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Components, therapeutic value and uses of myrrh


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Occurrence, constituents and medicinal use of myrrh, obtained from the stem of different Commiphora species are reviewed. The constituents of the volatile oil, the resin and the gum are outlined in detail. Myrrh has considerable antimicrobial activity and is medicinally used in a variety of diseases.
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Chemistry Department
, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Pharco Pharmaceuticals
, Alexandria, Egypt
Components, therapeutic value and uses of myrrh
E. S. H. El Ashry
, N. Rashed
, O. M. Salama
, A. Saleh
Received July 17, 2002, accepted October 29, 2002
Prof. Dr. El-Sayed H. El-Ashry, Ph.D., D.Sc., Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science,
Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321, Egypt
Pharmazie 58: 163168 (2003)
Occurrence, constituents and medicinal use of myrrh, obtained from the stem of different Commiphora
species are reviewed. The constituents of the volatile oil, the resin and the gum are outlined in detail.
Myrrh has considerable antimicrobial activity and is medicinally used in a variety of diseases.
1. Introduction
Myrrh is one of the oldest known medicines which has
been widely used by ancient Egyptians and it was one of
the three gifts believed to have been offered to the infant
Jesus by Magi [1]. The name myrrh is derived from the
Arabic and Hebrew word mur, which means bitter. Meet-
iga is the trade name for Arabian myrrh. The various re-
ports on the therapeutic value and uses of myrrh attracted
our attention to write this review.
Myrrh is an oleo-gum-resin obtained from the stem of dif-
ferent species of Commiphora. It is a reddish brown mass,
covered with a brownish yellow dust. It has a bitter and
acrid taste and a balsamic odor. With water it forms an
emulsion [2, 3].
2. Occurrence of myrrh
Different species of myrrh have been found in different
countries as shown in the Table.
3. Constituents
Myrrh contains a 28% volatile oil (myrrhol), 2340%
resin (myrrhin), 4060% gum, and a bitter principle
1025% [2, 3].
3.1. Volatile oils
The volatile oil from Commiphora molmol is thick. It has
a pale yellow color which upon exposure to the vapour of
bromine or fumes from nitric acid gave a violet color [2,
4]. The constituents of essential oil in two kinds of myrrh
were analyzed by GC/MS and identified with their percent
contents [5]. The components from Commiphora molmol
were detected chromatographically [6] with a simple col-
orimetric determination method using vanillin-sulfuric acid
reagent to form a stable violet colored reaction product
with a maximum absorption at 518 nm [7]. It contains
cadinene (1), elemol (2), eugenol (3), cuminaldehyde (4),
numerous furanosesquiterpenes including furanogerma-
Pharmazie 58 (2003) 3 163
Table: Occurrence of the different species of Commiphora
Species Country
C. molmol Engler Ethiopia, Somalia, Arabia
C. mukul Engler Somalia, India
C. guidotti Chiov. Somalia
C. abyssinica Engler China, East Africa, Ethiopia
C. incisa Chiov. India, East Africa, Ethiopia
C. pyracanthoides Engler East Africa
C. rostrata Diels Arabia
C. gileadensis Engler Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya,
Somalia, Sudan
C. wightii Engler Pakistan, India
C. guillauminiperr Engler Sudan, Kenia
C. erythraea (Var.) Engler India, Somalia
C. opobalsamum Engler Near Cairo “at mataria”
cranes (58), furanodiene (9), furanodienone (10), curzer-
enone (11), lindestrene (12), as well as furanoeudesma-
1,3-diene (13) [3, 8, 9].
The three furanogermacrens 57 and the two furanoeudes-
manes 12 and 13 have been isolated from the n-hexane
extract of the essential oil of Commiphora molmol [8, 9].
They give positive Ehrlich color test with p-dimethyl-
aminobenzaldehyde reagent indicating the presence of a
furan ring. The structures were confirmed with different
spectral analyses. The main component was furanoeudesma-
1,3-diene (13). It is a colorless, unstable liquid which can
be rapidly auto-oxidized in air to give a resinous substance.
The a-copaene-8-ol (14), furanodiene (15), and b-elemene
(16) were also isolated from the hexane extract. The ether
fractions contained trans furanodien-6-one (10), curzere-
none (11), and furanoeudesma-1,4-dien-6-one (17).
