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Occurrence, constituents and medicinal use of myrrh, obtained from the stem of different Commiphora species are reviewed. The constituents of the volatile oil, the resin and the gum are outlined in detail. Myrrh has considerable antimicrobial activity and is medicinally used in a variety of diseases.
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Chemistry Department
1
, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Pharco Pharmaceuticals
2
, Alexandria, Egypt
Components, therapeutic value and uses of myrrh
E. S. H. El Ashry
1
, N. Rashed
1
, O. M. Salama
2
, A. Saleh
2
Received July 17, 2002, accepted October 29, 2002
Prof. Dr. El-Sayed H. El-Ashry, Ph.D., D.Sc., Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science,
Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321, Egypt
eelashry60@hotmail.com
Pharmazie 58: 163168 (2003)
Occurrence, constituents and medicinal use of myrrh, obtained from the stem of different Commiphora
species are reviewed. The constituents of the volatile oil, the resin and the gum are outlined in detail.
Myrrh has considerable antimicrobial activity and is medicinally used in a variety of diseases.
1. Introduction
Myrrh is one of the oldest known medicines which has
been widely used by ancient Egyptians and it was one of
the three gifts believed to have been offered to the infant
Jesus by Magi [1]. The name myrrh is derived from the
Arabic and Hebrew word mur, which means bitter. Meet-
iga is the trade name for Arabian myrrh. The various re-
ports on the therapeutic value and uses of myrrh attracted
our attention to write this review.
Myrrh is an oleo-gum-resin obtained from the stem of dif-
ferent species of Commiphora. It is a reddish brown mass,
covered with a brownish yellow dust. It has a bitter and
acrid taste and a balsamic odor. With water it forms an
emulsion [2, 3].
2. Occurrence of myrrh
Different species of myrrh have been found in different
countries as shown in the Table.
3. Constituents
Myrrh contains a 28% volatile oil (myrrhol), 2340%
resin (myrrhin), 4060% gum, and a bitter principle
1025% [2, 3].
3.1. Volatile oils
The volatile oil from Commiphora molmol is thick. It has
a pale yellow color which upon exposure to the vapour of
bromine or fumes from nitric acid gave a violet color [2,
4]. The constituents of essential oil in two kinds of myrrh
were analyzed by GC/MS and identified with their percent
contents [5]. The components from Commiphora molmol
were detected chromatographically [6] with a simple col-
orimetric determination method using vanillin-sulfuric acid
reagent to form a stable violet colored reaction product
with a maximum absorption at 518 nm [7]. It contains
cadinene (1), elemol (2), eugenol (3), cuminaldehyde (4),
numerous furanosesquiterpenes including furanogerma-
Pharmazie 58 (2003) 3 163
Table: Occurrence of the different species of Commiphora
Species Country
C. molmol Engler Ethiopia, Somalia, Arabia
C. mukul Engler Somalia, India
C. guidotti Chiov. Somalia
C. abyssinica Engler China, East Africa, Ethiopia
C. incisa Chiov. India, East Africa, Ethiopia
C. pyracanthoides Engler East Africa
C. rostrata Diels Arabia
C. gileadensis Engler Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya,
Somalia, Sudan
C. wightii Engler Pakistan, India
C. guillauminiperr Engler Sudan, Kenia
C. erythraea (Var.) Engler India, Somalia
C. opobalsamum Engler Near Cairo “at mataria”
REVIEW
cranes (58), furanodiene (9), furanodienone (10), curzer-
enone (11), lindestrene (12), as well as furanoeudesma-
1,3-diene (13) [3, 8, 9].
The three furanogermacrens 57 and the two furanoeudes-
manes 12 and 13 have been isolated from the n-hexane
extract of the essential oil of Commiphora molmol [8, 9].
They give positive Ehrlich color test with p-dimethyl-
aminobenzaldehyde reagent indicating the presence of a
furan ring. The structures were confirmed with different
spectral analyses. The main component was furanoeudesma-
1,3-diene (13). It is a colorless, unstable liquid which can
be rapidly auto-oxidized in air to give a resinous substance.
The a-copaene-8-ol (14), furanodiene (15), and b-elemene
(16) were also isolated from the hexane extract. The ether
fractions contained trans furanodien-6-one (10), curzere-
none (11), and furanoeudesma-1,4-dien-6-one (17).
