ArticlePDF Available

Asymmetry Questionnaire outcomes correlate with several hemisphericity measures


Abstract and Figures

The asymmetry questionnaire segregated subjects (n=143) into two groups. These were significantly correlated with similar groups separated, not only by three new biophysical hemisphericity protocols (Dichotic Deafness Test, Phased Mirror Tracing, Best Hand Test), but also by two preference-type measures (polarity questionnaire, preference questionnaire). Each of the 15 asymmetry questionnaire statements was significantly correlated with the outcomes of these five laterality measures. This is the third questionnaire whose outcomes correlate with those of the new biophysical measures of hemisphericity.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Asymmetry questionnaire outcomes correlate with several
hemisphericity measures
Bruce E. Morton
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Hawaii, School of Medicine, 1960 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
Accepted 3 February 2003
The asymmetry questionnaire segregated subjects ðn¼143Þinto two groups. These were significantly correlated with similar
groups separated, not only by three new biophysical hemisphericity protocols (Dichotic Deafness Test, Phased Mirror Tracing, Best
Hand Test), but also by two preference-type measures (polarity questionnaire, preference questionnaire). Each of the 15 asymmetry
questionnaire statements was significantly correlated with the outcomes of these five laterality measures. This is the third ques-
tionnaire whose outcomes correlate with those of the new biophysical measures of hemisphericity.
Ó2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
Keywords: Brain-asymmetry; Behavior; Dichotic-deafness; Cerebral-laterality; Mirror-tracing; Personality; Polarity
1. Introduction
Recently three biophysical methods for determining
brain hemisphericity have been reported: the Dichotic
Deafness Test (Morton, 2001), Phased Mirror Tracing
(Morton, 2003a), and the Best Hand Test (Morton,
2003b). It was shown that the laterality outcomes of each
of these methods were significantly correlated with those
of a new hemisphericity-type questionnaire, the polarity
questionnaire (Morton, 2002), and at lower levels with
ZenhausernÕs preference questionnaire (Morton, 2002;
Zenhausern, 1978). This provided an unusual opportu-
nity to seek other behavioral attributes associated with
right and left brain-orientation. To this end, many di-
chotomous personality trait statements were tested on
subjects whose laterality had already been determined by
the foregoing methods. The 15 statement asymmetry
questionnaire was compiled from the outcomes of these
Here, using 143 subjects, the asymmetry questionnaire
was evaluated by comparison of its laterality sorting with
the three biophysical methods and with the two hemi-
sphericity-type questionnaires. The outcomes indicated
that the asymmetry questionnaire indeed sorted subjects
into two groups that were significantly correlated with
similar pairs of groups segregated by the five other later-
ality measures. Furthermore, the asymmetry question-
naire added a new set of personality traits to those already
significantly correlated with hemisphericity subgroups.
2. Methods
2.1. Subjects
The subjects of this study were mainly academics and
support staff at the University of Hawaii at Manoa
ðn¼143Þ. They were between 20 and 75 years old (mean
age, 45:813:4 S.D. years) and of mixed ethnicity (77%
Caucasian). Seventy-three were male (mean age ¼49
years) and 70 were female (mean age ¼42 years). There
were 18 self-identified left-handers (12.6%). Most of the
subjects had taken part in earlier studies (Morton, 2001,
2002, 2003a, 2003b).
2.2. Asymmetry questionnaire
The asymmetry questionnaire was the final product of
seven successive approximations, beginning with a
Brain and Cognition 51 (2003) 372–374
Fax: 1-808-956-9498.
E-mail address:
0278-2626/03/$ - see front matter Ó2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
questionnaire containing 100 initial dyadic statements.
Each set was individually answered by the same 50
subjects, the response assessed, and the questions modi-
fied to create the next set, which was again completed by
the same individuals, etc. The 15 statements retained
(Appendix A) were those most highly correlated with the
pre-established brain laterality of the test subjects, earlier
categorized by the Best Hand Test and the polarity
questionnaire. For cross-calibration, statements 10 and
15 derived from the polarity questionnaire were inserted.
The marking of even numbered questions on the left, and
odd numbered questions on the right resulted in 15
possible left brain-oriented answers. Subjects scoring less
than 6 were placed in the right brain-oriented group.
2.3. Other questionnaires
Subjects ðn¼143Þcompleted the polarity question-
naire and were separated into left or right brain-oriented
groups based upon their responses (Morton, 2002).
