Article

Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage

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Abstract

Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting in no favorable impact on protein loss.

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... Dias (2015) suggested that applying oil to hair regularly would enhance lubrication effect and prevent the breakage of hair. Rele and Mohile (2003) who compared the effect of mineral oil, coconut oil, and sunflower oil on damaged hair reported that the loss of protein from hair was minimized by coconut oil because it was able to penetrate the hair and fill the gap to keep hair protein intact. Mineral oil and sunflower oil did not penetrate the hair but they were adsorbed to the surface of hair, enhancing shine and reducing friction (Rele & Mohile, 2003). ...
... Rele and Mohile (2003) who compared the effect of mineral oil, coconut oil, and sunflower oil on damaged hair reported that the loss of protein from hair was minimized by coconut oil because it was able to penetrate the hair and fill the gap to keep hair protein intact. Mineral oil and sunflower oil did not penetrate the hair but they were adsorbed to the surface of hair, enhancing shine and reducing friction (Rele & Mohile, 2003). ...
... This would account for the relatively small increase of protein leak in BH compared to VH. Wolfram et al. (1970) suggested that the reaction of hydrogen peroxide on hair keratin was mostly limited to cystine amino acid based on the fact that the amount of cysteic acid in the protein extracted from bleached hair quadrupled that of the protein extracted from untreated hair. High alkaline condition of bleaching which swells and opens up the cuticle layer would allow bleaching agent to pass through the cuticle, and as a result protein of cell membrane complex and also the matrix protein of cortex, which are more susceptible than the α-helix protein, could be oxidized into smaller molecules which could leak by cosmetic treatments such as shampooing, permanent wave, etc. (Grosvenor et al., 2018;Rele & Mohile, 2003). The effect of bleaching reported in this research was based on the usage of a specific brand of the bleaching agent chosen for this study. ...
Article
Effect of hair conditioner formulated with Argan oil or Camellia oil was investigated on the protection of hair damaged by bleaching. Six different rinse-off type hair conditioners were made with the basic ingredients of hair conditioner and one of the following conditioning agent; Argan oil (AO), Camellia oil (CO), Palmitic acid (PA), Stearic acid (SA), Oleic acid (OA), and Linoleic acid (LA). L*, a*, b* color values and tensile strength, elongation were measured, and the amount of protein leak was examined using the Bradford Protein Assay. Statistical significance was tested using the SPSS statistical software. Although both AO and CO were effective in protecting the tensile properties of bleached hair, significant effects were observed with AO in enhancing the tensile strength and retaining the color of bleached hair. This might be due possibly to the difference in the composition of four major fatty acids in Argan oil and Camellia oil.
... 8 Several agents including mineral oil, coconut oil and sunflower oil, have been evaluated for their use in hair fall or prevention of hair damage. 9 Micronutrients are important components in the normal hair follicle cycle and cellular turnover. 10 Sulphur amino acids (cysteine and methionine) are useful for keratin hair protein synthesis. ...
... Affinity for hair proteins and structure and molecular weight of the components decides its ability to penetrate inside the hair shaft and prevent loss of proteins from hairs. 9 In this survey, desired control was rated positively by more than 82% in TE (41-80% desired control) and 69% dermatologists in AGA (21-60% desired control). This is another surrogate marker for the efficacy of Folliserum. ...
... For example, mineral oil is commonly used in hair oil formulations due to its non-greasy property. 9 Folliserum is non-sticky and non-greasy formulation. Most (84%) dermatologists in this survey rated Folliserum as "Very good" or "Good" for its aesthetic properties. ...
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p>To evaluate practice pattern and preference for use of serum peptide formulation by dermatologists for the treatment of alopecia. Dermatologists in India were administered a questionnaire consisting of questions related to number of patients with alopecia seen every week, investigations, prevalence of nutritional deficiencies and use of serum peptide formulation in telogen effluvium (TE) and androgenetic alopecia (AGA). The responses were analysed as number and percentages. Out of 124 dermatologists, 38 (31%) reported that they see 11-15 patients with TE every week and 31 (25%) reported seeing 11-15 patients of AGA per week. According to 51 (41%) dermatologists, 40-60% patients with hair loss have some nutritional deficiency and 95 (77%) reported that iron deficiency profile, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), vitamin B1 and vitamin D level estimation is necessary in patients with TE. A total of 86 (69%) dermatologists preferred serum peptide formulation in patients with TE and AGA. Ninety nine (80%) and 75 (60%) dermatologists reported “very good” or “good” efficacy of serum peptide in TE and AGA respectively. Ninety nine (80%) dermatologists said, gender is not an important criterion for choosing a serum peptide in hair fall. For aesthetics related parameters, Folliserum (Abbott Health care Pvt Ltd) was rated as “Very good” and “Good” by 66 (53%) and 38 (31%) dermatologists respectively. According to dermatologists in India, nutritional deficiency is common in patients with alopecia. Majority of the survey participants rated Folliserum as “Very good” or “Good” for its efficacy and aesthetic parameters. </p
... Study undertaken using scalp hair surface roughness, wetting, charge characteristics etc., provide understanding of physical characteristics like shine and combability of scalp hair [4,9,24]. These studies provide details of cross linkages of disulphide bonds association, peptide chains and side salt chains hosting trace minerals thro histological process and exogenous activities like routine hair washing, grooming, application of soaps, shampoos, conditioners, dyeing and other hair styling using chemical, mechanical and heat process [9,24,25]. Therefore increased uptake levels of calcium accumulation at the cuticle surface is the result of absorbed water content due to alkalinity, increased hardness and pH of water. ...
... Therefore there is a possibility of treated Most of the shampoos are primarily used to cleanse the hair but in the process they may also remove natural oils from the hair surface. Conditioners act by way of the opposite process with ingredients adhere to hairs surface and add shine to the hair [25]. SEM morphological studies on hair shaft of female volunteers show that styling conditions using cosmetics, dyeing or bleaching and grooming styles could lead to hair shaft damage but control group practicing using oil either pre or post application of hair wash show no damage [26]. ...
... Coconut oil, but not sunflower or mineral oil, can penetrate the hair shaft and reduce protein loss [25]. Surface wetting characteristics study using AFM show that hydrocarbon liquids like oil preferentially wet the cuticle edges but water seen to penetrate the bulk of the hair [27]. ...
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Water borne micro minerals calcium and aluminium pick up in human scalp hair cuticle and its change due to water quality and or the influence of hair care substances were identified using Scanning Electron Microscope/Silicon Drift Detector-Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/SDD-EDS), a non-digestive and a non destructive method. Scalp hair obtained from four male volunteers, two each from urban and rural area respectively were used for this study where water quality supply to homes representing treated and untreated water supply as a reference. Water borne elements calcium and aluminium in the hair cuticle was significant and showed a clear trend among volunteers of urban and rural. Estimated pick up in concentration of calcium and aluminium are ascribed due to untreated ground water used directly in rural homes combined with oxidative damage caused due to periodic application of hair colouring substances and usage of uncontrolled aluminium containing coagulants/flocculants in treated water supply to urban homes respectively. Application of coconut oil on the scalp hair practised by a rural volunteer before hair wash and subsequent SEM/SDD-EDS analysis showed lower calcium pick up. Thus SEM/SDD-EDS is one of the suitable techniques to estimate concentration of water borne minerals in scalp hair cuticle.
... [4,9,24] These studies provide details of cross-linkages of disulfide bonds association, peptide chains and side salt chains hosting trace minerals through histological process, and exogenous activities such as routine hair washing, grooming, application of soaps, shampoos, conditioners, dyeing, and other hair styling using chemical, mechanical, and heat process. [9,24,25] Therefore, increased uptake levels of calcium accumulation at the cuticle surface are the result of absorbed water content due to alkalinity, increased hardness, and pH of water. The permissible limits of total solids in water, particularly in the rural area, are far exceeding the limit as observed through various studies conducted by the Government of India, Ministry of Water Resources, Central Ground Water Board, and South Eastern Coastal Region for Virudhunagar district, where rural area Watrap and Srivilliputhur town is located. ...