Three furanogermacranes (1820) and 2-methoxyfurano-
guaia-9-ene-8-one (21) were also isolated from the fractio-
nated essential oil of myrrh from Commiphora molmol
with a mixture of n-hexane/ether [10]. 1(10)Z,4Z-Furano-
dien-6-one (18) and 4,5-dihydrofuranodien-6-one (20)
were isolated as colorless liquids, while 2-acetoxyfurano-
diene (19) as a colorless wax.
The essential oil of Commiphora guidotti, which was iso-
lated by steam distillation of its oleo-gum-resin, contains
seven sesquiterpene hydrocarbons: a- and b-santalene,
epi-b-santalene, b-bergamotene, b-farnesene, a- and b-bi-
sabolene and the furanosesquiterpenoid furanodiene. The
most abundant components of the oil which could be iso-
lated in pure form, were a-santalene (22), a-bisabolene
(23) and furanodiene (9) [11].
From the ether extract of Somaliland myrrh, nonacosane
C
29
H
60
has been isolated [12]. On the other hand, from
the essential oil of Commiphora abyssinica nine sesqui-
terpenoide hydrocarbons, b- and d-elemene, a-copaene,
b-bourbonene, d-germacrene, caryophyllene, humulene,
g- and d-cadinene, the sesquiterpene alcohol elemol (2),
and five furanosesquiterpenoids, furanodiene (9), furano-
dienone (10), curzerenone (11), lindestrene (12), as well
as isofuranogermacrene (24) were isolated [13].
3.2. Resins
The chemistry of myrrh resin is uncompletely elucidated.
It is generally classified into a bigger ether soluble frac-
tion and a smaller insoluble fraction. The ether soluble
fraction consists of a-, b- and g-commiphoric acid, esters
of a resin acid, commiphorinic acid, and two phenolic re-
sins, a- and b-heerabomyrrhol. The ether insoluble frac-
tion contains a- and b -heerabomyrrholic acids [2, 3]. It
shows a fluorescent spot on the TLC due to the probable
formation of dehydroabietic acid [14]. From the gum-resin
of Commiphora mukul long chain aliphatic tetrols 25 were
isolated and were found to be a mixture of homologues of
octadecan-1,2,3,4-tetrol (50%), nonadecan-1,2,3,4-tetrol
(7%) and eicosan-1,2,3,4-tetrol (40%) [15].
The chromatography of the petroleum ether soluble frac-
tion of the gum resin from Commiphora mukul gave a
diterpene hydrocarbon “cembrene-A” (26), diterpene alco-
hol “mukulol” (27), (þ)sesamin, cholestrol and two iso-
meric steroids which were formulated as 4,17(20)-(trans)–
pregnadiene-3,16-dione E-guggulsterone” (28) and the cis
isomer Z-guggulsterone” (29) [1619].
The geometry of the double bonds and the absolute con-
figuration at C
14
of cembrene-A (26) and mukulol (27)
were established. The ethyl acetate fraction of the resin
from Commiphora mukul was proven to contain three new
REVIEW
164 Pharmazie 58 (2003) 3
CH
3
(CH
2
)
n
CH(OH)CH(OH)CH(OH)CH
2
OH
25 n ¼ 13, 14, 15
sterols 3032 beside the pregnadienes 28 and 29 [16, 20].
The stereochemistry at C
20
and C
22
of the sterol 30 was
assigned as the (R)-configuration based on biogenetic con-
siderations. It has been found that all of the hydroxyl
groups are intramolecularly hydrogen bound to each other
[20].
The guggulsterols 33 and 34 were isolated from the neu-
tral fraction after saponification of the chloroform extract
of Commiphora mukul [21].
The alcoholic extract of Commiphora mukul was parti-
tioned between water and diethyl ether. The ether fraction
gave two crystalline compounds identified as myricyl alco-
hol and b-sitosterol [22]. The aqueous fraction was chro-
matographed to give the amino acids cystine, histidine,
lysine, threonine, alanine, proline, arginine, aspartic acid,
serine, glutamic acid, tyrosine, tryptophan, valine, leucine
and isoleucine.
Four new steroidal components 3538 have been isolated
from an extract of the gum resin of Commiphora mukul
with methyl alcohol [23].
A colorimetric assay procedure for the quantitative estima-
tion of the steroidal guggulsterone using betamethasone as
a standard has been reported. The reaction involved the
reduction of the blue tetrazolium salt to the highly colored
formazan. This is due to the presence of D
4
-3-keto-conju-
gation in the E- and Z-guggulsterone [24].