Three furanogermacranes (1820) and 2-methoxyfurano-
guaia-9-ene-8-one (21) were also isolated from the fractio-
nated essential oil of myrrh from Commiphora molmol
with a mixture of n-hexane/ether [10]. 1(10)Z,4Z-Furano-
dien-6-one (18) and 4,5-dihydrofuranodien-6-one (20)
were isolated as colorless liquids, while 2-acetoxyfurano-
diene (19) as a colorless wax.
The essential oil of Commiphora guidotti, which was iso-
lated by steam distillation of its oleo-gum-resin, contains
seven sesquiterpene hydrocarbons: a- and b-santalene,
epi-b-santalene, b-bergamotene, b-farnesene, a- and b-bi-
sabolene and the furanosesquiterpenoid furanodiene. The
most abundant components of the oil which could be iso-
lated in pure form, were a-santalene (22), a-bisabolene
(23) and furanodiene (9) [11].
From the ether extract of Somaliland myrrh, nonacosane
has been isolated [12]. On the other hand, from
the essential oil of Commiphora abyssinica nine sesqui-
terpenoide hydrocarbons, b- and d-elemene, a-copaene,
b-bourbonene, d-germacrene, caryophyllene, humulene,
g- and d-cadinene, the sesquiterpene alcohol elemol (2),
and five furanosesquiterpenoids, furanodiene (9), furano-
dienone (10), curzerenone (11), lindestrene (12), as well
as isofuranogermacrene (24) were isolated [13].
3.2. Resins
The chemistry of myrrh resin is uncompletely elucidated.
It is generally classified into a bigger ether soluble frac-
tion and a smaller insoluble fraction. The ether soluble
fraction consists of a-, b- and g-commiphoric acid, esters
of a resin acid, commiphorinic acid, and two phenolic re-
sins, a- and b-heerabomyrrhol. The ether insoluble frac-
tion contains a- and b -heerabomyrrholic acids [2, 3]. It
shows a fluorescent spot on the TLC due to the probable
formation of dehydroabietic acid [14]. From the gum-resin
of Commiphora mukul long chain aliphatic tetrols 25 were
isolated and were found to be a mixture of homologues of
octadecan-1,2,3,4-tetrol (50%), nonadecan-1,2,3,4-tetrol
(7%) and eicosan-1,2,3,4-tetrol (40%) [15].
The chromatography of the petroleum ether soluble frac-
tion of the gum resin from Commiphora mukul gave a
diterpene hydrocarbon “cembrene-A” (26), diterpene alco-
hol “mukulol” (27), (þ)sesamin, cholestrol and two iso-
meric steroids which were formulated as 4,17(20)-(trans)–
pregnadiene-3,16-dione E-guggulsterone” (28) and the cis
isomer Z-guggulsterone” (29) [1619].
The geometry of the double bonds and the absolute con-
figuration at C
of cembrene-A (26) and mukulol (27)
were established. The ethyl acetate fraction of the resin
from Commiphora mukul was proven to contain three new
164 Pharmazie 58 (2003) 3
25 n ¼ 13, 14, 15
sterols 3032 beside the pregnadienes 28 and 29 [16, 20].
The stereochemistry at C
and C
of the sterol 30 was
assigned as the (R)-configuration based on biogenetic con-
siderations. It has been found that all of the hydroxyl
groups are intramolecularly hydrogen bound to each other
The guggulsterols 33 and 34 were isolated from the neu-
tral fraction after saponification of the chloroform extract
of Commiphora mukul [21].
The alcoholic extract of Commiphora mukul was parti-
tioned between water and diethyl ether. The ether fraction
gave two crystalline compounds identified as myricyl alco-
hol and b-sitosterol [22]. The aqueous fraction was chro-
matographed to give the amino acids cystine, histidine,
lysine, threonine, alanine, proline, arginine, aspartic acid,
serine, glutamic acid, tyrosine, tryptophan, valine, leucine
and isoleucine.
Four new steroidal components 3538 have been isolated
from an extract of the gum resin of Commiphora mukul
with methyl alcohol [23].