Subjects ðn¼135Þcompleted preference questionnaire
(Morton, 2002; Zenhausern, 1978) and were assessed for
overall left brain-right brain outcome and index.
2.4. Biophysical measures
The Dichotic Deafness Test utilized the ‘‘Tonal and
Speech Materials for Auditory Perceptual Assessment’’,
Disc 1.0 (1992), purchased from the Long Beach Research
Foundation was used to measure minor ear deafness of
115 pseudo-randomly selected subjects during simulta-
neous and 90 millisecond-separated presentations of
dichotic consonant–vowel syllables (Morton, 2001,
2002). Mirror tracings were produced by 131 subjects with
the aid of a Lafayette Instruments, Mirror-drawing ap-
paratus, Model 31010. Outcomes were phase-adjusted by
use of the Affective Laterality Test (Morton, 2003a). Best
Hand Test forms containing 20 horizontal lines for each
hand to bisect were completed by 142 subjects, measured,
phased, and scored according to Morton (2003b).
2.5. Statistics
Correlation analyses were conducted with the aid of
the Statistica 5.0 software package.
3. Results
The mean score of the asymmetry questionnaire when
completed by 143 subjects of mixed sex was
6:4S:E:M. Partial separation into four groups: male
and female, right and left-brain orientation (data not
shown) had occurred, similar to the polarity question-
naire (Morton, 2002). A major discontinuity in distri-
butions was visible between the left-brain oriented
scores of 5 and 6. This was used as the breakpoint de-
fining left and right brain orientation groups (right <6).
This resulted in the separation of 64 right brain-oriented
subjects (31 males, 33 females) and 79 left brain-oriented
subjects (42 males, 37 females).
Validity assessment outcomes of asymmetry ques-
tionnaire are shown in Table 1. Asymmetry question-
naire group assignments were significantly (p<:001)
correlated with three independent biophysical laterality
measures: the Dichotic Deafness Test, ðr¼:44;n¼115Þ,
Phased Mirror Tracing, ðr¼:66;n¼131Þ, and the Best
Hand Test ðr¼:61;n¼142Þ. Moreover, Asymmetry
questionnaire outcomes were significantly (p<:001)
correlated with two independent hemisphericity-type
laterality measures: the polarity questionnaire ðr¼
0:64;n¼143Þand ZenhausernÕs preference question-
naire ðr¼0:35;n¼135Þ.
Each asymmetry questionnaire statement was tested
for correlation (p<:05) with the overall outcomes of the
five other laterality measures (Table 1). The number of
the 15 test statements that correlated with the measures
was: Best Hand Test, 14; Phased Mirror Tracing, 13;
Polarity Questionnaire 12 (overlapping), Dichotic Deaf-
ness Test, 10; and preference questionnaire, 4. Each of the
15 asymmetry questionnaire statements was significantly
correlated with at least three brain laterality measures.
4. Discussion
The present study shows that previously unrecog-
nized personality traits associated with hemisphericity,
not only exist, but also can be uncovered by the question
sorting of subjects, previously calibrated by independent
biophysical hemisphericity methods. This approach was
first demonstrated with the polarity questionnaire, 10/11
Table 1
Correlation of asymmetry questionnaire outcomes and items with other laterality measures
Group comparisons between laterality measures Values for rand pTotal nof test itemsaCorrelated Subjects tested n
Asymmetry questionnaire group scores vs.
Dichotic Deafness Test group laterality .44 <.001 10 115
Phased Mirror Tracing group laterality .66 <.001 13 131
Best Hand Test group laterality .61 <.001 14 142
Polarity questionnaire group score .64 <.001 12 143
Preference questionnaire group score .35 <.001 4 135
Total number of the 15 questions that were correlated (p<:05) with each of the laterality measures.
B.E. Morton / Brain and Cognition 51 (2003) 372–374 373
of whose hemisphericity outcomes were significantly
correlated with those of the Dichotic Deafness Test,
Phased Mirror Tracing, and the Best Hand Test (Mor-
ton, 2001, 2002, 2003a, 2003b).
Here, the asymmetry questionnaire proved quite
comparable to the polarity questionnaire, both in terms
of sorting subjects into laterality groups, and in its sig-
nificant correlations with three biophysical laterality
measures and two hemisphericity-type questionnaires.
Thirteen of its empirical statements were added to the
growing list of personality traits associated with right
and left brain laterality subgroups. The exact nature of
these and the earlier correlated brain laterality traits
(Morton, 2000b; Zenhausern, 1978) remain to be char-
acterized and will be the topic of a future paper.