The steroidal fraction from Commiphora abyssinica has
been found to contain cholest-5-ene-3 b-ol (39,R¼H,
86%), D
5
-campestan-3b-ol (40,R¼Me, 9%) and D
5
-sito-
stan-3b-ol (41,R¼Et, 5%) [25].
The resin of Commiphora incisa has yielded three C
22
compounds identified by spectral analysis and chemical
modification as mansumbinone (4a,4b,8b,10b,14a-penta-
methyl-5a-gon-16-en-3-one) (42), the corresponding 3-hy-
droxy compound mansumbinol 43 and 3,4-seco-mansum-
binoic acid (44) [26].
REVIEW
Pharmazie 58 (2003) 3 165
The mass spectra of the methyl esters of the commic acids
4549 isolated from Commiphora pyracanthoides were
reported by Thomas et al. [2729].
The resin from Commiphora rostrata was analyzed by gas
chromatography and mass spectra and was found to con-
tain twenty-two oxygenated alkanes with the major com-
ponents 2-decanone (65%), 2-undecanone (24%), 2-dode-
canone (5%) and hexadecanal (1.5%) [30].
3.3. Gums
The crude gum from the alcohol insoluble matter of Com-
miphora molmol contains 18% protein and 64% carbo-
hydrates as galactose, arabinose and glucuronic acid. The
gum is associated with an oxidase enzyme [3]. It is appar-
ently allied to Acacia gum and contains an oxidase enzyme
whose activity was destroyed at 100
C [2]. The structure
50 of the gum was established by Wiendle and Franz [31].
The gum of Commiphora mukul was found to be a highly
branched polysaccharide 51 containing (1 ! 6), (1 ! 5)
and (1 ! 3) linkages [32]. Its structure was deduced
from the methylation of Commiphora mukul gum with
Me
2
SO
4
/NaOH and subsequent treatment with Purdie re-
agent followed by hydrolysis with methanolic HCl, and
saponification with Ba(OH)
2
[33].
4. Medicinal actions and uses
Commiphora molmol is the most important species of
myrrh which has been used as an effective antimicrobial
agent, it is one of the most effective herbal medicines in
the world for sore throats, canker sores and gingivitis [1].
It is useful for the treatment of acne, boils and arthritis [1,
34]. Myrrh has local stimulant and antihealing, antiseptic
properties for wounds and abrasions. It is used as a mouth
wash and as a uterine stimulant and emmenagogue [2, 3].
It is used in the treatment of infections in the mouth as
mouth ulcers, pyorrhea as well as catarrhal problems of
pharyngitis and sinusitis [1]. It is excellent in sore mouth
and extreme ulceration of mercurial ptyalism.
The extract of myrrh (gum) effectively decreases the abso-
lute increment of blood glucose above the fasting concen-
tration at all times of the oral glucose tolerance test in
both normal and diabetic rats [35] and may prove to be a
useful therapeutic agent in the treatment of non-insulin
dependent diabetes mellitus [36]. It is used also in cos-
metic preparations for treatment of hair and scalp [37].
Tincture of myrrh is used for the therapy of apthous ulcers
(Stomatitis aphthosa) [38]. Myrrh reduces cholesterol and
triglycerides [39] and may terminate pregnancy [40]. It
exhibits strong antithrombotic activity [41].
Extract of myrrh is used as digestive aid drug, and it is
approved by the FDA for the use in food and oral health
care drug products . It was given GRAS status as a flavor
ingredient by FEMA [42].
Myrrh is used in traditional Chinese medicine to relieve
pain and swelling due to traumatic injury [43]. It is used
as a hypolipidaemic agent [44]. Myrrh is useful in chronic
gastritis and atomic dyspepsia with full pale tongue and
membrane, as well as frequent mucous stouts accompa-
nied by flatulence [1]. It helps in the treatment laryngitis
and respiratory complains.
The petroleum ether extract of myrrh from Commiphora
molmol produced significant inhibition of carrageenan-in-
duced inflammation and cotton pellet granuloma. It also
showed significant antipyretic activity in mice [45, 46].