... Hair conditioners found to act by way of the opposite process with ingredients adhering to hairs surface and add shine to the hair. [25] SEM morphological studies on the hair shaft of female volunteers show that styling conditions using cosmetics, dyeing or bleaching, and grooming styles could lead to hair shaft damage, but control group practicing using oil either pre-or post-application of hair wash show no damage. [26] It is not clear whether this control group used treated or untreated water for routine hair washing. ...
... Coconut oil, but not sunflower or mineral oil, can penetrate the hair shaft and reduce protein loss. [25] Surface wetting characteristic study using AFM shows that hydrocarbon liquids such as oil preferentially wet the cuticle edges but water has seen to penetrate the bulk of the hair. [27] Similar observation in our study also shows that coconut oil penetrates the hair shaft resulting in six times reduced pickup of calcium to 0.11%wt % compared to 0.69%, thus preventing the water to penetrate the hair surface. ...
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Background and Significance Still vast majority of the population in urban and rural set up using varied water quality for their day today washing of their hair in many parts of the countries may suffer or experience rough hair or uncombable syndrome. The quality of maintaining healthy hair may be impaired due to salty ions from water sources, dyes, or pollutants etc., We have identified a well-known instrumental technique SEM/SDD-EDS method to identify and estimate the waterborne minerals in the scalp hair cuticle in a non-destructive way. Materials and Methods Identify volunteers of urban and rural folks using treated or untreated water for their routine hair wash at least for two consecutive years and examine their scalp hair cuticle using SEM/SDD- EDS. Results Water borne minerals calcium and aluminium pick up were distinctly identified in the scalp hair cuticle as reflected by the quality of water used in urban and rural set up. Further restoration of lipid layer through prior application of coconut oil and or usage of conditioners prevents calcium pick up. Thereby, SEM/SDD-EDS is one of the suitable techniques to estimate the concentration of waterborne minerals in the scalp hair cuticle.
... 112 CNO is found to have a strong affinity for hair proteins and it easily penetrates the hair shaft due to its low molecular weight and straight linear chain. 43 Supporting this, a study done using mineral oil, CNO and sunflower oil on prevention of hair damage showed that CNO was the only oil to show a marked decline in protein loss for both damaged and undamaged hair when it was used as a pre-washed or post-washed product. This observation was explained in terms of the FA composition of CNO. ...
... Lauric acid, the principal FA, leads to CNO being a hair-enriching oil compared to other oils tested. 43 Ruetsch et al. 113 investigated on the penetration of CNO and mineral oil into human hair fibers. The study showed a higher penetration of CNO compared to mineral oil. ...
Article
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Coconut oil is an integral part of Sri Lankan and many South Asian diets. Initially, coconut oil was classified along with saturated fatty acid food items and criticized for its negative impact on health. However, research studies have shown that coconut oil is a rich source of medium-chain fatty acids. Thus, this has opened new prospects for its use in many fields. Beyond its usage in cooking, coconut oil has attracted attention due to its hypocholesterolemic, anticancer, antihepatosteatotic, antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and skin moisturizing properties. Despite all the health benefits, consumption of coconut oil is still underrated due to a lack of supportive scientific evidence. Even though studies done in Asian countries claim a favorable impact on cardiac health and serum lipid profile, the limitations in the number of studies conducted among Western countries impede the endorsement of the real value of coconut oil. Hence, long-term extensive studies with proper methodol-ogies are suggested to clear all the controversies and misconceptions of coconut oil consumption. This review discusses the composition and functional properties of coconut oils extracted using various processing methods.
... Topic application of coconut oil on the limbs can moisturize skin [228]. Instead, it reduces protein loss if put to the hair before or after shampooing [229]. Coconut oil can be used as natural deodorant [228], body scrub, lip scrub, shaving cream, and personal cleansing agents (e.g., soaps, shampoo, and detergents) [229][230][231][232]. ...
... Instead, it reduces protein loss if put to the hair before or after shampooing [229]. Coconut oil can be used as natural deodorant [228], body scrub, lip scrub, shaving cream, and personal cleansing agents (e.g., soaps, shampoo, and detergents) [229][230][231][232]. ...
Article
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Nowadays, much attention is paid to issues such as ecology and sustainability. Many consumers choose "green cosmetics", which are environmentally friendly creams, makeup, and beauty products, hoping that they are not harmful to health and reduce pollution. Moreover, the repeated mini-lock downs during the COVID-19 pandemic have fueled the awareness that body beauty is linked to well-being, both external and internal. As a result, consumer preferences for makeup have declined, while those for skincare products have increased. Nutricosmetics, which combines the benefits derived from food supplementation with the advantages of cosmetic treatments to improve the beauty of our body, respond to the new market demands. Food chemistry and cosmetic chemistry come together to promote both inside and outside well-being. A nutricosmetic optimizes the intake of nutritional microelements to meet the needs of the skin and skin appendages, improving their conditions and delaying aging, thus helping to protect the skin from the aging action of environmental factors. Numerous studies in the literature show a significant correlation between the adequate intake of these supplements, improved skin quality (both aesthetic and histological), and the acceleration of wound-healing. This review revised the main foods and bioactive molecules used in nutricosmetic formulations, their cosmetic effects, and the analytical techniques that allow the dosage of the active ingredients in the food.
... 23 Coconut oil reduces keratin loss in hair when used in hair grooming products, particularly for African hair. 24 It is a major component of hair shampoos, conditioners creams and ointments where it is employed for its strengthening properties for both damaged and undamaged hair. 24 The medium-chain fatty acids in coconut oil primarily destroys lipid coated viruses such as CMV, Epstein-Barr virus, influenza, virus, leukemia virus, pneumo virus and hepatitis C virus, by disrupting their membranes, thus interfering with virus assembly and maturation. ...
... 24 It is a major component of hair shampoos, conditioners creams and ointments where it is employed for its strengthening properties for both damaged and undamaged hair. 24 The medium-chain fatty acids in coconut oil primarily destroys lipid coated viruses such as CMV, Epstein-Barr virus, influenza, virus, leukemia virus, pneumo virus and hepatitis C virus, by disrupting their membranes, thus interfering with virus assembly and maturation. 18 ...
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Plant and seed oils have been used for centuries and possibly millennia in Nigeria and Africa for the maintenance of healthy skin and the traditional treatment of skin disorders. In recent times, some of these oils have regained popularity due to their availability and affordability coupled with concerns about the side effects of commercially processed skin care products. This is to assess the chemical properties, current knowledge, source of procurement, indications for topical use, benefits, and possible adverse effects of six plant oils and one animal fat commonly used in Nigeria. Methodology This is a literature review and interview with traditional healers and alternative health practitioners to document the traditional, medical, cosmetics, and other usage of oils for skin and scalp care in the African context. Literature review was done on the biochemical and pharmacological properties of each of the seven oils. Searches were made from PubMed, African Journal online, Medline and google scholar. Medical subject heading terms used in the search include Shea butter, coconut oil, palm kernel oil, palm oil, soy oil, Baobab oil and python oil. Result and Conclussion Plant and seed oils used locally in Nigeria and other African countries for skin care and treatment have several benefits due to the constituents of the plant oils (free fatty acids, triglycerides, ceramides, phospholipids, vitamins and antioxidants) which have been shown to promote healthy skin barrier function, wound healing and have anti‐inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. They are however not without adverse effects, which may be mainly due to processing and storage hygiene. Further studies are required on these oils in view of their potential in the development of novel skincare products and dermatological therapies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Ketones have powerful benefits for the brain and treatment of epilepsy and Alzheimer's. Vitamins, and minerals improves insulin secretion and symptoms of diabetes, protects the body from cancers by the removal of free radicals that cause premature aging and degenerative disease, support thyroid function, protect against kidney disease and bladder infection, keep hair and skin healthy, prevent wrinkles, sagging skin and age spots and provides sun protection, treat drug resistant epilepsy, improve dental health and reduces bad breath and abdominal fat[89][90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99][100]. ...
