The fun, food, and fitness project (FFFP): the Baylor GEMS pilot study

Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030-2600, USA.
Ethnicity & disease (Impact Factor: 1). 12/2003; 13(1 Suppl 1):S30-9.
Source: PubMed


The Girls health Enrichment Multisite Studies (GEMS) Fun, Food, and Fitness Project (FFFP) was designed to prevent obesity among 8-year-old African-American girls.
Twelve-week, two-arm parallel group randomized controlled pilot study.
Summer day camp and homes in Houston, Texas.
Thirty-five girls and their parents or caregivers were randomly assigned to treatment (N=19) or control groups (N=16).
Girls in the intervention group attended a special 4-week summer day camp, followed by a special 8-week home Internet intervention for the girls and their parents. Control group girls attended a different 4-week summer day camp, followed by a monthly home Internet intervention, neither of which components included the GEMS-FFFP enhancements.
Body mass index (BMI), consumption of fruit, 100% fruit juice, and vegetables (FJV), physical activity.
After adjusting for baseline BMI, there were no significant differences in BMI between treatment and control group girls, either at the end of the 4-week summer day camp, or after the full 12-week intervention. By the end of the summer camp, the subgroup of treatment group girls heavier at baseline exhibited a trend (P<.08) toward lower BMI, compared to their heavier counterparts in the control group. Overall results at the end of the 12-week program demonstrated substantial, although not significant, differences between treatment and control groups in the hypothesized directions. On average, less than half the treatment sample logged onto the Website, which limited intervention dose.
Summer day camp appears to offer promise for initiating health behavior change. Effective methods must be developed and tested to enhance log-on rates among healthy children and their parents before Internet programs can achieve their potential.

Download full-text


Available from: Tom Baranowski
  • Source
    • "However, Stice et al. (2006) used a disease-centric approach and targeted only trials that examined BMI as a dependent variable. The decision to use a disease-centric approach rather than examining weight-related health behaviors was based on the evidence that trials can produce changes in diet and physical activity without changing BMI (Baranowski et al., 2003; Luepker et al., 1996). Similarly, a more restrictive meta-analysis with an obesity intervention/prevention orientation reviewed physical activity interventions evaluated using accelerometers (Metcalf, Henley, & Wilkin, 2012). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate and quantify the evidence for health promotion interventions in children and adolescents. Method 96 independent samples of smoking, physical activity, and diet studies were included. Outcomes included both objective and self-reports of health behavior, as well as proxy measures such as fitness. Results The aggregated effect was significant (g = .20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.08–0.32, n = 96). A significant effect of intervention was observed at approximately 1-year follow-up (g = .07, 95% CI = 0.02–0.14, n = 20). The greatest risk of bias was failure to blind outcome assessment, which occurred in 21% of studies. Most studies lacked sufficient detail to determine the quality of their randomization sequence (58%). Additional concerns about risk of bias for individual studies were minimal. Overall, the quality of this finding was moderate using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria. Conclusion Health promotion interventions are effective for modifying health behavior; however, effect sizes are small.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Pediatric Psychology
  • Source
    • "No studies to date have examined the components of relatedness, competence and autonomy in the design of youth activity programs. Two studies looking at community-based interventions for increasing activity levels in youth included only an educational component, and results were inconclusive (4, 5). The main aim of this study was to determine the influence of programing framed in self-determination theory (SDT) constructs for adolescents’ physical activity engagement in an urban faith community. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many adolescents are not meeting recommended levels for physical activity. Increasing physical activity among urban African American youth is both a challenge and a public health priority. Most research in community-based interventions has taken a didactic approach, focusing on skill and knowledge development alone, with inconclusive results. This 10-week progressive activity intervention with adolescents in an urban faith community introduced a self-determination theory (SDT) approach with the aim of promoting the adoption of self-management skills necessary for sustaining activity. Components of SDT included relatedness, competence, and autonomy. Together with didactics, aligning activities with participant interests, and using existing social structures for health message delivery, the approach led to high satisfaction ratings for the three components of SDT along with improved skills, knowledge, and outcomes in cardiovascular fitness. Understanding and utilizing approaches that enhance enjoyment, personal choice, confidence, and social affiliation may lead to more lasting healthy activity behaviors and attitudes than didactic approaches alone in this and other adolescent populations. The SDT is reviewed in the context of this youth intervention.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Frontiers in Public Health
  • Source
    • "Preference for physical activity was examined in four studies [46,54,55,57]. Positive intervention effects as well as positive effects on the physical activity outcome were found in two of these studies [46,57]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many interventions aiming to increase children's physical activity have been developed and implemented in a variety of settings, and these interventions have previously been reviewed; however the focus of these reviews tends to be on the intervention effects on physical activity outcomes without consideration of the reasons and pathways leading to intervention success or otherwise.To systematically review the efficacy of physical activity interventions targeting 5-12 year old children on potential mediators and, where possible, to calculate the size of the intervention effect on the potential mediator. A systematic search identified intervention studies that reported outcomes on potential mediators of physical activity among 5-12 year old children. Original research articles published between 1985 and April 2012 were reviewed. Eighteen potential mediators were identified from 31 studies. Positive effects on cognitive/psychological potential mediators were reported in 15 out of 31 studies. Positive effects on social environmental potential mediators were reported in three out of seven studies, and no effects on the physical environment were reported. Although no studies were identified that performed a mediating analysis, 33 positive intervention effects were found on targeted potential mediators (with effect sizes ranging from small to large) and 73% of the time a positive effect on the physical activity outcome was reported. Many studies have reported null intervention effects on potential mediators of children's physical activity; however, it is important that intervention studies statistically examine the mediating effects of interventions so the most effective strategies can be implemented in future programs.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · BMC Public Health
Show more