Recently the cytotoxic and antitumor activity of myrrh has
proved to be equivalent to those of the standard cytotoxic
drug cyclophosphamide [47]. Thus treatment with myrrh
(250 and 500 mg/kg/day) was found to be cytotoxic in
Ehrlich carcinoma tumor cells in mice [48]. The Commi-
phora molmol treatment (125500 mg/kg) showed no mu-
tagenicity. It caused a highly significant and dose-depen-
dent mitodepressant effect in the femoral cells as well as
reduction of RNA levels in hepatic cells as compared with
the control (cyclophosphamide) [49]. Myrrh from Commi-
phora molmol pretreatment, at doses of 2501000 mg/kg,
provided dose dependent protection against the ulcero-
genic effect of different necrotizing agent used [50]. It
also offered protection against mucosal damage caused by
indomethacin [50].
REVIEW
166 Pharmazie 58 (2003) 3
4-OCH
3
-a-GlcA
p
-(1 ! 4)-b-Gal
p
-(1 ! 3)-bGal
p
-
[(1 ! 2)-4-OCH
3
-a-GlcA
p
-(1 ! 4)-b-Gal
p
]
6
-(1 ! 4)-a-Ara
f
-(1 ! 3)-
Ara
f
-(1 ! 2)-Ara
f
-(1 ! 4)-DL-Hyp
50
GlcA
p
¼ D-Glucopyranosyluronic acid
Gal
p
¼ D-Galactopyranose
Ara
f
¼ L-Arabinofuranose
Hyp ¼ 4-Hydroxypyroline
D-Gal
p
1 ! 6 D-Gal
p
1 ! 6 D-Gal
p
1 ! 6 D-Gal
p
1 ! 6 D-Gal
p
1 ! 6 D-Gal
p
333
"""
111
D-Gal
p
3 ! 1 L-Aar
f
D-Gal
p
3 ! 1 L-Aar
f
D-Gal
p
3 ! 1 L-Aar
f
656565
""""""
111111
4-OCH
3
GPA D-Gal
p
4-OCH
3
GPA D-Gal
p
4-OCH
3
GPA D-Gal
p
51
Gal
p
¼ D-Galactopyranose
Ara
f
¼ L-Arabinofuranose
4-OCH
3
GPA ¼ 4-O-methyl-D-glucopyranosyluronic acid
Treatment with the essential oil of myrrh significantly im-
proved childhood atopic eczema. This may be due to a
strong allergic contact dermatitis possibly provoked by the
essential oils themselves [5153].
The sesquiterpene fractions from Commiphora molmol,
in particular furanodien-6-one and methoxyfuranoguaia-
9-en-8-one, showed antibacterial and antifungal activity
against standard pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli,
Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with
minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.18 to
2.80 mg/ml. These compounds also have local anaesthetic
activity blocking the inward sodium current of excitable
mammalian membranes [54].
The botanical extract of myrrh could be used alone or in
combination with sublethal doses of certain insecticides to
control the cotton leafworm [55].
Histological examination of mosquito larvae treated with
myrrh showed significant pathological effects on their fat,
muscles, gut and nervous tissues [56].
Recently, a purified myrrh extract from methyl alcohol has
been formulated as soft gelatin capsules, suppositories and
emulsion known commerically as Mirazid which is con-
sidered a new safe antibilharzial drug with potential effects
against Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haema-
topium [7, 5759]. In addition it is a potent fasciolicidal
drug with a success rate of 94.1% [60].
Evaluation of the molluscicidal activity of mrryh from C.
molmol on Biommphalaria alexandrina snails was studied,
and it was proved that the activity is due to the oil extract
rather than to the oleo resin [6163]. Fractionation of the
oil extract led to the isolation of a bioactive component
with molluscicidal activity (LC
50
4.45 and 3.55 ppm)
against the snails for exposure periods of 24 and 48 h,
respectively [63].
The petroleum ether extract of myrrh from Commiphora
mukul “guggul gum” decreased serum cholesterol, phos-
pholipids, triglycerides and lipids in experimental hyperch-
olesterolemic chicken, while ethyl acetate extract had less
anticholesterolemic activity in rats [64, 65], and it was
effective as an hypolipidemic agent in dogs and monkeys
[6572]. It was also used in the treatment of rheumatoid
arthritis and obesity [73, 74]. The steroid which was iso-
lated from Commiphora mukul showed antiinflammatory
activity [7476]. It showed a marked inhibition of ADP,
adrenaline and serotonin induced platelet aggregation [77].