... Coconut uses, nutrition content and health benefits[89][90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99][100]. ...
Article
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1. Abstract The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding natural food flavoring additives (annas, cloves, cinnamon, cocoa, chocolate, vanilla and coconut) and food coloring additives (Raspberry Rose E124, Sunset Yellow E 110 and Tartrazine Yellow E 102) to traditional Egyptian cookies containing spirulina, as a source of natural bioactive molecules, on the acceptability of the smell, taste and color of the cookies using a sensory evaluation panel of 10 members. The initial smell of cookies containing spirulina was musty-seawater to fishy-seawater and the taste was sour and bitter. The food flavoring additives cocoa, chocolate and cinnamon powders and anise and clove oils affected the taste and smell of spirulina cookies, but their effects did not enhance the acceptability of these cookies. Addition of coconut and vanilla oils improved the taste and smell and enhanced the acceptability of the cookies. They made the taste delicious, made the smell extremely pleasant and much sweeter and significantly increased the degree of acceptance. The color of cookies containing spirulina was dark bluish green. This bluish green color of spirulina shifted towards red and brownish red after the addition of the Raspberry Rose E124 and Sunset Yellow E110, respectively. However, the acceptability of these cookies was low as the first added salty taste and the second added sour taste to the cookies. Addition of Tartrazine Yellow E 102 enhanced the acceptability of the cookies color. The color of spirulina shifted towards brown which was highly acceptable as the cookies looked like chocolate cookies. The results showed that adding spirulina and coconut and vanilla oils into cookies increased their nutritional values. Spirulina and coconut and vanilla oils contain protein, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals and are rich in antioxidants, all of which will have significant health benefits to school children in Egypt who suffer from malnutrition. 2.
... 112 CNO is found to have a strong affinity for hair proteins and it easily penetrates the hair shaft due to its low molecular weight and straight linear chain. 43 Supporting this, a study done using mineral oil, CNO and sunflower oil on prevention of hair damage showed that CNO was the only oil to show a marked decline in protein loss for both damaged and undamaged hair when it was used as a pre-washed or post-washed product. This observation was explained in terms of the FA composition of CNO. ...
... Lauric acid, the principal FA, leads to CNO being a hair-enriching oil compared to other oils tested. 43 Ruetsch et al. 113 investigated on the penetration of CNO and mineral oil into human hair fibers. The study showed a higher penetration of CNO compared to mineral oil. ...
... Mineral oil (MO) is extensively used in hair-care formulations in India, because of its nongreasy nature, and cost-effectiveness compared to vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. 20 It has a high spreading capability on the hair surface, which improves gloss, and reduces split end formation. 21 Light liquid paraffin oil (LLPO) is the highly refined mineral oil used for cosmetic and medical purposes. ...
... Til oil having the property of forming protective coating layer which prevents from UV radiations. 20 Whenver, til oil itself applied on hair it may form such layer on the hair and shows a uniform labeling signal. While presence of til oil on oil formulations may prevent the other excipient permeation on hair. ...
... They showed that active ingredient extracts from medicinal plants, especially vegetable oils, have a positive effect on hair growth. This is the case of the activity of Cocos nucifera oil that prevents hair loss [6,8], Ricinus communis oil entering into the composition of medicinal preparations [9] and cosmetic preparations [6] as well as Cannabis sativa L. seed oil [10] which stimulate hair growth [5,6]. In India, the flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis are traditionally used to promote growth, prevent hair loss and premature graying, and fight dandruff [4,8]. ...
... This is the case of the activity of Cocos nucifera oil that prevents hair loss [6,8], Ricinus communis oil entering into the composition of medicinal preparations [9] and cosmetic preparations [6] as well as Cannabis sativa L. seed oil [10] which stimulate hair growth [5,6]. In India, the flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis are traditionally used to promote growth, prevent hair loss and premature graying, and fight dandruff [4,8]. ...
Article
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Aim: This study aims to identify the physicochemical parameters for the stability of emulsions prepared with medicinal plant extracts (i); to study the optimum parameters contributing to the stabilization of emulsions used for hair care (ii); to determine the physicochemical and galenical conditions for better stable formulation and the reproducible to ensure a pharmaceutical use (iii) and finally to evaluate the capillary activity of the emulsions prepared in vivo on Cavia porcellus L. (iv). Methodology: To achieve the goal of this study, the water-oil emulsions prepared by the mixture of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flowers extracts (1mg/g and 10mg/g), Cannabis sativa L. seeds oil (1mg/g and 10mg/g), Ricinus communis L. oil, Olea europaea crude oil, and beeswax. The prepared emulsions were tested in vivo on Cavia porcellus L. for 28 days following the protocols established in preliminary studies on cosmetic systems with natural extracts as well as those established for the evaluation of the antialopecic activity. Results: The water-oil emulsion, with a ratio of 4/6, a Hydrophilic/Lipophilic Balance [HLB] of 7, an average globule size of 2.57 ± 1,91μm made with Cannabis sativa L. seed oil (10mg/g), Ricinus communis L. oil, Olea europaea oil, extract of flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (10mg/g), and beeswax exhibited good stability as well as stimulating activity of capillary growth. Conclusion: The stability of a water-in-oil emulsion formulated with natural substances selected for this research depends on the hydrophilic/lipophilic balance, uniformity of the globules distribution in their average size as well as the hydrophilic/lipophilic ratio.
... In contrast, mineral oil has no affinity for proteins and cannot penetrate the hair shaft. [19] The various actions of VCO might be due to its chemical constituents such as lauric acid as an antiviral, antibacterial, and antiprotozoal agent. Myristic acid is a flavoring agent and also helps in stabilizing many proteins. ...
Article
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Background: Coconut oil is of two varieties: virgin and refined oil. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is made by cold-pressing the liquid from the fresh part of coconut meat. It has a milky appearance. This oil extraction method prevents the loss of vitamin E, pro-vitamin A, and polyphenols. It has various properties such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer. Skin is the general structure of the body. It is the first line of protection against traumatic injuries and microorganisms. Aim: This review is focussed on the existing data on the effect of VCO on the skin. Materials and Methods: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for citations for keywords "virgin coconut oil and dermatology" and "virgin coconut oil and skin." In search of the various databases, 13 articles were found on VCO related to skin. Result: Virgin coconut oil is used as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, as skin protector, in Alzheimer's disease, in wound healing and as moisturizer. Conclusion: From this review, it can be concluded that VCO is beneficial for various dermatological disorders. It is antifungal and antibacterial and also acts as an immunomodulator. It also has anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, wound-healing, and skin protective properties.
... A study found that coconut oil helped prevent protein loss from the wet combing of hair when used for fourteen hours. [13] Aloe: A native of southern Africa, the aloe vera plant has fleshy spiny-toothed leaves and red or yellow flowers. It is an ingredient in many cosmetics because it heals moisturizes, and softens skin. ...
... Its consumption helps in maintaining an ideal LDL/HDL (good cholesterol) ratio in the body (http://www.webmd.com). It is used in treatment of acne, arthritis and hair damage (Alexander, 1998;Rele and Mohile, 2003;Lambert et al., 2007). ...