A colorimetric assay procedure for the quantitative estima-
tion of the steroidal guggulsterone using betamethasone as
a standard has been reported. The reaction involved the
reduction of the blue tetrazolium salt to the highly colored
formazan. This is due to the presence of D
gation in the E- and Z-guggulsterone [24].
The steroidal fraction from Commiphora abyssinica has
been found to contain cholest-5-ene-3 b-ol (39,R¼H,
86%), D
-campestan-3b-ol (40,R¼Me, 9%) and D
stan-3b-ol (41,R¼Et, 5%) [25].
The resin of Commiphora incisa has yielded three C
compounds identified by spectral analysis and chemical
modification as mansumbinone (4a,4b,8b,10b,14a-penta-
methyl-5a-gon-16-en-3-one) (42), the corresponding 3-hy-
droxy compound mansumbinol 43 and 3,4-seco-mansum-
binoic acid (44) [26].
Pharmazie 58 (2003) 3 165
The mass spectra of the methyl esters of the commic acids
4549 isolated from Commiphora pyracanthoides were
reported by Thomas et al. [2729].
The resin from Commiphora rostrata was analyzed by gas
chromatography and mass spectra and was found to con-
tain twenty-two oxygenated alkanes with the major com-
ponents 2-decanone (65%), 2-undecanone (24%), 2-dode-
canone (5%) and hexadecanal (1.5%) [30].
3.3. Gums
The crude gum from the alcohol insoluble matter of Com-
miphora molmol contains 18% protein and 64% carbo-
hydrates as galactose, arabinose and glucuronic acid. The
gum is associated with an oxidase enzyme [3]. It is appar-
ently allied to Acacia gum and contains an oxidase enzyme
whose activity was destroyed at 100
C [2]. The structure
50 of the gum was established by Wiendle and Franz [31].
The gum of Commiphora mukul was found to be a highly
branched polysaccharide 51 containing (1 ! 6), (1 ! 5)
and (1 ! 3) linkages [32]. Its structure was deduced
from the methylation of Commiphora mukul gum with
/NaOH and subsequent treatment with Purdie re-
agent followed by hydrolysis with methanolic HCl, and
saponification with Ba(OH)
4. Medicinal actions and uses
Commiphora molmol is the most important species of
myrrh which has been used as an effective antimicrobial
agent, it is one of the most effective herbal medicines in
the world for sore throats, canker sores and gingivitis [1].
It is useful for the treatment of acne, boils and arthritis [1,
34]. Myrrh has local stimulant and antihealing, antiseptic
properties for wounds and abrasions. It is used as a mouth
wash and as a uterine stimulant and emmenagogue [2, 3].
It is used in the treatment of infections in the mouth as
mouth ulcers, pyorrhea as well as catarrhal problems of
pharyngitis and sinusitis [1]. It is excellent in sore mouth
and extreme ulceration of mercurial ptyalism.
The extract of myrrh (gum) effectively decreases the abso-
lute increment of blood glucose above the fasting concen-
tration at all times of the oral glucose tolerance test in
both normal and diabetic rats [35] and may prove to be a
useful therapeutic agent in the treatment of non-insulin
dependent diabetes mellitus [36]. It is used also in cos-
metic preparations for treatment of hair and scalp [37].
Tincture of myrrh is used for the therapy of apthous ulcers
(Stomatitis aphthosa) [38]. Myrrh reduces cholesterol and
triglycerides [39] and may terminate pregnancy [40]. It
exhibits strong antithrombotic activity [41].
Extract of myrrh is used as digestive aid drug, and it is
approved by the FDA for the use in food and oral health
care drug products . It was given GRAS status as a flavor
ingredient by FEMA [42].
Myrrh is used in traditional Chinese medicine to relieve
pain and swelling due to traumatic injury [43]. It is used
as a hypolipidaemic agent [44]. Myrrh is useful in chronic
gastritis and atomic dyspepsia with full pale tongue and
membrane, as well as frequent mucous stouts accompa-
nied by flatulence [1]. It helps in the treatment laryngitis
and respiratory complains.
The petroleum ether extract of myrrh from Commiphora
molmol produced significant inhibition of carrageenan-in-
duced inflammation and cotton pellet granuloma. It also
showed significant antipyretic activity in mice [45, 46].