It also showed a strong thyroid stimulatory action when
administered to albino rats [73, 78]. It is used as expector-
ant, antispasmodic, uterine stimulant and emmenagogue. It
is successfully used in chronic bronchitis, bronchial asth-
ma, and pulmonary tuberculosis, and also in amenorrhia
and menorrhagia to regulate menses [79]. The ethyl acet-
ate extract of myrrh from Commiphora mukul, in albino
rats, significantly prevented a rise in serum cholesterol
and serum triglyceride levels caused by atherogenic diet
[80]. The essential oil was found to be fungistatic or fun-
gicidal to some ubiquitous molds, depending on the con-
centration [81]. The resin of Commiphora guidotti is
widely used in treatment of stomach complains, wounds
and diarrhoea in Somalia [8285]. T-Cadinol, the pharma-
cologically active sesquiterpene of scented Commiphora
guidotti was shown to have a dose dependent smooth
muscle relaxing effect on the isolated guinea pig ileum
and a similar inhibitory effect on cholera toxin-induced
intestinal hypersecretion in mice [86]. It caused bacterial
lysis and subsequent fatal loss of intracellular components
in Staphylococcus aureus [82]. The resinous exudate from
Commiphora abyssinica is sometimes applied as a plaster
and used for spasms and fever [87]. The washed bark,
mixed with salt, is applied to snake-bites and the plant has
been used as a stomachic and eye remedy. Commiphora
abyssinica extract exhibited a potent cytotoxic activity
against KA31T cell line (10 mg/ml). The IC
50
of this ex-
tract was 100 mg/ml against NIH3T3 cell line [88]. The
aqueous extract of the resin of Commiphora incisa signifi-
cantly inhibited both the maximal edema response and the
total edema response during 6 h of carrageenan-induced
rat paw edema [76]. The resin of Commiphora rostrata
was found to be effective against predators and fungal
pathogens [30]. The bark and resin of Commiphora gilea-
densis are used as a cosmetic, soothing agent and to treat
dog bites [89]. The guggulipid of Commiphora wightii
was shown to have hypocholesterolemic, antiseptic, anti-
pathogenic, antiparasitic properties, and helps against non-
specific diarrhoea and dysentery [90].
Acknowledgements: The authors thank Dr. Hassan Abbas and Pharco
Pharmaceuticals Company, Alexandria, Egypt for their partial support for
this work.
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REVIEW
168 Pharmazie 58 (2003) 3
... It consists of unstable oil of which 70-80% is 1,8-cineole, also referred to as eucalyptol. It also incorporates p-cymene, alpha-pinene, and flavonoids [16] inclusive of eucalyptin, hyperoside, and rutin It is powerful in opposition to cavities, dental plaques, gingivitis, and otherdental infections because of its germicidal properties [89]. ...
... It also consists of p-cymene, alpha-pinene, and flavonoids, which includes eucalyptin, hyperoside, and rutin. It is used to facilitate the killing of bacteria that contribute to plaque, gingivitis, and bad breath [89]. ...
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Abstract: Cosmetic-containing herbals are a cosmetic that has or is claimed to have medicinal properties, with bioactive ingredients purported to have medical benefits. There are no legal requirements to prove that these products live up to their claims. The name is a combination of “cosmetics” and “pharmaceuticals”. “Nutricosmetics” are related dietary supplements or food or beverage products with additives that are marketed as having medical benefits that affect appearance. Cosmetic-containing herbals are topical cosmetic–pharmaceutical hybrids intended to enhance the health and beauty of the skin. Cosmetic-containing herbals improve appearance by delivering essential nutrients to the skin. Several herbal products, such as cosmetic-containing herbals, are available. The present review highlights the use of natural products in cosmetic-containing herbals, as natural products have many curative effects as well as healing effects on skin and hair growth with minimal to no side effects. A brief description is given on such plants, their used parts, active ingredients, and the therapeutic properties associated with them. Mainly, the utilization of phytoconstituents as cosmetic-containing herbals in the care of skin and hair, such as dryness of skin, acne, eczema, inflammation of the skin, aging, hair growth, and dandruff, along with natural ingredients, such as for hair colorant, are explained in detail in the present review. Keywords: cosmetic-containing herbals; bioactive ingredients; cosmetics
... MyrLiq ® myrrh is a dry extract of Commiphora myrrha gum resins with a high content of bioactive furanodienes, obtained through a patented extraction process, which allows preserving all the properties of the original raw material. PEA is, on the other hand, a natural compound rich in fatty acids, which, in the body, acts as a biological modulator, favoring the physiological tissue response [36][37][38][39]. ...