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Phytoremediation is a valuable technology for mitigating soil contamination in agricultural lands, but phytoremediation without economic revenue is unfeasible for land owners and farmers. The use of crops with high biomass and bioenergy for phytoremediation is a unique strategy to derive supplementary benefits along with remediation activities. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a high-biomass crop that can be used for the phytoremediation of polluted lands with additional advantages (biomass and oil). In this study, 40 germplasms of sunflower were screened in field conditions for phytoremediation with the possibility for oil and meal production. The study was carried out to the physiological maturity stage. All studied germplasms mopped up substantial concentrations of Pb, with maximum amounts in shoot > root > seed respectively. The phytoextraction efficiency of the germplasm was assessed in terms of the Transfer factor (TF), Metal removal efficiency (MRE) and Metal extraction ratio (MER). Among all assessed criteria, GP.8585 was found to be most appropriate for restoring moderately Pb-contaminated soil accompanied with providing high biomass and high yield production. The Pb content in the oil of GP.8585 was below the Food safety standard of China, with 59.5% oleic acid and 32.1% linoleic acid. Moreover, amino acid analysis in meal illustrated significant differences among essential and non-essential amino acids. Glutamic acid was found in the highest percentage (22.4%), whereas cysteine in the lowest percentage (1.3%). Therefore, its efficient phytoextraction ability and good quality edible oil and meal production makes GP.8585 the most convenient sunflower germplasm for phytoremediation of moderately Pb-contaminated soil, with fringe benefits to farmers and landowners.
... If used as a moisturizer, the VCO will be able to repair the skin disease in the form of xerosis (Agero and Velarro-Rowell, 2004). Similarly, if the VCO is used as hair oil was able to prevent hair damage as a hair fertilizer (Rele and Mohile, 2003). ...
... Trigliserida tersebut memiliki afinitas yang tinggi untuk menembus sampai pada kutikula dan korteks sel rambut serta dapat melapisi permukaan serat rambut. Hal tersebut menempatkan minyak kelapa sebagai bahan utama sebagai pelindung rambut dari kerusakan atau untuk merawat rambut yang rusak (Rele et al. 2003). ...
Article
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Studi etnofarmasi merupakan pendekatan yang digunakan untuk mengeksplorasi pengetahuan lokal komunitas tertentu dalam hal pemanfaatan tumbuhan obat. Artikel ini membahas tentang metode pengobatan dan tanaman obat yang digunakan untuk perawatan dan pemeliharaan rambut pada beberapa etnis di Indonesia yaitu Aceh, Mandailing, Rejang, Melayu kerinci, Melayu, Jawa, Using, Dayak (Kanayant, Tunjung, Malinau), Bali, Kaili (Ledo, Moma), Seko, Banggai, Sigi. Selain itu studi ini juga bermanfaat untuk mengetahui obat dari bahan alam yang belum banyak diketahui bioaktivitasnya. Metode yang digunakan adalah studi literatur, sedangkan data yang digunakan adalah artikel, database dan textbook yang dipublikasikan dari tahun 1993 sampai 2017. Pencarian informasi literatur dilakukan menggunakan mesin pencarian elektronik artikel dan jurnal penelitian yang dipublikasikan pada beberapa situs, seperti Google, Pubmed, NCBI, Elsevier, dan lain-lain. Hasil data yang didapat disimpulkan bahwa ada 23 jenis spesies tanaman yang digunakan untuk perawatan dan penumbuh rambut dari 20 famili.
... A study found that coconut oil helped prevent protein loss from the wet combing of hair when used for fourteen hours. [13] Aloe: A native of southern Africa, the aloe vera plant has fleshy spiny-toothed leaves and red or yellow flowers. It is an ingredient in many cosmetics because it heals moisturizes, and softens skin. ...
Article
Plants act as a source of food and medicine from long times. A wide range of plant oils are used in cosmetics and toiletry preparations Women are obsessed with looking beautiful. So, they use various beauty products that have herbs to look charming and young. Indian herbs and their significance is popular worldwide. Herbal Cosmetics have growing demand in the world market and is an invaluable gift of nature. Herbal formulations always have attracted considerable attention because of their good activity and comparatively lesser or nil side effects with synthetic drugs. Herbs and spices have been used in maintaining and enhancing human beauty since time immemorial. Herbs such as Sandalwood and Turmeric have long been used by Indian women for skin care. This paper reviews the utility of some Indian medicinal plants in hair care and cosmetics. The association between Ayurveda and cosmeceuticals has also been highlighted in the paper.
... They create a protective film on the surface of the skin, which prevents evaporation of water and preserves the natural moisture and elasticity of the skin. Furthermore, they soften the skin, helping to reduce the appearance of inflammatory deposits and act as an antipruritic (Benatkova, 2010;Draelos, 2010;Fertekova, 2005;Kusmirek, 2005;Rele, Mohile, 2003;Miller, Miller, 1995). ...
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The aim of the paper is to test stability and biophysical properties of hydrophilic and lipophilic emulsions with selected vegetable seed oils: Limnanthes alba, Prunus amygdalus dulcis, Cannabis sativa, Rosa rubiginosa and Hellianthus annuus. Biophysical properties of emulsions are investigated in vivo using non-invasive instrumental methods (corneometry, tewametry and pH) in a group of 12 healthy women volunteers. Their stability profiles (colour, phase separation and centrifugation) under various temperatures (9, 25, 37 and 57 °C) and storage time (24 hours, 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days) were monitored. The moisturising activities of the emulsions supplemented with various oils were comparable. The lipophilic emulsions showed a better ability to improve the condition of the skin barrier due to formation of a surface lipid film. The tested formulations regulated the pH of the skin towards neutral values. Lipophilic emulsions showed earlier phase separation and changes in colour. The greatest resistance to thermal stress during storage was observed for the emulsion bases. Emulsions containing oils, except for those with rosehip and hempseed oils, were stable up to the temperature of 37 °C. The studied emulsion systems are excellent vehicles of vegetable oils and exhibit relatively good stability, benefiting the natural properties of skin.
... Trigliserida tersebut memiliki afinitas yang tinggi untuk menembus sampai pada kutikula dan korteks sel rambut serta dapat melapisi permukaan serat rambut. Hal tersebut menempatkan minyak kelapa sebagai bahan utama sebagai pelindung rambut dari kerusakan atau untuk merawat rambut yang rusak (Rele et al. 2003). ...
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ABSTRAK Studi etnofarmasi merupakan pendekatan yang digunakan untuk mengeksplorasi pengetahuan lokal komunitas tertentu dalam hal pemanfaatan tumbuhan obat. Artikel ini membahas tentang metode pengobatan dan tanaman obat yang digunakan untuk perawatan dan pemeliharaan rambut pada beberapa etnis di Indonesia yaitu Aceh, Mandailing, Rejang, Melayu kerinci, Melayu, Jawa, Using, Dayak (Kanayant, Tunjung, Malinau), Bali, Kaili (Ledo, Moma), Seko, Banggai, Sigi. Selain itu studi ini juga bermanfaat untuk mengetahui obat dari bahan alam yang belum banyak diketahui bioaktivitasnya. Metode yang digunakan adalah studi literatur, sedangkan data yang digunakan adalah artikel, database dan textbook yang dipublikasikan dari tahun 1993 sampai 2017. Pencarian informasi literatur dilakukan menggunakan mesin pencarian elektronik artikel dan jurnal penelitian yang dipublikasikan pada beberapa situs, seperti Google, Pubmed, NCBI, Elsevier, dan lain-lain. Hasil data yang didapat disimpulkan bahwa ada 23 jenis spesies tanaman yang digunakan untuk perawatan dan penumbuh rambut dari 20 famili. PENDAHULUAN Indonesia yang dikenal sebagai negara megabiodiversity tidak hanya kaya akan keanekaragaman flora, fauna dan ekosistemnya tetapi juga memiliki keanekaragaman suku/etnis dengan pengetahuan tradisional dan budaya yang berbeda dan unik tersebar dari Sabang hingga Merauke. Kurangnya dokumentasi mengenai penggunaan tumbuhan obat oleh komunitas tertentu menyebabkan sulitnya pelestarian obat tradisional tersebut (Rosita et al. 2007). Arus modernisasi masuknya budaya dari luar, terutama yang diadopsi oleh generasi muda membuat makin lunturnya pengetahuan lokal pada komunitas tertentu (Bodeker 2000; Windardi et al. 2006). Alternatif pendekatan yang dapat digunakan untuk menggali pengetahuan lokal komunitas tertentu mengenai penggunaan tumbuhan sebagai obat adalah dengan etnofarmasi. Melalui studi ini,
... Penetration of water into the intercuticular region is likely prevented by the hydrophobic oil film at the edge of the cuticle. RBD-CO treatment was effective in Indian hair samples that had been washed, bleached, or ultraviolet (UV) treated (i.e., to stimulate damage from sunlight) in both studies by the same lab group (69,70). Future research should examine effects in hair types of other populations. ...