Recently the cytotoxic and antitumor activity of myrrh has
proved to be equivalent to those of the standard cytotoxic
drug cyclophosphamide [47]. Thus treatment with myrrh
(250 and 500 mg/kg/day) was found to be cytotoxic in
Ehrlich carcinoma tumor cells in mice [48]. The Commi-
phora molmol treatment (125500 mg/kg) showed no mu-
tagenicity. It caused a highly significant and dose-depen-
dent mitodepressant effect in the femoral cells as well as
reduction of RNA levels in hepatic cells as compared with
the control (cyclophosphamide) [49]. Myrrh from Commi-
phora molmol pretreatment, at doses of 2501000 mg/kg,
provided dose dependent protection against the ulcero-
genic effect of different necrotizing agent used [50]. It
also offered protection against mucosal damage caused by
indomethacin [50].
166 Pharmazie 58 (2003) 3
-(1 ! 4)-b-Gal
-(1 ! 3)-bGal
[(1 ! 2)-4-OCH
-(1 ! 4)-b-Gal
-(1 ! 4)-a-Ara
-(1 ! 3)-
-(1 ! 2)-Ara
-(1 ! 4)-DL-Hyp
¼ D-Glucopyranosyluronic acid
¼ D-Galactopyranose
¼ L-Arabinofuranose
Hyp ¼ 4-Hydroxypyroline
1 ! 6 D-Gal
1 ! 6 D-Gal
1 ! 6 D-Gal
1 ! 6 D-Gal
1 ! 6 D-Gal
3 ! 1 L-Aar
3 ! 1 L-Aar
3 ! 1 L-Aar
¼ D-Galactopyranose
¼ L-Arabinofuranose
GPA ¼ 4-O-methyl-D-glucopyranosyluronic acid
Treatment with the essential oil of myrrh significantly im-
proved childhood atopic eczema. This may be due to a
strong allergic contact dermatitis possibly provoked by the
essential oils themselves [5153].
The sesquiterpene fractions from Commiphora molmol,
in particular furanodien-6-one and methoxyfuranoguaia-
9-en-8-one, showed antibacterial and antifungal activity
against standard pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli,
Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with
minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.18 to
2.80 mg/ml. These compounds also have local anaesthetic
activity blocking the inward sodium current of excitable
mammalian membranes [54].
The botanical extract of myrrh could be used alone or in
combination with sublethal doses of certain insecticides to
control the cotton leafworm [55].
Histological examination of mosquito larvae treated with
myrrh showed significant pathological effects on their fat,
muscles, gut and nervous tissues [56].
Recently, a purified myrrh extract from methyl alcohol has
been formulated as soft gelatin capsules, suppositories and
emulsion known commerically as Mirazid which is con-
sidered a new safe antibilharzial drug with potential effects
against Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haema-
topium [7, 5759]. In addition it is a potent fasciolicidal
drug with a success rate of 94.1% [60].
Evaluation of the molluscicidal activity of mrryh from C.
molmol on Biommphalaria alexandrina snails was studied,
and it was proved that the activity is due to the oil extract
rather than to the oleo resin [6163]. Fractionation of the
oil extract led to the isolation of a bioactive component
with molluscicidal activity (LC
4.45 and 3.55 ppm)
against the snails for exposure periods of 24 and 48 h,
respectively [63].
The petroleum ether extract of myrrh from Commiphora
mukul “guggul gum” decreased serum cholesterol, phos-
pholipids, triglycerides and lipids in experimental hyperch-
olesterolemic chicken, while ethyl acetate extract had less
anticholesterolemic activity in rats [64, 65], and it was
effective as an hypolipidemic agent in dogs and monkeys
[6572]. It was also used in the treatment of rheumatoid
arthritis and obesity [73, 74]. The steroid which was iso-
lated from Commiphora mukul showed antiinflammatory
activity [7476]. It showed a marked inhibition of ADP,
adrenaline and serotonin induced platelet aggregation [77].