Appendix A. Right or left brain-oriented? The asymmetry
Your Name or Number:____________
For each of these 15 pairs of statements, mark an X at
the START of the ONE statement that is MOST like you.
Morton, B. E. (2001). Large individual differences in minor ear output
during dichotic listening. Brain and Cognition,45, 229–237.
Morton, B. E. (2002). Outcomes of hemisphericity questionnaires
correlate with unilateral dichotic deafness. Brain and Cognition,49,
Morton, B. E. (2003). Phased mirror tracing outcomes correlate with
several hemisphericity measures. Brain and Cognition,51.
Morton, B. E. (2003). Two-hand, line-bisection task outcomes
correlate with several measures of hemisphericity. Brain and
Zenhausern, R. (1978). Imagery, cerebral dominance, and style of
thinking: A unified field model. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society,
12, 381–384.
Further reading
Wilson, R. H., & Leigh, E. D. (1996). Identification performance by
right- and left-handed listeners on dichotic CV materials. Journal of
the American Academy of Audiology,7, 1–6.
Statement A Statement B
1. I often talk about my
and otherÕs feelings of
I tend to avoid talking
about emotional
2. I am good at finishing
I am a strong starter of
3. I organize parts into
the whole (synthetic,
I break the whole
into parts (reductive-
4. I am quick-acting in
I methodically solve
problems by process of
5. I think and listen
and talk a lot.
I think and listen
quietly, keep my talk to
a minimum
6. I donÕt read other
peopleÕs mind very well.
I am very good at
knowing what others
are thinking
7. I see the big picture
(project data beyond,
can predict).
I am analytical
(stay within the limits
of the data).
8. I tend to be
independent, hidden,
private, and indirect.
I tend to be
interdependent, open,
public, and direct.
9. I usually design
original outfits of
I dress for success and
wear high status
10. I need to be alone
and quiet when upset.
I need closeness and to
talk things out when
11. I praise others, and
also work for praise
from others
I do not praise others,
nor need the praise of
12. IÕm more interested
in objects and things.
I tend to be more
interested in people
and feelings.
13. I seek frank
feedback from others.
I avoid seeking
evaluation by others.
14. I often feel my mate
talks too much.
I feel my mate doesnÕt
talk or listen to me
15. IÕm strict, my kids
obey me and work for
my approval.
IÕm not a strict parent,
my kids donÕt obey me
L Score ¼EA þOB ¼=15.
374 B.E. Morton / Brain and Cognition 51 (2003) 372–374
... That is, for the three biophysical methods, Best Hand Test (n = 88; [23] Phased Mirror Tracing (n = 77; [22], and Dichotic Deafness Test (n = 70; [21], coefficients of 0.75, 0.80, and 0.47 were obtained each with p values of 0.000. Similarly, for three preference questionnaires, Polarity Questionnaire (n = 84; [21], Preference Questionnaire (n = 67; [21,31], and Asymmetry Questionnaire (n = 77; [24], r values were 0.62, -0.31, 0.58, also with p = 0.000, except for the Preference Questionnaire (p = 0.01). ...
... Hemisometer results were not significantly correlated with sex [23,19], handedness [24,19], pen grasp [23,19], emotional side [22], or language laterality. Hemisometry "observer side" outcomes were somewhat correlated with previously determined midline corpus callosal cross sectional areas of these subjects (r = -0.28, ...
... This crucial result is consistent with the concept of a unilateral executive system. The highly correlation of subject hemisity subtype distributions and observer laterality also reinforced the validity of these hemisometer results and those of earlier methodology [20,21,22,23,24]. ...
... alignment with the qualitatively different and mutually antagonistic modes of data processing of the opposite cerebral hemispheres, and certainly was much easier to quantify. Numerous "hemisphericity" reports were published (Morton, 2001(Morton, , 2002(Morton, , 2003a(Morton, , 2003b(Morton, , 2003c(Morton, , 2003dMorton & Rafto, 2006. This series was continued by publication of additional "hemisity" reports (Morton & Rafto 2010;Morton 2012;Morton, Svard & Jensen 2014). ...
... Asymmetry Questionnaire: Morton (2003c) developed another questionnaire measure of hemisity, the Asymmetry Questionnaire, which consists of 15 paired statements. Within each pair, one statement exemplified a left brained characteristic while the other reflected a right brained characteristic. ...