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Background: The aim of our observational study is to compare the therapeutic efficacy of combined treatment of oxygen-ozone therapy and oral treatment with alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) + palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and myrrh in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain (sciatica) on radicular disc conflict from disc herniation and the results obtained with oxygen-ozone treatment alone. Methods: We enrolled 318 patients with the neuroradiological diagnosis of disc herniation performed with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and symptoms characterized by low back pain complicated by sciatica, which we divided into two groups. Group A was composed of 165 patients who were treated only with oxygen-ozone therapy with CT-guided intraforaminal technique, while the remaining 153 (Group B) have undergone combined oral treatment with ALA + PEA and myrrh. Follow-up visits for the evaluation of the clinical outcome of the treatment were conducted after 60 ± 8 days using a modified version of McNab's method. Results: At the clinical check-up, 126/165 patients included in Group A had a complete remission of pain (76.4%), while in Group B, 119/153 (77.8%) had a complete remission of pain. Conclusion: The results highlight how the treatment associated with ozone therapy and oral administration of alpha-lipoic acid + palmitoylethanolamide and myrrh is preferred over the simple treatment with only ozone in such patients in the phase of greatest acuity of the disease, where the pain appears to be better controlled.
... These inherent antibacterial and antifungal properties are because myrrh contains sesquiterpenes and furanosesquiterpenoids [9,14]. More so, myrrh has been successfully applied in the treatment of gynecological cancer diseases, ulcers, pyretic, hyperglycemia, schistosomiasis, and pain [15][16][17]. Myrrh topical application to wounds and ulcers has been shown to be effective in wound healing by facilitating timely wound drying and cleansing [18][19][20]. Although myrrh has been widely used in hydrocolloid preparations of nanoparticles [21], however, its application via hydrocolloid wound dressing has not been applied. ...
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Common occurrence of dermal injuries has made wound dressing a critical component in wound healing. Hydrocolloid wound dressings have been developed as fanciful and effective wound dressing with ability for wound fluid control, adherence to wound site, and infection prevention. Effectiveness of topical application of myrrh resin to dermal wound has been well documented. We fabricated Mirderm hydrocolloid wound dressings with myrrh resin to enhance wound healing and improve on the mechanical characteristics of the hydrocolloid. The biocompatibility of Mirderm was assayed with CCK-8 while the wound healing efficacy was tested in vivo. The physical and mechanical properties were checked to affirm the suitability of Mirderm as hydrocolloid wound dressing. We observed Mirderm showed superior wound healing and mechanical capability suitable for hydrocolloid polymer relative to investigated commercial hydrocolloid and medical Gauze. These are indications that Mirderm may be an improvement on standard dressings such as Gauze and some commercial hydrocolloids.
... Water was used for extraction because it is safer than other solvents and was historically used in plant extraction in traditional medicine. Our results were in agreement with El-Ashry (2003), who reported the effectiveness of different Commiphora species as antibacterial agents against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Also, in a different study, C. molmol exhibited antibacterial activity against some strains of S. aureus, Salmonella enterica and Klebsiella pneumoniae (Rahman, 2008). ...
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Commiphora molmol is one of the plants that have been treasured since ancient times due to their effective applications in traditional medicine. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of C. molmol on mice infected with E. coli O157 with special reference to antibody production and histopathological changes. C. molmol water extract showed high antibacterial activity in vitro when compared with the hindrance activity of the reference antibiotic ciprofloxacin disk (CIP5) 5µg/ml. In vivo experimental study revealed that E. coli O157 count significantly decreased while Antibody titer detected by ELISA showed a trend to decrease in infected mice following the administration of C. molmol water extract. Histopathological findings showed the presence of less degenerative changes following the administration of C. molmol water extract. These findings revealed that C. molmol plant induced suppression to E. coli O157 infection and indicated the possibility of using C. molmol water extract as natural and safe alternative to synthetic antibiotics to control E. coli O157 infection.