It also showed a strong thyroid stimulatory action when
administered to albino rats [73, 78]. It is used as expector-
ant, antispasmodic, uterine stimulant and emmenagogue. It
is successfully used in chronic bronchitis, bronchial asth-
ma, and pulmonary tuberculosis, and also in amenorrhia
and menorrhagia to regulate menses [79]. The ethyl acet-
ate extract of myrrh from Commiphora mukul, in albino
rats, significantly prevented a rise in serum cholesterol
and serum triglyceride levels caused by atherogenic diet
[80]. The essential oil was found to be fungistatic or fun-
gicidal to some ubiquitous molds, depending on the con-
centration [81]. The resin of Commiphora guidotti is
widely used in treatment of stomach complains, wounds
and diarrhoea in Somalia [8285]. T-Cadinol, the pharma-
cologically active sesquiterpene of scented Commiphora
guidotti was shown to have a dose dependent smooth
muscle relaxing effect on the isolated guinea pig ileum
and a similar inhibitory effect on cholera toxin-induced
intestinal hypersecretion in mice [86]. It caused bacterial
lysis and subsequent fatal loss of intracellular components
in Staphylococcus aureus [82]. The resinous exudate from
Commiphora abyssinica is sometimes applied as a plaster
and used for spasms and fever [87]. The washed bark,
mixed with salt, is applied to snake-bites and the plant has
been used as a stomachic and eye remedy. Commiphora
abyssinica extract exhibited a potent cytotoxic activity
against KA31T cell line (10 mg/ml). The IC
of this ex-
tract was 100 mg/ml against NIH3T3 cell line [88]. The
aqueous extract of the resin of Commiphora incisa signifi-
cantly inhibited both the maximal edema response and the
total edema response during 6 h of carrageenan-induced
rat paw edema [76]. The resin of Commiphora rostrata
was found to be effective against predators and fungal
pathogens [30]. The bark and resin of Commiphora gilea-
densis are used as a cosmetic, soothing agent and to treat
dog bites [89]. The guggulipid of Commiphora wightii
was shown to have hypocholesterolemic, antiseptic, anti-
pathogenic, antiparasitic properties, and helps against non-
specific diarrhoea and dysentery [90].
Acknowledgements: The authors thank Dr. Hassan Abbas and Pharco
Pharmaceuticals Company, Alexandria, Egypt for their partial support for
this work.
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... There 1 A unified framework of using genomic resources for genomic breeding to tailor climate resilient and high nutrition crops. Source: Adapted from Ashry et al. [6]. ...
... Gopi347087_c01.indd6 15-11-2022 20:29:291.5 conomically mportant Natural Products sed in Flavors and Fragrances 7 ...
Natural products in the form of oils, oleoresin and so on are used for savoury and odourless form products. These sensory aspects depends upon the plant breeding and genetics. However, although an increasing body of research currently focuses on the impact of natural products on chemical diversity, the biomolecular aspects of these chemical compounds in flavor and fragrance are still an under‐researched topic. This chapter deals with economically important natural products used in sensory and savor sections. Furthermore, a brief discussion is provided about their important biomolecules which contribute to their flavor and fragrances.
... In ancient times, myrrh has been used as analgesics, which is possibly due to bioactive constituents present in them acting as pain relievers (El Ashry et al. 2003). Two sesquiterpenoid compounds, furanocudesma-1, 3-diene, and curzerene present have been reported to be acting on the receptors opioid in the central nervous system, bringing about anesthetic activity (El Ashry et al. 2003). ...
... In ancient times, myrrh has been used as analgesics, which is possibly due to bioactive constituents present in them acting as pain relievers (El Ashry et al. 2003). Two sesquiterpenoid compounds, furanocudesma-1, 3-diene, and curzerene present have been reported to be acting on the receptors opioid in the central nervous system, bringing about anesthetic activity (El Ashry et al. 2003). Also, furanocudesma-1, 3-diene in myrrh, particularly the ones isolated from Commiphora mukul have been reported to provide significant relief from abdominal pain and improving health hyperalgesia. ...
