results of this literature review suggest that heavy caffeine use (> or = 300 mg per day) during pregnancy is associated with small reductions in infant birth weight that may be especially detrimental to premature or low-birth-weight infants. Some researchers also document an increased risk of spontaneous abortion associated with caffeine consumption prior to and during pregnancy. However, overwhelming evidence indicates that caffeine is not a human teratogen, and that caffeine appears to have no effect on preterm labor and delivery. More research is needed before unambiguous statements about the effects of caffeine on pregnancy outcome variables can be made.
Article
Some coffee brewing techniques raise the serum concentration of total and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol in humans, whereas others do not. The responsible factors are the diterpene lipids cafestol and kahweol, which make up about 1% (wt:wt) of coffee beans. Diterpenes are extracted by hot water but are retained by a paper filter. This explains why filtered coffee does not affect cholesterol, whereas Scandinavian "boiled," cafetiere, and Turkish coffees do. We describe the identification of the cholesterol-raising factors, their effects on blood levels of lipids and liver function enzymes, and their impact on public health, based on papers published up to December 1996.
Article
Psychopharmacological studies using caffeinated beverages or caffeine have rarely considered temporal effects on psychological and physiological function or the specific contribution of caffeine, hot water, or beverage type to the observed effects. The effect of 400 ml hot tea, coffee, and water consumption on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), heart rate, skin conductance (a measure of sympathetic nervous system activation), skin temperature, salivary cortisol, and mood were monitored in 16 healthy caffeine-withdrawn (14 h) subjects in a complete crossover design. Beverages were ingested with/without 100 mg caffeine and milk (tea/coffee only). Hot beverage ingestion rapidly increased skin conductance and temperature (+1.7 degrees C) with peak effects observed only 10-30 min post-consumption. Caffeine in the beverage rapidly augmented skin conductance responses but, in contrast to the effect of hot water, reduced the skin temperature response and increased SBP (+2.8 mmHg) and DBP (+2.1 mmHg) 30-60 min post-consumption. Both caffeine and milk addition to beverages independently improved mood and reduced anxiety 30 and 60 min post-consumption. Milk addition had no other effects apart from attenuating the transient increase in physiological responses associated with the drinking phase. There were no effects of beverage consumption on salivary cortisol or of beverage vehicle on salivary caffeine levels, the latter indicating that caffeine pharmacokinetics was similar in both tea and coffee, and not different from caffeinated water. In keeping with this, the responses to tea and coffee ingestion were similar and largely accounted for by the effects of hot water and caffeine. However, tea potentiated the increase in skin temperature compared to coffee and water indicative of a greater vasodilatory response plausibly related to the presence of flavonoids in tea. We conclude that ingestion of hot caffeinated beverages stimulates physiological processes faster than hitherto described, primarily via the effects of hot water and caffeine, but with beverage type and milk playing important modulatory roles.
Article
Nineteen healthy volunteers ingested 400 ml black tea, coffee, caffeinated water, decaffeinated tea or plain water on three occasions through the day (0900, 1400 and 1900 hours). A 2 x 2 factorial design with caffeine (0, 100 mg) and beverage type (water, tea) was employed, with coffee (100 mg caffeine) as a positive internal control, based on a five-way crossover. A psychometric test battery comprising critical flicker fusion (CFF), choice reaction time (CRT), short-term memory (STM) and subjective sedation (LARS) was performed at regular intervals throughout the day, and intensively so immediately following each beverage. Consumption of tea compared to water was associated with transient improvements in performance (CFF) within 10 min of ingestion and was not affected by the time of day. Caffeine ingestion was associated with a rapid (10 min) and persistent reduction in subjective sedation values (LARS), again independent of time of day, but did not acutely alter CFF threshold. Over the whole day, consumption of tea rather than water, and of caffeinated compared to decaffeinated beverages, largely prevented the steady decline in alertness (LARS) and cognitive capacity observed with water ingestion. The effects of tea and coffee were similar on all measures, except that tea consumption was associated with less variation in CFF over the whole day. No significant treatment effects were apparent in the data for the STM. Tea ingestion is associated with rapid increases in alertness and information processing capacity and tea drinking throughout the day largely prevents the diurnal pattern of performance decrements found with the placebo (no caffeine) condition. It appears that the effects of tea and coffee were not entirely due to caffeine per se; other factors either intrinsic to the beverage (e.g. sensory attributes or the presence of other biologically active substances) or of a psychological nature (e.g. expectancy) are likely to play a significant role in mediating the responses observed in this study.
Article
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine level in tea and coffee on acute physiological responses and mood. Randomised full crossover design in subjects after overnight caffeine abstention was studied. In study 1 (n = 17) the caffeine level was manipulated naturalistically by preparing tea and coffee at different strengths (1 or 2 cups equivalent). Caffeine levels were 37.5 and 75 mg in tea, 75 and 150 mg in coffee, with water and no-drink controls. In study 2 (n = 15) caffeine level alone was manipulated (water, decaffeinated tea, plus 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg caffeine). Beverage volume and temperature (55 degrees C) were constant. SBP, DBP, heart rate, skin temperature, skin conductance, and mood were monitored over each 3-h study session. In study 1, tea and coffee produced mild autonomic stimulation and an elevation in mood. There were no effects of tea vs. coffee or caffeine dose, despite a fourfold variation in the latter. Increasing beverage strength was associated with greater increases in DBP and energetic arousal. In study 2, caffeinated beverages increased SBP, DBP, and skin conductance and lowered heart rate and skin temperature compared to water. Significant dose-response relationships to caffeine were seen only for SBP, heart rate, and skin temperature. There were significant effects of caffeine on energetic arousal but no consistent dose-response effects. Caffeinated beverages acutely stimulate the autonomic nervous system and increase alertness. Although caffeine can exert dose-dependent effects on a number of acute autonomic responses, caffeine level is not an important factor. Factors besides caffeine may contribute to these acute effects.
The chemical components of coffee The methylxanthine beverages and foods: chemistry, consumption, and health effects
  • G Spiller
Spiller G. The chemical components of coffee. In: Spiller M, ed. The methylxanthine beverages and foods: chemistry, consumption, and health effects. New York: Alan R Liss; 1984:91–148.
National Coffee Drinking Trends New York: Na-tional Coffee Association of USA
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NCA TNCAoU. National Coffee Drinking Trends. New York: Na-tional Coffee Association of USA; 2000.
Coffee, tea, and mortal-ity
  • Armstrong Al Ma Klatsky
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Klatsky AL, Armstrong MA, Friedman GD. Coffee, tea, and mortal-ity. Ann Epidemiol. 1993;3:375–381.