Renal Effects of Supernatant from Macrophages Activated by Crotalus durissus cascavella Venom: The Role of Phospholipase A2 and Cyclooxygenase

Faculty of Medicine, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Ceará, Ceará, Brazil
Pharmacology & Toxicology 02/2003; 92(1):14-20. DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0773.2003.920103.x
Source: PubMed


In Brazil, the genus Crotalus is responsible for approximately 1500 cases of snakebite annually. The most common complication in the lethal cases is acute renal failure, although the mechanisms of the damaging effects are not totally understood. In this work, we have examined the renal effects caused by a supernatant of macrophages stimulated by Crotalus durissus cascavella venom as well the potential role of phospholipase A2 and cyclo-oxygenase. Rat peritoneal macrophages were collected and placed in a RPMI medium and stimulated by crude Crotalus durissus cascavella venom (1, 3 or 10 microg/ml) for 1 hr. They were then washed and kept in a culture for 2 hr. The supernatant (1 ml) was tested in an isolated perfused rat kidney. The first 30 min. of each experiment were used as an internal control, and the supernatant was added to the system after this period. All experiments lasted 120 min. A study of toxic effect on perfusion pressure, glomerular filtration rate, urinary flow percent of sodium tubular transport and percent of proximal tubular sodium transport was made. The lowest concentration of venom (1 microg/ml) was not statistically different from the control values. The most intense effects were seen at 10 microg/ml for all renal parameters. The infusion of the supernatant of macrophages stimulated with crude venom (3 or 10 microg/ml) increased the perfusion pressure, glomerular filtration rate and urinary flow, decreased the percent of sodium tubular transport and percent of proximal tubular sodium transport. Dexamethasone (10 microM) and quinacrine (10 microM) provided protection against the effect of the venom on glomerular filtration rate, urinary flow, percent of sodium tubular transport, percent of proximal tubular sodium transport and perfusion pressure. Indomethacin (10 microM) and nordiidroguaretic acid (1 microM) reversed almost all functional changes, except those of the perfusion pressure. These results suggest that macrophages stimulated with Crotalus durissus cascavella venom release mediators capable of promoting nephrotoxicity in vitro. Moreover, phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase products are involved in these biologic effects.

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