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Medicinal plants have a long track record of use in history, and one of them is Commiphora myrrh which is commonly found in the southern part of Arabia, the northeastern part of Africa, in Somalia, and Kenya. Relevant literatures were accessed via Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science to give updated information on the phytochemical constituents and pharmacological action of Commiphora myrrh . It has been used traditionally for treating wounds, mouth ulcers, aches, fractures, stomach disorders, microbial infections, and inflammatory diseases. It is used as an antiseptic, astringent, anthelmintic, carminative, emmenagogue, and as an expectorant. Phytochemical studies have shown that it contains terpenoids (monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and volatile/essential oil), diterpenoids, triterpenoids, and steroids. Its essential oil has applications in cosmetics, aromatherapy, and perfumery. Research has shown that it exerts various biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-microbial, neuroprotective, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, analgesic, anti-parasitic, and recently, it was found to work against respiratory infections like COVID-19. With the advancement in drug development, hopefully, its rich phytochemical components can be explored for drug development as an insecticide due to its great anti-parasitic activity. Also, its interactions with drugs can be fully elucidated. This review highlights an updated information on the history, distribution, traditional uses, phytochemical components, pharmacology, and various biological activities of Commiphora myrrh . Graphical abstract Graphical summary of the phytochemical and pharmacological update of Commiphora myrrh
... Frankincense and myrrh (FM) are traditional Chinese herbal medicines. Frankincense is resin exudated from the bark of Boswellia of the Burseraceae family, while myrrh is dried resin of species of the Commiphora family (9). Both compounds have been used as anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer drugs. ...
... There are several different species of Commiphora indigenous to the northeastern African continent. In addition to its antimicrobial properties, myrrh is a remedy for numerous ailments in herbal medicine [19]. ...
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There has been interest in the history of cosmetics for the last several decades. In part, this renewed curiosity is probably due to the revolutionizing natural movement in the cosmetic industry. In this article, we provide an overview of the historical aspects of the use of natural ingredients in cosmetics, which mostly come from botanical and mineral sources. We begin with an introduction to the art and science of cosmetics in the ancient world, which includes accounts of Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Greek, and Roman cosmetics as well as Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurvedic Medicine. These dermatological and cosmetic practices, which were advanced for the time, paved the way for the current revolution of natural ingredients in cosmetic products. Without providing a comprehensive historical account, we surveyed selected cultures during different periods of time to provide some perspective of our current understanding of natural ingredients in cosmetics. Attention is also given to the rich contributions of body art by tribal societies to our knowledge base, especially in the areas of dyes and pigments. Finally, we offer some perspective of natural ingredient cosmetics in the Information Age.
... It provides a healing effect on the facial wound, wrinkle-free facial effects, and reforms the skin elasticity. It also cures the condition of eczema and UV-damaged skin [93][94][95][96]. ...
The growth and demand for cosmeceuticals (cosmetic products that have medicinal or drug-like benefits) have been enhanced for the last few decades. Lately, the newly invented dosage form, i.e., the pharmaceutical-based cosmetic serum has been developed and widely employed in various non-invasive cosmetic procedures. Many pharmaceutical-based cosmetic serums contain natural active components that claim to have a medical or drug-like effect on the skin, hair, and nails, including anti-aging, anti-wrinkle, anti-acne, hydrating, moisturizing, repairing, brightening and lightening skin, anti-hair fall, anti-fungal, and nail growth effect, etc. In comparison with other pharmaceutical-related cosmetic products (creams, gels, foams, and lotions, etc.), pharmaceutical-based cosmetic serums produce more rapid and incredible effects on the skin. This chapter provides detailed knowledge about the different marketed pharmaceutical-based cosmetic serums and their several types such as facial serums, hair serums, nail serums, under the eye serum, lip serum, hand, and foot serum, respectively. Moreover, some valuable procedures have also been discussed which provide prolong effects with desired results in the minimum duration of time after the few sessions of the serum treatment.
... Frankincense and myrrh are traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Frankincense is the resin exudated from the bark of Boswellia, Burseraceae family, while myrrh is the dried resin of species of Commiphora family [9]. Both of them have been used as anti-in ammatory and anti-cancer drugs. ...