... It contains alpha, beta, and gamma commiphoric acids. The volatile oil is a mixture of cuminic aldehyde, eugenol, cresol, pinene, limonene, dipentene, etc. Due to the fact of its antimicrobial houses, myrrh has traditionally been used to deal with oral infections and inflammations [90]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cosmetic containing herbals,a cosmetic that has or is claimed to have medicinal properties. Cosmetic-containing herbals are cosmetic products with bioactive ingre-dients purported to have medical benefits. There are no legal requirements to prove that these products live up to their claims. The name is a combination of "cosmetics" and "pharmaceuticals". "Nutricosmetics" are related dietary supplements or food or beverage products with additives that are marketed as having medical benefits that affect appearance. Cosmetic-containing herbals are topical cosmetic- pharmaceuti-cal hybrids intended to enhance the health and beauty of the skin. Cosmet-ic-containing herbals improve appearance by delivering essential nutrients to the skin. Several herbal products as cosmetics containing herbals are available. The pre-sent review highlighted the use of natural products in cosmetics containing herbals, as natural products have manycurative effects as well as healing effects on skin and hair growth, with minimum or no side effects on the same.A brief description has been given here about plants, their part used, active ingredients, and the therapeutic properties associated with the same. Mainly, the utilization of phytoconstituents as cosmetic containing herbals, in the care of skin and hair, like dryness of skin, acne, eczema, inflammation of the skin, aging, hair growth, dandruff, along with natural ingredients as hair colorant has been well explained in the present review.
... Myrrh, as traditional natural medicine, has been used to treat various diseases, such as amenorrhea, ache, dysmenorrhea, tumors, fever, stomach complaints, gall bladder, chest ailments, snake and scorpion bites, and skin infections in ancient India, China, Rome, Greece, and Babylon [5]. Previous investigations have revealed the myrrh can be used in the treatment of ulcers, Schistosoma, Fasciolopsis, respiratory catarrh, furunculosis, and diabetes [6][7][8]. Myrrh was also found to promote the permeability of the medicine from epidermis to dermal capillaries and also enhance the wound healing process [9]. ...
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A rapid, simple, and sensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC–MS) method was established and validated for simultaneous determination of four volatile compounds, namely curzerene, methoxyfuranodiene, β-elemene, and α-pinene in rat plasma samples after oral administration of the resin extract of Commiphora myrrh using limonene as an internal standard (IS). Liquid-liquid extraction using hexane and ethyl acetate (1:1) mixture as an extracting agent was used for the samples extraction procedure. The GC–MS system was operat-ed under selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode using Perkin Elmer Elite 5MS column (30 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 µm film thickness). Specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, extraction recovery, and stability were used to validate the developed method. The assay showed good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.998), and the lowest limits of quantification (LLOQ) were 3.97–21.38 ng/mL for the four analytes. This assay was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic studies of the four volatile compounds in rat plasma. The antiproliferative activity of these volatile compounds was evaluated against lung carcinoma (A549) and colon (LoVo) cell lines, were each compound caused variable inhibition on cells proliferation and methoxyfuranodiene exerted the strong antiproliferative activity against both cell lines according to IC50 values.
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Propionibacterium acnes is a major colonizer and inhabitant of the human skin along with Staphylococcus. These genera considered as acne inducing bacteria, although often defined as a commensal. Biofilm formation by this two isolates lead to increase its pathogenicity and cause chronic infection. on the other hand, antibiotic resistance represents the main problem in the treatment the wide range of microorganisms as biofilm or planktonic state. All 40 samples were isolated from University of Baghdad- Iraq (College of Science-Biology deparment)- during the period September (2017) to January (2018) with an age range of (18-23) years were cultured on manitole agar to isolate Staphelococcus aureus. It was used ten types of antibiotics to test the sensitivity of this bacterium against them. All isolates of S. aureus were recorded as multidrug resistant and were considered as S. aureus. Only four samples gave positive results with this media. In this study Capsicum annuum and vancomycin tested against planktonic and biofilm states of S. epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes. The activity of plant oil against planktonic cell was done by well diffusion method while the antibiofilm activity of plant oil and vancomycin was tested by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The results show that the plant oil and vancomycin have antibiofilm activity against premature and mature biofilm for S. epidermidis and Probionobacterium acnes. This acivity differ from one concentration to another by detection different percentages of inhibition. This study show choice to using plant oil is the best reducing biofilm that formed by microbial pathogens which is important to control the infections-biofilm.