Article
Coconut oil is a mainstream edible oil that is extracted from the kernel of mature coconuts harvested from the coconut palm. The two main types of coconut oil—copra oil and virgin coconut oil—have similar fatty acid profiles; however the latter contains higher amounts of some nutrients (e.g., vitamin E) and dietary bioactive compounds (e.g., polyphenols). There is increasing popularity for coconut oil products due to perceived health effects of certain medium-chain fatty acids; however, lauric acid (C12:0), the primary fatty acid found in coconut oil, has been suggested to behave as both a medium- and long-chain fatty acid from a metabolic standpoint. Furthermore, research on pure medium-chain fatty acids cannot be directly applied to coconut oil products since it encompasses a large profile of various fatty acids. This narrative review seeks to summarize the current peer-reviewed literature and mechanisms surrounding the health effects of coconut oil products. Limited but consistent evidence supports the topical use for prevention and treatment of atopic dermatitis, as well as in “oil pulling” for prevention of dental caries. Coconut oil products may also be useful in preventing hair damage due to protein loss during grooming processes and ultraviolet (UV) exposure; however, more studies are needed to confirm this effect. Limited evidence does not support use for prevention or treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, bone loss, or glycemic control. Evidence on weight loss and cardiovascular disease warrants larger clinical intervention studies. Refined, bleached, and deodorized copra oil seems to have less of an impact on total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol as compared to butter fat, but not cis unsaturated vegetable oils. In many instances, human clinical and observational studies are needed to confirm many claims on coconut oil products, which are largely based on animal and/or in vitro studies or studies of purified medium-chain fatty acids.
... Laboratory research studies have shown that due to their physical and chemical composition, certain oils exhibit substantially stronger affinities for hair and better capacities to penetrate human hair. [30][31][32][33][34] In contrast with large polyunsaturated fatty acids that do not penetrate well but are able to coat the hair providing slip, small saturated fatty acids are more capable of penetrating and strengthening the hair shaft. This unique property, primarily seen with highly saturated oils, is very desirable since it reduces the swelling of the hair fibers, and thus provides an optimum beneficial effect on the hair. ...
Article
Background: Hair breakage is a common unrecognized form of hair loss in women most often the result of hair weathering and traumatic grooming practices. Lipids are major determinants of the physical properties of the hair. Synsepalum dulcificum seed oil (MFSO®; Miracle Fruit Oil Co., Miami Beach, Florida), is an exotic fruit oil with physicochemical properties suited to providing a superior ability to reduce hair breakage. Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of a hair oil containing MFSO and its effects on hair breakage rates. Methods: Healthy, long-haired women (age range: 19-63 years, mean age: 36.7 years, standard deviation: 10.77 years) with excessive hair breakage were randomized in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study to receive MFSO (n=24), vehicle (n=17), or argan oil (n=16). Measurements of hair length, hair diameter, and Hair Mass Index were performed at baseline, Month 4, and Month 8. Hair Breakage Index and the Healthy Hair Index values were calculated from the trichometer measurements, and subject self-assessment questionnaires were conducted. The primary efficacy endpoints were the percent change in Healthy Hair Index 75 and Healthy Hair Index 50 measurements from baseline to the eighth month. Results: The Healthy Hair Index calculations, expressed as percent change from baseline to Month 4 and from baseline to Month 8, revealed that the MFSO® treatment group improved by 103.6 percent and 215.7 percent for the Healthy Hair Index 75 and 133.7 and 188.3 percent for the Healthy Hair Index 50 values, respectively. When compared with the vehicle and the argan oil brand groups, the Healthy Hair Index levels were significantly higher (p < 0.001) for the MFSO® treatment group, indicating a much greater ability to increase the levels of unbroken hairs by reducing hair breakage. With respect to the mean percent improvements from baseline to Month 4 and Month 8, the MFSO® hair oil treatment group was better than each of the other two treatment groups by at least 117.6 percent and 234.9 percent for the Healthy Hair Index 75 and 316.5 percent and 312 percent for the Healthy Hair Index 50 values, respectively, thereby achieving the primary efficacy objective. Subjects favored the MFSO® hair oil treatment, rating it as safe, effective, and aesthetically pleasing. Conclusions: The MFSO hair oil product is a safe and effective option for the treatment of women suffering from hair breakage and damaged hair.
... Zmniejszenie pęcznienia oraz odbudowa ubytków włosów wpływa na wzrost nawilżenia włosów, dzięki czemu mniej się puszą [8,18] "Używam olejku rycynowego. Naprawdę to super rzecz - włosy są super, skórze głowy też robi świetnie" Olej rycynowy (błędnie nazywany przez internautkę olejkiem) wykazuje powinowactwo do keratyny, tym samym kondycjonuje włosy [19] " -nałożenie oleju przed myciem efektywniejsze -olej kokosowy skuteczniejszy (czesanie oraz pęcznienie) -olej słonecznikowy i mineralny: brak istotnego zmniejszenia pęcznienia [24] 6. kokosowy, "Olejek" SESA Zbadanie efektywności działania "olejku" SESA w porównaniu do oleju kokosowego • Ocena subiektywna probantów -stan skóry głowy -skala parzysta -stan włosów -skala parzysta ...
Article
Lśniące, puszyste i zadbane włosy to istotny element wizerunku i cel, do którego dąży wiele kobiet i mężczyzn. Obecnie istnieje "moda" na olejowanie włosów, czyli aplikację oleju na włosy przed ich myciem w celu poprawy ich kondycji i wyglądu. Doniesienia literaturowe na temat działania olejów na włosy dotyczą najczęściej badania wpływu oleju kokosowego, ale również olejów: słonecznikowego, z orzechów brazylijskich, palmowego, ryżowego, sezamowego, gorczycowego, oliwy z oliwek, a także maseł. Sprawdzano zdolność wnikania olejów do wnętrza włosów, ograniczenie sorpcji wody przez włosy, wpływ olejowania na parametry mechaniczne oraz na stan ogólny włosów i skóry głowy. Porównywano także efektywność stosowania oleju przed oraz po myciu włosów. Wyniki badań potwierdzają obserwacje internatów. Zastosowanie olejów przed myciem włosów poprawia ich rozczesywanie, co z kolei redukuje uszkodzenia powstałe podczas tej procedury. Olej nałożony po myciu włosów nadaje połysk, ale nie wpływa na zmniejszenie pęcznienia włosów oraz odchylenia łusek, co ma istotny wpływ na rozczesywalność włosów. Potwierdzono również efektywność działania oleju kokosowego na włosy, który wnika do wnętrza włosa, chociaż jego rozmieszczenie wewnątrz włosa nie jest równomierne. Niewątpliwie, stosowanie olejów przed myciem włosów poprawia wygląd osłonki włosa oraz zmniejsza powstawanie uszkodzeń wynikające z nadmiernego ich pęcznienia. Jednakże, jednorazowe zastosowanie olejów nie wpływa znacząco na poprawę stanu warstwy korowej.