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Background The Wnt/β-catenin signaling is closely related to epithelial mesenchymal transformation (EMT), which plays an important role in HCC invasion and metastasis. Frankincense and myrrh (FM) are anti-tumor agents commonly used in clinic. This study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of the water extract of FM on the progression of liver cancer cells. Methods Different concentrations of FM were applied to study cell proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The ability of cell migration and invasion were detected by wound healing test and Transwell assay. Western blot was used to study the related protein levels of EMT and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The nuclear translocation of β-catenin was detected by the immunofluorescence assay. Results FM at a non-toxic dose significantly inhibited the invasion and metastasis of liver cancer cells. Furthermore, FM promotes EMT marker E-cadherin, while decreasing the expression of Vimentin and N-cadherin. Finally, the protein and the nuclear staining level of DVL2 and β-catenin were both suppressed by water extract of FM. Conclusion The water extract of FM inhibited the migration and invasion of liver cancer cells, and blocked the occurrence of EMT via suppressing the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
... ALA is an antioxidant that exerts its antioxidant function in both of these tissues. This property gives thioctic acid a broad spectrum of antioxidant action [33][34][35][36]. ...
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Background and objective: Our study compares the clinical outcome of chronic low back pain present for over six months treated with alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) + palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and myrrh and periradicular infiltrations of oxygen-ozone under CT guide to periradicular steroidal infiltrations in a short (one week), medium (three months) and long-term period (six months). Methods: We enrolled 246 patients (Group A) with low back pain treated with periradicular infiltrations of oxygen-ozone under CT guide combined with 800 mg/day of ALA + 600 mg/day of PEA + 200 mg/day of myrrh orally. Group B consisted of 176 patients with low back pain treated with periradicular infiltrations of steroids. Patients were clinically monitored one week after the end of treatment, at three months, and at six months using a modified version of McNab's method. Results: In Group A, the one-week clinical follow-up registered a complete remission of painful symptoms in 206 patients (83.7%), and this manifestation remained optimal in 191 patients at the three-month follow-up (77.6%) and in 178 at six months (72.3%). While the results were satisfactory in 28 patients (10.9%) at one week, 32 (13%) in the medium term, and 41 (16.6%) in the long term, non-significant results were found in 12 patients in the control at one week (4.6%), in 23 at three months (9.3%) and in 27 at six months (10.9%). In Group B, at the short-term follow-up we obtained an excellent clinical result in 103 patients (80.5%), while at three months 85 patients reported the persistence of clinical benefit (66.4%) and at six months, 72 (56.2%) reported the same result. The result was rated satisfactory in 11 (8.5%) and poor in 4 (3%). At the three-month follow-up, 23 (18%) reported a satisfactory result, and 20 (15.6%) had a poor result. At six months, 24 (18.8%) reported the persistence of a satisfactory result while for 32 the result was poor (25%). Conclusion: The results highlight how the treatment associated with ozone therapy and oral administration of alpha-lipoic acid + palmitoylethanolamide and myrrh can be considered a valid alternative to common therapeutic approaches in the treatment of chronic low back pain.
... According to scientific literature, several species of the genus Commiphora have various therapeutic properties, such as: antifungal, antimicrobial, expectorant, and useful in cases of pharyngitis, sinusitis, chronic and asthmatic bronchitis, and even tubercolosis(El Ashry 2003, Shen et al. 2012, Sotoudeth et al. 2019. As a matter of fact, Commiphora gileadensis (L.) C.Chr. has a long history of traditional uses that are well documented in modern scientific literature (Al-Sieni 2014). ...
... Commiphora myrrha is used to treat wounds, infections, acne, boils [21,145], hair, and the scalp [146,147]. It has been used to manufacture perfumes and cosmetics and used in aromatherapy [12]. ...
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Organic materials have been the subject of numerous recent cosmetics studies. Plant extracts and/or plant-derived resources in the Middle East have significant potential in many cosmetic fields because they exhibit useful properties that promote the repair of cellular functions and improve skin conditions. Multiple organic substances from these resources have long-lasting environmental effects, extensive storage capacities, and affect human physiological activity. Recent studies have revealed that Commiphora myrrha (myrrh) and Boswellia serrata (frankincense) extracts can prevent aging, acne, and spots while enhancing skin moisture and suppleness. Given that myrrh and frankincense exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant characteristics that significantly improve human health, their utilization in various cosmetic products has received attention from global cosmetic corporations. This review details the bioactive compounds and cosmeceutical properties of myrrh and frankincense and their use in cosmetic formulations.
