Homeopathic aggravations: A systematic review of randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trials
Master of Public Health Program, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, USA. Homeopathy
(Impact Factor: 0.76).
05/2003; 92(2):92-8. DOI: 10.1016/S1475-4916(03)00007-9
Homeopathic aggravations have often been described anecdotally. However, few attempts have been made to scientifically verify their existence. This systematic review aimed at comparing the frequency of homeopathic aggravations in the placebo and verum groups of double-blind, randomised clinical trials. Eight independent literature searches were carried out to identify all such trials mentioning either adverse effects or aggravations. All studies thus found were validated and data were extracted by both authors. Twenty-four trials could be included. The average number of aggravations was low. In total, 50 aggravations were attributed to patients treated with placebo and 63 to patients treated with homoeopathically diluted remedies. We conclude that this systematic review does not provide clear evidence that the phenomenon of homeopathic aggravations exists.
Available from: Shahram Shahabi
- "The induction of homeopathic aggravation following administration of a homeopathic remedy means that the regulatory mechanisms have been triggered. This triggering may be the reason that, in homeopathy, the development of homeopathic aggravation is considered to be a favorable reaction after administration of a dose of remedy (Grabia, 2003;Schepper, 2006). "
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Recent investigations have pointed to the production of characteristic electromagnetic (EM) waves in highly diluted sterile filtrates of different microorganisms and their associated DNA molecules. Analysis of these diluted solutions that are prepared using methods almost identical to the way that homeopathic medicines are prepared has pointed to the existence of nanostructures capable of emitting EM waves. Combining these results with findings that point to the interaction of EM waves with sensory nerves with subsequent activation of homeostatic efferent pathways, we propose a model to describe mechanisms underlying the effects of homeopathic remedies. THE MODEL: Living cells and tissues are capable of generating EM waves in their physiological conditions. When a cell deviates from its physiological state, in addition to normal EM emissions, it starts to produce EM waves with altered characteristics. According to our model, the main cause of the therapeutic effects of homeopathic remedies is the occurrence of resonance between the non-physiological EM waves of the patient and extremely low-frequency EM waves produced by nanostructures present in the homeopathic remedy. Resonance occurs if the frequency and amplitude characteristics of the patient's non-physiological EM waves and those produced by nanostructures of the applied homeopathic remedy are similar. Once resonance occurs, stimulation of the patient's sensory neurons, which are sensitized due to inflammation of any origin, leads to triggering of different regulatory mechanisms, including the activation of descending antinociceptive and/or cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways, which leads to the restoration of homeostasis.
Available from: Renan Almeida
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the recent scientific research progress on homeopathy.
Homeopathy was evaluated in terms of its clinical research; in vitro research, and physical foundations. The Medline database was the main reference source for the present research, concerning data of approximately the last 10 years. Secondary references (not available in this database) were obtained by means of direct requests to authors listed in the primary references.
Clinical studies and in vitro research indicate the inefficacy of homeopathy. Some few studies with positive results are questionable because of problems with the quality and lack of appropriate experimental controls in these studies. The most recent meta-analyses on the topic yielded negative results. One of the few previous meta-analyses with positive results had serious publication bias problems, and its results were later substantially reconsidered by the main authors. The sparse in vitro homeopathic research with positive results has not been replicated by independent researchers, had serious methodological flaws, or when replicated, did not confirm the initial positive results. A plausible mechanism for homeopathic action is still nonexistent, and its formulation, by now, seems highly unlikely.
As a result of the recent scientific research on homeopathy, it can be concluded that ample evidence exists to show that the homeopathic therapy is not scientifically justifiable.
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