Reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium in experimentally challenged broilers by nitrate adaptation and chlorate supplementation in drinking water
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, Food and Feed Safety Research Unit, College Station, Texas 77845, USA. Journal of food protection
(Impact Factor: 1.85).
The effects of two feed supplements on Salmonella Typhimurium in the ceca of market-age broilers were determined. Broilers orally challenged 6 days before slaughter with a novobiocin- and nalidixic acid-resistant strain of Salmonella Typhimurium were divided into one of four groups (20 birds each). The first group (the control group) received no treatment, the second group received sodium nitrate (SN) treatment (574 mg of NaNO3 per kg of feed), the third group received experimental chlorate product (ECP) treatment (15 mM NaClO3 equivalents), and the fourth group received ECP treatment in combination with SN treatment. The SN treatment was administered via feed for 5 days immediately before slaughter, and ECP was provided via ad libitum access to drinking water for the last 2 days before slaughter. Cecal contents were subjected to bacterial analysis. Significant (P < 0.05) Salmonella Typhimurium reductions (ca. 2 log units) relative to levels for untreated control broilers were observed for broilers receiving ECP in combination with SN. The ECP-only treatment resulted in significant (P < 0.05) reductions (ca. 0.8 log) of Salmonella Typhimurium in trial 2. We hypothesize that increasing Salmonella Typhimurium nitrate reductase activity resulted in increased enzymatic reduction of chlorate to chlorite, with a concomitant decrease in cecal Salmonella Typhimurium levels. On the basis of these results, preadaptation with SN followed by ECP supplementation immediately preharvest could be a potential strategy for the reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium in broilers.
Available from: Barbara Wilhelm
- "The " Other " category comprised additives that did not fit into the preceding four categories such as those thought to inhibit attachment of Salmonella to the bird's intestinal wall. Some studies examined combinations of different organic acids as treatment (these were placed in the acidifiers category), and one study included in the " Other " category examined the effect of sodium nitrate combined with experimental chlorate product (Jung et al., 2003). On the advice of a statistical consultant, treatmentcontrol comparisons where the standard deviation for either treatment or control groups was reported as zero were excluded from the MR; one study was excluded for this reason (Adams et al., 1982). "
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ABSTRACT: Eating inappropriately prepared poultry meat is a major cause of foodborne salmonellosis. Our objectives were to determine the efficacy of feed and water additives (other than competitive exclusion and antimicrobials) on reducing Salmonella prevalence or concentration in broiler chickens using systematic review-meta-analysis and to explore sources of heterogeneity found in the meta-analysis through meta-regression. Six electronic databases were searched (Current Contents (1999-2009), Agricola (1924-2009), MEDLINE (1860-2009), Scopus (1960-2009), Centre for Agricultural Bioscience (CAB) (1913-2009), and CAB Global Health (1971-2009)), five topic experts were contacted, and the bibliographies of review articles and a topic-relevant textbook were manually searched to identify all relevant research. Study inclusion criteria comprised: English-language primary research investigating the effects of feed and water additives on the Salmonella prevalence or concentration in broiler chickens. Data extraction and study methodological assessment were conducted by two reviewers independently using pretested forms. Seventy challenge studies (n=910 unique treatment-control comparisons), seven controlled studies (n=154), and one quasi-experiment (n=1) met the inclusion criteria. Compared to an assumed control group prevalence of 44 of 1000 broilers, random-effects meta-analysis indicated that the Salmonella cecal colonization in groups with prebiotics (fructooligosaccharide, lactose, whey, dried milk, lactulose, lactosucrose, sucrose, maltose, mannanoligosaccharide) added to feed or water was 15 out of 1000 broilers; with lactose added to feed or water it was 10 out of 1000 broilers; with experimental chlorate product (ECP) added to feed or water it was 21 out of 1000. For ECP the concentration of Salmonella in the ceca was decreased by 0.61 log(10)cfu/g in the treated group compared to the control group. Significant heterogeneity (Cochran's Q-statistic p≤0.10) was observed among studies examining all organic acids (controlled or challenge experiments), butyric acid, formic acid, a formic/propionic acid mixture, fermented liquid feed, and D-mannose. Meta-regressions were conducted to examine the source of heterogeneity among studies. For prevalence outcomes, 36% and 60% of the total variance was within and between studies, respectively. For concentration outcomes, 39% and 33% of the total variance was within and between studies, respectively. Inadequate blinding and randomization was common, and no studies undergoing meta-analysis or meta-regression were conducted on a commercial farm. The strength of evidence of the effect of these additives was very low. Studies conducted under commercial conditions are needed to understand the potential benefit of these interventions for the poultry industry and to improve the strength of evidence of the effectiveness of these additives.
Available from: Julian M Cox
- "If enteric pathogens are present, reducing GIT contents reduces pathogen load and cross-contamination during transportation and processing (Russell 2002). The administration of organic acids, sodium nitrate and an experimental chlorate product prior to pickup was shown to decrease Salmonella population in the caeca and crop (Byrd et al. 2001, 2003; Jung et al. 2003). "
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ABSTRACT: Poultry meat has been associated frequently and consistently with the transmission of enteric pathogens, including Salmonella and Campylobacter. This association has resulted in the development of HACCP-based intervention strategies. These strategies (hurdles) begin with elite breeder flocks and filter down the production pyramid. These hurdles include those already established, such as biosecurity, vaccination, competitive exclusion, pre- and probiotics, feed and water control, and those more experimental, such as bacteriophage or immunoglobulin therapy. The reduction in enteropathogens entering the processing plant, which employs critical control points, further reduce the exposure of consumers to these organisms. The synergistic application of hurdles will result in an environment that is restrictive and detrimental to enteropathogen colonization and contamination.
Available from: Robin C Anderson
- "This chlorate-containing compound, when fed to meat animals 24–48 h prior to slaughter, dramatically reduces and even eliminates experimentally introduced pathogens (i.e. E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica) in the gastrointestinal tract (Anderson et al., 2001a,b; Callaway et al., 2002, 2003; Jung et al., 2003). Any absorption of chlorate removes the compound from its desired site of action (the gastrointestinal tract) and increases the risk of chlorate residues in the edible products. "
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ABSTRACT: The recently recognized potential of sodium chlorate as a possible preharvest food safety tool for pathogen reduction in meat animals has spurred interest in the pharmacokinetics of intraruminally dosed chlorate. Six Loala cattle were assigned (one heifer and one steer per treatment) to one of three intraruminal doses of radiolabeled sodium [36Cl]chlorate (21, 42, or 63 mg/kg body weight) administered in four equal aliquots over a 24-h period. Blood and serum were collected (29 samples in 48 h). Total radioactive residues were measured and the radioactive moieties were speciated. Chlorate appeared rapidly in blood and serum after dosing. For animals administered a dose of 42 or 63 mg/kg, the half-life of absorption was estimated at 0.6-0.9 h. Serum chlorate concentrations progressively increased with aliquot administration until peaking at 6-21 parts per million at 26 h. Between aliquot administrations, serum chlorate levels typically peaked in 3.5 h or less. The half-life of chlorate elimination ranged between 6.9 and 11 h, depending on the dose. Ultimately, absorption of chlorate removes it from its desired site of action, the lower gastrointestinal tract, thereby reducing its efficacy. Further research is needed to develop a chlorate formulation that will allow passage to the lower gastrointestinal tract.
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