... Rele and Mohile, (2003) [7] in this study titled are "Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil, on prevention of hair damage". The study was extended to sunflower oil because it is the second most utilizing base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its nonfreezing property and its colorlessness at ambient temperature as the aim was to cover different treatments and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. ...
... The ability of coconut oil to penetrate into hair cuticle and cortex seems to be responsible for this effect. [15] Although the literature supports the usage of coconut oil, in the current study, there was no marked difference in the hair and scalp health among oil users and nonusers. ...
Article
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Introduction: Scalp care is essential because it determines the health and condition of the hair and prevents the diseases of scalp and hair. The objectives of our study were to correlate race and hair types, to determine the awareness of hair care among Malaysian medical students, and to distinguish the factors that affect the health of hair and scalp. Methodology: It was a cross‑sectional study wherein validated questionnaires were given to 240 medical undergraduate students who belonged to three ethnic races of Malaysia, i.e., Chinese, Malay, and Malaysian Indians after their informed consent. The results were then analyzed using percentage statistics. Results: Chinese students had comparatively healthier scalp without dandruff. Most Chinese and Indians had silky type of hair while Malay had dry, rough hair. Chinese and Indians colored their hair and used various styling methods; while among the Malays, this percentage was very less. Regarding hair care practices, males used only shampoo and females used shampoo and conditioner for hair wash. Students also faced dietary and examination‑related stress. Conclusion: Results indicate that there exist morphological differences in hair among the studied population. Since most students color their hair and employ various hairstyling methods, they should be educated regarding best hair care practices to improve their scalp hair condition and health.
... Mineral oil and sunflower oil is not able to penetrate the fiber, resulting in no favorable impact on protein loss. 28 Argan oil: The new arrival Edible argan oil is the oldest type and is prepared by a traditional process involving coldpressing the slightly roasted kernels of the argan tree. The high content of unsaturated fatty acids is thought to contribute to the purported cardio-protective and hepato-protective benefits of edible argan oil. ...
Article
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Vegetable oils have been used for a wide variety of purposes since time immemorial; however, their principle use remains as skin moisturizers, especially in neonates and children. Because of their considerable efficacy and a low side effect profile and bearable cost, these oils are hugely popular as moisturizers among the common people in countries such as India. A wide variety of oils have been used, and newer ones are coming up with each passing day. This article focuses on the different types of vegetable oils and their varied uses in dermatology.
... The composition of fatty acid showed that the coconut oil is rich in saturated fatty acids, with high proportion of lauric acid (43.83%). Lauric acid is the triglyceride component in coconut oil with short chain fatty acid that has a high affinity for hair proteins and its straight linear chain along with low molecular weight makes them easily to penetrate and absorb deeper into the hair shaft [24]. When VCO penetrates the hair it reduces the amount of water absorbs in the hair and leading to lowering of swelling propensity of the cuticle, which limits the upward curving of the surface cuticle [13]. ...
Article
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Tea Tree oil (TTO) contains beneficial properties such as antibacterial, antimicrobial, antiviral and anti-fungal. Whereas, the medium chain fatty acids in Virgin Coconut oil (VCO) able to protect hair follicles from heat, restoring hair’s moisture and other damage. This paper describes the physical properties of seven hair shampoo formulations containing differing amount of TTO and VCO. The essential oils (TTO) applied in these formulations were extracted from fresh tea trees using steam distillation method and the VCO was produced from fermentation of fresh mature kernel coconut. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was conducted to determine the essential oil components of TTO and fatty acid composition of VCO. The shampoo formulations were subjected to evaluation of several parameters namely organoleptic, pH, viscosity, total solid content, foam stability, and dirt dispersion. The results show that the TTO was composed of terpene hydrocarbons with terpinene-4-ol as the major component; meanwhile lauric acid is major component of VCO. All the shampoo formulations were acid-balanced with pH range between 6.23 – 6.43; total solid contents were between 29.92 – 35.61%; stable foaming with the same foam volume for 4 minutes and no dirt was observed. Rheological test showed formulation with 6% TTO (0% VCO) has pseudo-plastic behavior and relatively lower total solid content which are desirable attributes in hair shampoo. Overall, TTO- and VCO-containing shampoo formulations showed ideal physicochemical properties for hair cleansing and treatments.
... Both 1% and 2.5% SLS solutions have been used; the latter concentration was chosen in this study. 7,8 In the oil-shampoo group, hair samples were treated directly with the oil extract to evaluate its effect. After treatment, the excess oil between hair fibres and on the hair surface was removed by pressing the hair samples between two pieces of filter paper, which resulted in varying quantities of oil extract remaining in the hair samples. ...
Article
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Background: Application of herbal paste and oil to a dog's coat and body before rinsing (often combining with shampooing) is a cosmetic therapy available in Japan. It is highly appreciated by users, who claim that the treatment makes the coat shinier, improves volume and eliminates tangles. However, there has been no scientific evaluation of such treatments. Hypothesis/objectives: Improvement of hair condition is derived from oils such as sebum and conditioning oils because chemicals are not used. Therefore, we examined nonpolar lipids (the primary lipids in dog hair) and the botanical oils used in this therapy. Animals: Hair samples were obtained from six beagle dogs. Methods: Groups were based on different combinations of the following processes: rinsing, shampooing, herbal therapy and herbal therapy with oil extract. Analysis of lipids was performed by high performance thin layer chromatography. Results: The processes of shampooing and herbal therapy were associated with an equivalent reduction in cholesterol ester and triglyceride (TG). However, hair treated by herbal therapy combined with oil extract had an almost three-fold higher TG content, even after shampooing. Conclusions and clinical importance: This study demonstrated that the herbal therapy was able to coat hair samples with TG that was not removed with rinsing. Further investigation is required to evaluate the possible benefits of the application of botanical products containing lipids, such as TG, on hair coat quality in dogs.
... Only coconut oil showed significant effects on hair as it reduced protein loss from hair when applied before or after shampooing. This applies on both healthy and damaged hair [49,58]. Coconut oil may also be used as makeup removers, as it can remove even the most resistant waterproof mascara. ...
Article
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Virgin coconut oil is a useful substance in our daily life. It contains a high percentage of lauric acid which has many health benefits. The current industry has developed several methods to extract the oil out from the coconut fruit. This review paper aims to highlight several common extraction processes used in modern industries that includes cold extraction, hot extraction, low-pressure extraction, chilling, freezing and thawing method, fermentation, centrifugation, enzymatic extraction and supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. Different extraction methods will produce coconut oil with different yields and purities of lauric acid, thus having different uses and applications. Challenges that are faced by the industries in extracting the coconut oil using different methods of extraction are important to be explored so that advancement in the oil extraction technology can be done for efficient downstream processing. This study is vital as it provides insights that could enhance the production of coconut oil.
... Among coconut, sunflower and mineral oil, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. 22 Coconut oil, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. The mineral oil and the sunflower oil may have a film effect and adsorb to the surface of the cuticle enhancing shine and diminishing friction. ...