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The oral cavity harbors hundreds of microorganisms that may be uncontrolled and provoke several diseases. In this sense, periodontitis is a complex multifactorial disease with an essential microbial component in its etiology. Periodontal treatment involves mechanical control of the supra- and subgingival biofilm, but not all patients respond predictably to treatment. In this way, the biofilm chemical control helps in the reduction of periodontal pathogens during treatment or in the delay of bacterial re-colonization after scaling and root planning. Several products have been studied as adjunctive therapy and have shown promising results. Therefore, the present article reviews the biological effects of propolis, aloe vera, green tea, cranberry, calendula, myrrha and salvia that may support their use in the control of subgingival biofilm in patients with periodontitis. All the natural products cited above showed exciting results against microorganisms related to oral diseases, mainly periodontitis. These substances also have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The natural agents propolis, aloe vera, green tea, cranberry, calendula, myrrha and salvia demonstrated potential to be used as oral hygiene products, based on their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory actions.
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Plants as a friend and sensible neighbour have a wonderful co-existance with human beings in the lap of our mother nature. They have been one of the important sources of medicines even since the dawn of human civilization. During the last few decades, there has been a tremendous transformation both of our consciousness for health as well as the field medical systems in glabal level. The rapid realization of the toxicity-related issues generated in the field of agriculture, industry, mining and other advancement, coupled with the indiscriminate use of antibiotics and synthetic drugs, we are increasingly making sense that drugs from natural sources are far more safer. Therefore, there is an obvious upsurge in the use of plant-derived products in various names, formulations and usage patterns. Despite rapid advances in chemical, biological, biochemical, molecular and various omics technologies and the appearance of several cheap, synthesized, complex molecules from simple ones through highly specific reaction mechanisms, medicinal plants and their derivatives still continue to play a major role in health and wellness related medical therapy. Drug development from a wide diversity of medicinal plants has been clinically, socially and economically accepted to be safer and less costlier than their synthetic counterparts. The book has been designed to highlight the related issues of medicinal plants including the aspects of their classification, importance, uses, botany, agrotechniques, major bioactive chemical constituents, harvest and post-harvest processing, etc alongwith an informative list of references used for writing the book.
The smooth muscle relaxing effect of the sesquiterpene T-cadinol, isolated from scented myrrh (resin of Commiphora guidottii Chiov., Burseraceae), was investigated. The compound inhibited the contractile responses in the isolated guinea-pig ileum to histamine, carbachol, Ba2+ and K+ in a concentration dependent and reversible manner. The antagonism of the receptor-mediated contractions induced by histamine and carbachol was not of a competitive type. The contractions induced by Ba2+- and K+ were somewhat more sensitive to the action of T-cadinol than the receptor mediated contractions. It is suggested that the compound may interfere with a step of the contraction sequence common to all four spasmogens.
Oleo-gum resin of Commiphora mukul and its formulations are widely used for their multifarous activities ranging from astringent, antiseptic, to cholesterol and lipid lowering activity. Colorimetric assay procedure has been reported for the estimation of steroidal contents as guggulsterone using betamethasone as a standard. Different microbial tests were also performed to check the microbial contamination in the Oleo-gum resin.
The medicinal value of Commiphora wightii has been believed by tribals to be mainly due to its yield of guggulipid, which has been scientifically shown to have hypochloesteromic, anti-septic, anti-pathogenic, anti-parasitic properties. It is also used for nonspecific diarrhoea and dysentery. Amoebic dysentery is a common disorder of a large number of people in the tropics. In our studies we have reviewed the active principles of most known anti-amoebic plants. Further, we have tested the crude extracts of oleogum-resin obtained from C. wightii against E. histolytica NIH 200 using microdilution technique. They were found to be comparable with quassinoids; Ailanthinone and Bruceantin. The need for linkages between chemical characterization with established in vitro techniques is demonstrated.
Evidence is presented to show that commic acid E is best represented by (VI), namely 1β,2β,3β-trihydroxyurs-12-ene-23-oic acid. Several unusual reactions of this system are discussed.
The steroechemistry of guggulsterol-1, a component of the exudate of , is shown to be 20(R), 22(R)().
From the essential oil of myrrh (Commiphora molmol ENGLER) three new furanogermacrens have been isolated and their structures elucidated to , and .