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Introduction: Traditional Persian medicine (TPM) has a rich background and has introduced various plants with abortive or emmenagogue activity since ancient times. However, many of them are unknown in modern medicine, and a few trials have been conducted describing their efficacy and safety. These plants may be helpful for the management of incomplete abortion, with potentially lower side effects than chemical agents. Objectives: This review introduced these plants and their potential efficiency to link traditional and modern medicine and suggested further studies. Methods: The search strategy for citations in this narrative review was performed in two steps. At first, medicinal plants used as abortifacient or emmenagogue to manage incomplete abortions or retained products of conception were searched and extracted in the most famous TPM literature, including Al-Qanun Fi at-Tibb, Tuhfat-al-Momenin, and Makhzan-ul-advia. The next step was searching electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar with the same keywords and herbal plants between 1970 and 2021. The overlapped plants between the manual and electronic search were found and briefly described. Results: In TPM literature, 88 plants with abortifacient activity were found, of which 47 were used to manage incomplete abortions or retained products of conception. Also, in the electronic database search, 14 plants were found to have abortifacient or emmenagogue activity. Among them, six plants, including Sesamum indicum L. (Sesame), Commiphora myrrha (myrrh), Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna), Opopanax chironium L. (Jooshir), Plumbago rosea (Shitraj or Stumbag), and Juniperus sabina (Abhal), overlapped with the manual search results. The abortifacient or emmenagogue activity and properties of all these 14 plants were described. Conclusions: The properties of many traditional plants with abortifacient activity are unknown in modern medicine; however, they should not be used in pregnant women. Nonetheless, they may have the power to be entered into modern medicine. Identifying their pharmacology and action mechanisms may be helpful to introduce them as a potential alternative to chemical agents in the management of induced or incomplete abortion with possibly lower side effects.
Book
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Plants as a friend and sensible neighbour have a wonderful co-existance with human beings in the lap of our mother nature. They have been one of the important sources of medicines even since the dawn of human civilization. During the last few decades, there has been a tremendous transformation both of our consciousness for health as well as the field medical systems in glabal level. The rapid realization of the toxicity-related issues generated in the field of agriculture, industry, mining and other advancement, coupled with the indiscriminate use of antibiotics and synthetic drugs, we are increasingly making sense that drugs from natural sources are far more safer. Therefore, there is an obvious upsurge in the use of plant-derived products in various names, formulations and usage patterns. Despite rapid advances in chemical, biological, biochemical, molecular and various omics technologies and the appearance of several cheap, synthesized, complex molecules from simple ones through highly specific reaction mechanisms, medicinal plants and their derivatives still continue to play a major role in health and wellness related medical therapy. Drug development from a wide diversity of medicinal plants has been clinically, socially and economically accepted to be safer and less costlier than their synthetic counterparts. The book has been designed to highlight the related issues of medicinal plants including the aspects of their classification, importance, uses, botany, agrotechniques, major bioactive chemical constituents, harvest and post-harvest processing, etc alongwith an informative list of references used for writing the book.
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The smooth muscle relaxing effect of the sesquiterpene T-cadinol, isolated from scented myrrh (resin of Commiphora guidottii Chiov., Burseraceae), was investigated. The compound inhibited the contractile responses in the isolated guinea-pig ileum to histamine, carbachol, Ba2+ and K+ in a concentration dependent and reversible manner. The antagonism of the receptor-mediated contractions induced by histamine and carbachol was not of a competitive type. The contractions induced by Ba2+- and K+ were somewhat more sensitive to the action of T-cadinol than the receptor mediated contractions. It is suggested that the compound may interfere with a step of the contraction sequence common to all four spasmogens.
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Oleo-gum resin of Commiphora mukul and its formulations are widely used for their multifarous activities ranging from astringent, antiseptic, to cholesterol and lipid lowering activity. Colorimetric assay procedure has been reported for the estimation of steroidal contents as guggulsterone using betamethasone as a standard. Different microbial tests were also performed to check the microbial contamination in the Oleo-gum resin.
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The medicinal value of Commiphora wightii has been believed by tribals to be mainly due to its yield of guggulipid, which has been scientifically shown to have hypochloesteromic, anti-septic, anti-pathogenic, anti-parasitic properties. It is also used for nonspecific diarrhoea and dysentery. Amoebic dysentery is a common disorder of a large number of people in the tropics. In our studies we have reviewed the active principles of most known anti-amoebic plants. Further, we have tested the crude extracts of oleogum-resin obtained from C. wightii against E. histolytica NIH 200 using microdilution technique. They were found to be comparable with quassinoids; Ailanthinone and Bruceantin. The need for linkages between chemical characterization with established in vitro techniques is demonstrated.
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Evidence is presented to show that commic acid E is best represented by (VI), namely 1β,2β,3β-trihydroxyurs-12-ene-23-oic acid. Several unusual reactions of this system are discussed.
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The steroechemistry of guggulsterol-1, a component of the exudate of , is shown to be 20(R), 22(R)().
Article
From the essential oil of myrrh (Commiphora molmol ENGLER) three new furanogermacrens have been isolated and their structures elucidated to , and .