Article
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p>Modern shampoos are much more than just cleansing agents. With rising demands for new milder and ‘greener’ products, the developments in the field of shampoo and conditioners are moving at a faster pace than ever before. Soaps were initially used to clean scalp but are not recommended for hair cleansing because they leave behind a soap scum when mixed with hard water that is difficult to rinse from the hair and scalp. There are different types of shampoos. Besides “normal” cleaning shampoo, there are “specific” shampoos that have additional ingredients targeting some hair problems. Dermatologists most frequently prescribe shampoos but little is taught in medical schools about the hair cosmetics. Most of the prescriptions are based only on the treatment of the scalp and usually disregards the hair fibre health. Hence it is imperative for dermatologists to known about the mechanism of shampoos, different surfactants and where to choose which shampoo.</p
... Another study on hair care which compared mineral oil and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) oil with coconut oil showed that only coconut oil was able to reduce the protein loss from both undamaged and damaged hair (Rele and Mohile 2003). Dermatological studies on the topical antimicrobial efficacy of VCO have been 3 Improving the Value of the Coconut with Biotechnology 40 reported. ...
Chapter
After a short presentation of the technical and legal challenges linked to coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm collecting, this chapter discusses how emerging ethnological and historical approaches have influenced these collecting activities. Then it discloses (i) the various collecting strategies with emphasis on the collection of germplasm showing tolerance to pests and diseases, (ii) varieties with special traits such as the Compact Dwarfs, and (iii) the contribution of geographical and molecular approaches to germplasm identification. In connection with the launching of the recent strategy of the International Coconut Genetic Resources Network (COGENT), an attempt is made to estimate what germplasm will need to be collected in the next decade and the expected outcomes in terms of the number of varieties and populations conserved ex situ. It is suggested that global coordination is needed to limit duplication in the COGENT’s ex situ germplasm collections. Also, special attention needs to be paid to strengthen the involvement of farmers and other stakeholders in the collecting activities.
... Such weakening of the fiber structure leads to crack generation under stress leading to loss of tensile strength and combing breakage [3,4]. Oiling hair as a treatment to control such damage caused by the above-mentioned vectors has been established with several studies [5][6][7][8]. Amongst various hair oils, coconut-based hair oil (CBHO) has been shown to provide maximum benefit owing to its composition and conformational property [9][10][11]. Multiple studies have established that due to its unique chemical structure, coconut oil or its majority combination with other oils can penetrate deeper and faster into the hair cortex as compared to other oils by themselves [5,[12][13][14][15]. ...
Article
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Objective: The present study is intended to characterize the surfactant damage suffered by the hair cortex in routine washing and the mechanistic effect of Coconut Based Hair Oils (CBHO) to mitigate the damage. Methods: Surfactants which diffuse into the hair structure solubilize protein moieties, leading to an increase in porosity and internal surface area as well as the pore volume. The changes in hair pores occurring in the hair cortex are measured by nitrogen sorption method in line with the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) theory. Single fiber tensile parameters were measured using Diastron MTT 175. Color protection was measured quantitatively using spectrophotometer as well as visual rating by trained panelists. Results: The pore surface area data clearly show the benefit of introducing coconut-based hair oils (CBHO) into the hair by preventing increase in hair porosity. A statistically significant decrease in break stress and toughness were observed and the same were reversed by the application of CBHO. A pronounced color protection effect was also recorded with the application of CBHO. Conclusion: The porosity reduction effect seen with the use of CBHO is attributed to the CBHO molecules blocking the diffusion pathways in the endocuticle and the matrix part of the cortical cells, limiting protein surfactant interaction resulting in reduced solubilization and loss. Since, the color molecules are likely to be much smaller than the protein moieties, a pronounced color protection effect suggests that the penetrated CBHO molecules form a dense diffusion barrier in the matrix, cell membrane complex (CMC) and the endocuticle regions of hair - which are the main diffusion pathways out of hair. The study confirms the damage repair potential of CBHO and that it works by increasing the hydrophobicity of hair - both on the hair surface and in the cortex.
... However, multiple application results point out that surfactant washes make the hair fiber significantly more rigid and the mineral oil treatment further enhanced the rigidity effect. The leaching out of protein with surfactant wash and the inability of mineral oil to prevent the same (as seen in the studies reported earlier and referenced above 19,23,25 The 'hybrid' tensile technique used in the present study, coupling the torsional and the extensional stress by stretching the twisted fibers, would quantify both cortex as well as cuticle contribution in resistance to extension. The twisting of the fiber would lead to 1) maximum strain on the peripheral region (Cuticle) 28 and 2) realignment of the IFs in the direction of the twist angle 21 causing realignment as well as breakage of bonds. ...
Article
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Aim: Utilize a matrix of single fiber hair testing methodologies to mechanistically understand the impact of common oiling treatments - Coconut Oil and Mineral Oil - on hair strands. Further, the effect of hair twisting - experienced in everyday grooming practices - on hair strength was investigated under different scenarios. Methods: Study involved multiple surfactant wash cycles of hair swatches with and without overnight hair oil treatments. Instrumental testing was done on strands from hair swatches - Tensile Extension, Torsional Stretching and Tensile Extension of twisted hair fibers. Results: Differentiation was observed in tensile and torsional testing parameters with 20 wash cycles - while no statistical significance was observed in single wash. However, when we combine the two stresses together by extending the twisted hair strands a clear differentiation was seen even in single cycle for coconut oil in comparison with mineral oil and surfactant wash. The differentiation in tensile parameters for twisted fibers becomes much more prominent with multiple cycles. Penetration of coconut oil in hair strands makes the fiber core more flexible and thus, help negotiate the torsional stress at the time of extension. Conclusions: Product benefit discrimination in single strand testing can be amplified by combining multiple stresses in one testing methodology. Observing the consumer habits and incorporating the torsion component in standard tensile testing of hair helps differentiate the two commonly used hair oiling treatments. Coconut Oil was found to significantly increase the tensile strength of twisted fibers owing to its penetration inside hair core.
... The minor aroma activity compounds may characterize the variety of coconut oils. Traditionally, coconut oils have been used not only for foods but also for non-food applications 29,30 . Thus, wider research on the volatile composition of coconut oils should be conducted. ...
Article
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Abstract Volatile compounds in foods are a significant factor that affects food intake and preference. However, volatile components in edible oils are poorly understood due to a strong matrix effect. In this study, we developed a method of extracting volatile compounds from extra virgin coconut oil (EVCO) by means of oiling-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (OA-LLE). Consequently, 44 aroma compounds were isolated and identified from only 5 g of EVCO. Various aroma compounds were detected in addition to δ-lactones. The ratio of the natural abundance of the enantiomers of δ-lactones in EVCO was also revealed. Compared with the conventional methods of solvent assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and head-space solid-phase micro extraction (HS-SPME), OA-LLE was able to isolate a wide range and large number of volatile compounds from EVCO without leaving oil residues. Therefore, isolating aroma compounds from edible oil based on the oiling-out effect should provide an innovative extraction method.
... Also, increasingly used in product formulations, plant oils have gained wide acceptance over the years as interesting components that promote a safer, natural and sustainable approach. Coconut oil showed significant reduction of protein loss in both damaged and undamaged hair, treated with pre-wash and post-wash preparations containing this oil [16]. The association of antioxidant shampoo and coconut oil as post-shampoo application provided protection against hair damage because of the effect of pollution, in several study participants [17]. ...
