Carcinogenic semicarbazide induces sequence-specific DNA damage through the generation of reactive oxygen species and the derived organic radicals
Mie University, Tu, Mie, JapanMutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis (Impact Factor: 3.68). 05/2003; 536(1-2):91-101. DOI: 10.1016/S1383-5718(03)00030-5
Semicarbazide, a hydrazine derivative, is carcinogenic to mice but shows no or little mutagenicity in the Salmonella-microsome test. To clarify whether or not the genotoxic mechanism contributes to the non-mutagenic carcinogenicity of semicarbazide, we investigated DNA damage induced by semicarbazide using 32P-5'-end-labeled DNA fragments obtained from the c-Ha-ras-1 protooncogene and the p53 tumor suppressor gene. Semicarbazide caused DNA damage frequently at the thymine and cytosine residues in the presence of Cu(II). Catalase and bathocuproine partially inhibited DNA damage, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide plus Cu(I) participates in DNA damage. When a high concentration of semicarbazide was used in the presence of catalase, DNA damage was induced, especially at G in 5'-AG and slightly at 5'-G in GG and GGG sequences. An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic study has confirmed that the reaction of semicarbazide with Cu(II) produces carbamoyl radicals (z.rad;CONH(2)), possibly generated via the nitrogen-centered radicals of semicarbazide. Azodicarbonamide also produced carbamoyl radicals and induced DNA damage frequently at 5'-G in GG and GGG sequences, suggesting that carbamoyl radicals participate in this sequence-specific DNA damage by semicarbazide. On the basis of our previous reports, we consider that the sequence-specific DNA damage at G in 5'-AG in the present study is due to the nitrogen-centered radicals. This study has shown that semicarbazide induces DNA damage in the presence of Cu(II) through the formation of hydrogen peroxide and Cu(I). In addition, semicarbazide-derived free radicals participate in DNA damage. DNA damage induced by these reactive species may be relevant to the carcinogenicity of semicarbazide.
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ABSTRACT: Procarbazine [N-isopropyl-alpha-(2-methylhydrazino)-p-toluamide], a hydrazine derivative, which has been shown to have effective antineoplastic activity, induces cancer in some experimental animals and humans. To clarify a new mechanism for its carcinogenic effect, we examined DNA damage induced by procarbazine in the presence of metal ion, using 32P-5'-end-labeled DNA fragments obtained from the human p53 tumor suppressor gene and the c-Ha-ras-1 protooncogene. Procarbazine plus Cu(II) induced piperidine-labile and formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase-sensitive lesions at the 5'-ACG-3' sequence, complementary to a hotspot of the p53 gene, and the 5'-TG-3' sequence. Catalase partially inhibited DNA damage, suggesting that not only H(2)O(2) but also other reactive species are involved. Procarbazine plus Cu(II) significantly increased the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, which was completely inhibited by calatase. Electron spin resonance spin-trapping experiments revealed that methyl radicals were generated from procarbazine and Cu(II). On the basis of these findings, it is considered that procarbazine causes DNA damage through non-enzymatic formation of the Cu(I)-hydroperoxo complex and methyl radicals. In conclusion, in addition to alkylation, oxidative DNA damage may play important roles in not only antitumor effects but also mutagenesis and carcinogenesis induced by procarbazine.
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ABSTRACT: Nitrofuran antibiotics were previously used in animal healthcare but are now prohibited. Semicarbazide is a breakdown product of 5-nitrofurazone and protein-bound semicarbazide is used as a marker residue for the illegal use of 5-nitrofurazone. However, the presence of the prohibited semicarbazide has been reported in some food items of animal origin. A novel observation is reported that semicarbazide can be detected in Finnish crayfish samples, i.e. crustacea, never medicated with nitrofurazone. The origin of the semicarbazide is presently unknown. Positive identification was undertaken by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry detection. The level of semicarbazide was determined as the protein-bound form as well as the total amount of semicarbazide in the sample. The average levels of total semicarbazide and the protein-bound form were 4.2 and 0.5 ng g(-1) fresh crayfish meat, respectively. All the tested samples (n = 18) contained traces of semicarbazide, the highest amount being 12 ng g(-1) fresh crayfish meat.
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ABSTRACT: Oxidative DNA damage was investigated by free radicals generated from HEPES (2-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethanesulfonic acid) buffer, which is widely used in biochemical or biological studies, in the presence of Au(III). The effect of free radicals on the DNA damage was ascertained by gel electrophoresis, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. ESR results indicated the generation of nitrogen-centered cationic free radicals from the HEPES in the presence of Au(III) which cause the DNA damage. No ESR spectra were observed for phosphate, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris-HCl) and acetate buffers in the presence of Au(III) or for HEPES buffer in the presence of other metal ions such as Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Pd(II) or [Au(III)(TMPyP)](5+) and [Pd(II)(TMPyP)](4+), where [H(2)(TMPyP)](4+) denotes tetrakis(1-methylpyridium-4-yl)porphyrin. Consequently, no DNA damage was observed for these buffer agents (e.g., phosphate, Tris-HCl or acetate) in the presence of Au(III) or for HEPES in the presence of other metal ions or the metalloporphyrins mentioned above. No detectable inhibitory effect on the DNA damage was observed by using the typical scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) ()OH, O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2). This non-inhibitory effect indicated that no reactive oxygen species were generated during the incubation of DNA with HEPES and Au(III). The drastic change in CD spectra from positive ellipticity to negative ellipticity approximately at 270 nm with increasing concentration of Au(III) also indicated the significant damage of DNA. Only HEPES or Au(III) itself did not damage DNA. A mechanism for the damaging of DNA is proposed.
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