Application of Different Methods for the Diagnosis of Paratuberculosis in a Dairy Cattle Herd in Argentina

Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Mar de Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B (Impact Factor: 1.57). 03/2003; 50(1):20-6. DOI: 10.1046/j.1439-0450.2003.00606.x
Source: PubMed


Paratuberculosis (Ptbc) has a high prevalence in Argentina, that affects dairy and beef cattle. The culture is the gold standard to the diagnosis of the disease. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis), the aetiological agent, is difficult to isolate and grow in culture. In this study, 24 randomly selected cows of the Fresian breed from a dairy herd with a history of Ptbc were used to evaluate the performance of different diagnostic techniques. These animals did not show clinical signs of the disease. However, another animal from this herd presented evidence of clinical disease at the moment of the present study. This animal was necropsied and one strain of M. paratuberculosis was isolated from faeces, lymph nodes and intestine. Serum for indirect absorbed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) tests and whole blood samples to perform gamma interferon (gammaIFN) release assays were obtained from each animal. Faeces and milk samples to carry out bacteriological cultures, PCR identification of M. paratuberculosis, and direct examinations of smears with Ziehl-Neelsen's (ZN) stain were also collected. Tuberculin test with bovine purified protein derivative (PPD) in the caudal fold was performed. The results showed that 10 out of 24 animals (41.6%) were positive to ELISA. Eight strains of M. paratuberculosis were isolated, six from faeces, two from milk. Five of the animals that excreted the bacteria through faeces were ELISA-positive, whereas the excreters through milk were negative to ELISA. No positive samples by AGID were obtained in clinical asymptomatic animals. Seven samples gave positive gammaIFN results with avian PPD, but only two of these animals were confirmed with culture. Direct PCR, to detect IS900 (M. paratuberculosis) in faeces and milk samples, was negative, but PCR using material taken from faecal and milk cultures gave positive results before visualizing the colonies. No sample was positive by PCR directed to IS6110 (M. tuberculosis complex). There was not always agreement between isolations and ZN in the studied samples. In conclusion, the absorbed ELISA was useful to detect positive animals and excreters through faeces but not through milk. PCR applied to cultures with incipient development before the visualization of colonies was effective to specifically determine the presence of M. paratuberculosis. The gammaIFN test was not able to detect the most positive animals confirmed by culture. The importance of using ELISA and cultures is emphasized by this study but it is necessary to continue with the gammaIFN test development for early detection of the disease.

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Available from: Angel Cataldi, Jul 05, 2014
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    • "Recent advances in diagnostics, prophylaxis/vaccination alternative therapeutic modalities (Paolicchi et al., 2003; Tripathi et al., 2006; Kumar et al., 2007, 2014; Munjal et al., 2007; Deb et al., 2011; 2013; Dhama Singh et al (2014) "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences
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    • "Particularly in dairy cattle, losses of milk production and poor body condition followed by death or culling are predominant (Hasanova and Pavlik, 2006). The economic losses due to Paratuberculosis in Argentina are estimated to be 22.0 million dollars for breeding cattle and and 6.3 million dollars for dairy cattle in the breeding livestock area of Buenos Aires province (Paolicchi et al., 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: To study the deficiency of minerals and its relationship with Paratuberculosis, blood, serum, and fecal samples were obtained from 75 adult bovines without clinical symptoms of the disease and from two bovines with clinical symptoms of the disease, from two beef herds with a previous history of Paratuberculosis in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Serum samples were processed by ELISA and feces were cultured in Herrolds medium. Copper, zinc and iron in serum were quantified by spectrophotometry and selenium was measured by the activity of glutathione peroxidase. We also determined copper, zinc, iron and molybdenum concentrations in pastures and the concentration of sulfate in water. Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map) was isolated from 17.3% of fecal samples of asymptomatic animals and from the fecal samples from the two animals with clinical symptoms. All the Map-positive animals were also ELISA-positive or suspect, and among them, 84.6% presented low or marginal values of selenium and 69.2% presented low or marginal values of copper. The two animals with clinical symptoms, and isolation of Map from feces and organs were selenium-deficient and had the lowest activity of glutathione peroxidase of all the animals from both herds. All the animals negative to Map in feces and negative to ELISA had normal values of Se, while 13.8% of animals with positive ELISA or suspect and culture negative presented low levels of Se. Half of the animals that were negative both for ELISA and culture in feces were deficient in copper but none of them presented low values of selenium. The content of molybdenum and iron in pasture was high, 2.5 ppm and 1.13 ppm in one herd and 2.5 ppm and 2.02 ppm in the other, respectively, whereas the copper:molybdenum ratio was 1.5 and 5.2, respectively. These results do not confirm an interaction between imbalances of the micronutrients and clinical Paratuberculosis, but show evidence of the relationship between selenium deficiencies in animals with Map infection and ELISA positive results.
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    • "On the other hand, our IgG2/PPA-ELISA improved the number of subclinically infected cattle detected as compared with conventional IgG/PPA-ELISA (53.8 versus 23.1%), maintaining high levels of specificity. Nevertheless, this sensitivity is slightly lower than that reported by Paolicchi [33] using an IgG/PPA-ELISA, although this could be related to the number of animals included (26 versus 8 animals). "
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    ABSTRACT: Johne's Disease or Paratuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous enteritis disease affecting ruminants. Detection of subclinically infected animals is difficult, hampering the control of this disease. The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of detection of IgG isotypes in a PPA-ELISA to improve the recognition of cattle naturally infected with Map in different stages. A total of 108 animals from Tuberculosis-free herds were grouped as follows: exposed (n = 30), subclinically infected (n = 26), clinically infected (n = 14), and healthy controls (n = 38). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves of isotypes/PPA-ELISAs were constructed and areas under the curves were compared to evaluate the performance of each test. Our study demonstrated that the conventional PPA-ELISA (detecting IgG) is the best to identify clinically infected animals with high sensitivity (92.9%) and specificity (100%). Meanwhile, IgG2/PPA-ELISA improved the number of subclinically infected cattle detected as compared with conventional IgG/PPA-ELISA (53.8 versus 23.1%). In addition, it had the maximum sensitivity (65.0%, taking into account all Map-infected cattle). In conclusion, the combination of IgG and IgG2/PPA-ELISAs may improve the identification of Map-infected cattle in different stages of disease. The usefulness of IgG2 detection in serological tests for Johne's Disease diagnosis should be further evaluated.
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