Article
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Objective: Cosmetic and dermatological products, mainly the hair treatments, are projected to have remarkable growing in coming years. Nanotechnology, specifically nanoemulsions, have potential to be used in several hair products, owing to their beneficial properties. Concurrently, plant-derived cosmetics have become more popular over the years to consumers who prefer a safer, natural, and sustainable approach. There is a lack of studies combining plant oils and nanotechnology for haircare formulations. In this work, different plant oil-loaded nanoemulsions were prepared to investigate the influence of their particle size, zeta potential, and composition on hair treatment efficacy. Methods: Coconut, olive and abyssinian oils, alone or in combination, were loaded into nanoemulsions by High-Pressure Homogenization method (HPH). The mean particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential were measured by the dynamic light scattering (DLS) method and a stability test was performed for five months. A sensorial screening evaluation performed by the analyst and the combing test using Dia-Stron® instrumentation were applied on hair tresses treated by these nanoemulsions. Results: The use of different plant oils for nanoemulsion resulted in distinct final particle sizes and zeta potential. However, results suggested no significant difference between them in hair tresses combing efficacy compared by Dia-Stron® instrument testing. Moreover, the plant-loaded nanoemulsions with increased concentration of cationic surfactant indicated a 50% reduction in combing force using this device when compared to control, in addition to better sensory results by screening test compared to other nanoemulsions and control. Conclusion: The composition of plant oils, particle size or zeta potential of the prepared nanoemulsions does not seem to significantly influence hair performance. Thus, we suggest that finding the right balance between cationic surfactant and plant oils may be the most appropriate path to develop effective nanoemulsions in hair treatment.
... Few scientific research data is available on the ethnopharmacology of vegetable oils that possess fatty acids as chief phytochemicals [15,16]. Fatty acids have a promoting effect on hair growth [17,18]. ...
Article
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Watercress oil (WCO) is the seed oil of Nasturtium officinale, Brassicaceae family. WCO is a cosmetic for hair growth approved by the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA). The study aimed to analyze by GC-MS, the phytochemical profile and the safety of WCO as a cosmetic according to SFDA, validates the traditional method of applying hot oil mixtures to the scalp, and also reports the pH, UV absorption, and in-silico binding mechanism of fatty acids for hair growth. The absorption of UV-B light (284.50 nm and 290.60 nm) by WCO suggests that it acts as a sunscreen for the scalp. The pH of the marketed WCO, 5.53 ± 0.02, shall not damage the scalp and hair. The GC-MS analysis confirmed fatty acids as the principal constituents (65.65%) of WCO composed of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs): cis-11-Octadecenoic acid (17.14%), cis-9-Octadecenoic acid (17.11%), cis-13-Eicosenoic acid (11.13%), cis-11-Eicosenoic acid (3.48%), and cis-13-Docosenoic acid (1.64%); saturated fatty acid: n-Hexadecanoic acid (12.89%); saturated fatty alcohol: Docosanol (2.26%). The GC-MS results also confirmed the absence of colorants, toxic solvents, and therapeutic substances in WCO, a cosmetic requirement, according to SFDA. The densities of mixtures of WCO+Coconut oil was 0.801 ± 0.03 mg/mL, and WCO+Olive oil was 0.885 ± 0.01 mg/mL; the kinematic viscosities of WCO+Coconut oil was 21.5 ± 0.0 mm²/s, and WCO+Olive oil was 28.6 ± 0.1 mm²/s at 40℃, which was lesser than the mixtures at 27℃. The decrease in density and viscosity of hot oil mixtures can improve the penetration of oil into the hair filament, which substantiated the traditional application method. In-silico, molecular docking results revealed that all the fatty acid constituents except Docosanol contributed to the hair growth promotion effect by activating MAPK1, MAPK3, and MAPKp38 receptors. This work is the first report on WCO to establish the phytochemical profile to confirm SFDA standard by GC-MS and its in-silico efficiency of activation of MAPK receptors for hair growth.
... No óleo de Macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata), entre seus ácidos graxos, o que se ressalta é o láurico. Suas propriedades, como peso molecular e cadeia linear possibilitam a polarização da molécula, juntamente com seu diâmetro, e ajudam na penetrabilidade no fio e, dessa forma, acabam inibindo a perda proteica da haste capilar (RELE; MOBILE, 2003). ...
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... As it can be seen, the effect of oils on breakage is better as compared to other hair care formats. The same can be attributed to the external occlusive layer formation on the hair surface to prevent the water and surfactant to enter into hair cortex and hence, avoid the progressive removal of hair building blocks [7]. Amongst the oils, coconut oil shows the better benefit with less than 10% increase in breakage post 20 cycles of SLES wash -this is in-line with the various studies reported on the two-way action of coconut oil on hair. ...
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This article describes a simple yet sensitive technique to assess surface damage to hair. It is based on the hypothesis that the damaged hair surface is more susceptible to abrasion/erosion than undamaged hair, and involves shaking hair in water and quantitatively measuring the amount of protein abraded/eroded from the hair using a colorimetric procedure capable of detecting as little as 5 Ixg of protein per mi. With this procedure, we were able to demonstrate significant differences in hair damaged due to bleaching, permanent wave treatments, and Suprox (a diperisophthalic acid based oxidant), and even after extended treatment with different surfactants. Furthermore, hair with exposed cortex was found to be more susceptible to protein loss by surfactants and/or water than hair with intact cuticle.
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any other treatment of the COMBABILITY of HUMAN HAIR has been developed. The required instrumentation, experimental procedure, and interpretation of the data are presented in detail. The method involves the continuous recording of the forces, which oppose the motion of a comb through a swatch of hair. The data thus produced consists of graphs showing the forces opposing (or generated by) combing as a function of the position of the comb along the length of the swatch. Examples of applications are presented. The method described in this paper was developed in our laboratories for the purpose of quantitatively evaluating combability. It has been extensively tested with a wide variety of hair products and treatments and is now used as a standard test during product development and for claim substantiation in finished products. A number of instrumental methods for evaluating combabil- ity have been reported in the literature (1-3). Some of the similarities and differences between those methods and ours will be discussed later. It is our opinion that our method has advantages in its simplicity and in the type of information that can be obtained by using it.
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During the extension of keratin fibers, their two major morphological components, the cuticula and the cortex, accommodate the stresses imposed on the fiber each in a totally different fashion. While the latter extends by mechanisms that have been discussed extensively and appear to be well understood, the cuticle cells are essentially inextensible and have to move relative to one another. In the multilayer structure of the cuticular sheath of human hair fibers, this relative movement has to be accommodated by the various layers within each cuticle cell and by the bonding layers between cells, and finally causes the lifting of surface scale edges at higher strain levels. It is proposed that extension mainly causes shear stresses between layers of different composition and extensibility within the cuticle cell. This leads to failure in the weak endocuticular layer and results in "delammation" and lifting of the outer layers of the surface cuticle. The damage is irreversible upon release of the fiber and immersion in water, as reflected in the onset of scale lifting at considerably lower strain levels during a second extension. Scale lifting was not observed during the extension of wool fibers, which appears to be a reflection of the higher rigidity of the cuticle cells of wool.
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Synopsis Some previously unreported fine variations in the form of normal hairs are described as they are observed in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). They all arise in the course of surface frictional wear and the chipping away of the hair surface scale edges and include remanent surface impressions of cuticle scale edges, 'false' scale edges, granular surface remnants and highly irregular (chevron) scale patterns. Mechanisms are proposed for the way in which each of these different fine features arise. The paper also contains deliberations on the conditions for operating the SEM consistent with obtaining the best information about the architecture of hair surfaces. The correctness of viewing orientation of scanning electron micrographs is also emphasized to avoid misinterpretation of features on the hair surface.
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An attempt has been made to show the difference in the penetrability of coconut oil and mineral oil in human hair. We have used secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in combination with a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. Characteristic ions formed by the pure components when bombarded with gallium ions have been identified with their m/z values. The distribution of the ion, characteristic of the particular treatment, has been established in the cross sections of hair treated with coconut and mineral oils. The results show that coconut oil penetrates the hair shaft while mineral oil does not. The difference may be due to the polarity of the coconut oil compared to the nonpolar nature of the mineral oil. The affinity of the penetrant to the protein seems to be the cause for this difference in their behavior. This study also indicates that the swelling of hair is limited by the presence oil. Since the process of swelling and deswelling of hair is one of the causes of hair damage by hygral fatigue, coconut oil, which is a better penetrant than mineral oil, may provide better protection from damage by hygral fatigue.