... Asymmetry of the ventral gyri of the anterior cingulate cortex was significantly correlated with hemisity as determined by the Asymmetry Questionnaire (Morton, 2003c), the Polarity Questionnaire and Zenhausern's Preference Questionnaire (Zenhausern, 1978;Morton, 2002), the Dichotic Deafness Test (Morton, 2001(Morton, , 2002, the Best Hand Test (Morton, 2003b), the Phased Mirror Tracing Test (Morton, 2003a), as well as two new hemisity questionnaires, the Binary Questionnaire and the Hemisity Questionnaire (Morton, 2012). The categorical associations of each of these methods of determining hemisity with each other and with asymmetry of the vgACC were highly significant (Morton and Rafto, 2010). ...
... The four biophysical tests were the Dichotic Deafness Test (Morton, 2001(Morton, , 2002, Phased Mirror Tracing Test (Morton, 2003a), the Two Hand Line Bisection Test (Morton, 2003b), and the MRI Hemisity Assessment Method (Morton & Rafto, 2010), none of which depend upon personality. The four behavioral questionnaires were the Polarity Questionnaire (Morton, 2002), the Asymmetry Questionnaire (Morton, 2003c), the Binary Questionnaire (Morton, 2012a), and the Hemisity Questionnaire (Morton, 2012a), plus the earlier less accurate Zenhausern's Preference Questionnaire (Morton, 2002;Zenhausern, 1978). ...
... For example: "Given the opportunity, I am more of an early morning than a late night person," or "I would rather maintain and use good old solutions than find new better ones," or "I am comfortable and productive in the presence of disorder and disorganization." (Morton, 2003c). Subjects selected between 15 binary statement pairs as to their preference. ...
Full-text available
Brain laterality refers to the asymmetric location of functional elements within the bilateral brain of animals and humans. Thus far, five lateralized functions have been recognized in humans: handedness, language ability, spatial skills, facial recognition, and emotion recognition. Recently, a sixth asymmetric functional element bearing on personality has been discovered. It is the larger side of the split bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). This appears to be the final output element of the executive system of which, by logic, there can be only one. Which side is somewhat larger varies among the general population in a seemingly idiosyncratic manner, yet with a genetic basis because true-breeding lineages exist. Here, hemisity is binary measure where a person is inherently born either right brain or left brain oriented. This is determined by nine statistically robust sets of four biophysical tests, none of which depend upon personality, and five behavioral questionnaires. Crucially these hemisity methods have been validated by the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-based discovery that the larger side of the ACC is on the same side as one’s hemisity, making MRI the primary standard for hemisity determination ( r = 0.96). There are at least 30 measurable differences in individual characteristics and behaviors between those persons whose hemsity is on the right compared to those with it on the left. The hemisity of 2929 individuals was determined by these methods. Large groups included 1428 junior and senior high schools students both in Hawaii and Utah. There were somewhat comparable numbers present for both types of hemisity. Hemisity of individuals was found stable from infancy to old age. There was no relation between hemisity and handedness. Larger corpus callosum (CC) size of male or female subjects was larger in right brainer that in left brainers. Twin studies demonstrate that CC size is inherited. Thirty-eight percent of individuals of both sexes were right brain oriented, while 62% of individuals of both sexes were left brain oriented. In pairings, there were more than twice as many couples with opposite hemisity. Of these couples, the right brain male and females were dominant. Reproductive outcomes of these were “Like father like son, Like mother like daughter.”
... Thus a person is inherently born either left brain oriented or right brain oriented. This binary definition has facilitated the development of eight hemisity measurement tools, four of which are binary biophysical assays [16,[18][19][20]22], and four are behavioral questionnaires [32,16,19,23,33]. Crucially, these hemisity methods have been validated by the MRIbased discovery that the larger sided of the bilateral ACC is on the same side as one's hemisity [27], making MRI the primary standard for hemisity determination (r=0.96). ...
... The size of the corpus callosum was also shown to be larger in individuals with a right-brain preference (Morton & Rafto, 2006). In addition to brain-based evidence of hemisphericity, hemispheric preference has also been correlated with performance on behavioral measures, such as phased mirror tracing (Morton, 2003a(Morton, , 2003b(Morton, , 2003c(Morton, , 2003d and dichotic listening tests (Morton, 2002). ...
Full-text available
We examined the relationship between cognitive style empathy and willingness to help. In Study 1 (N = 186) we measured preference for visuospatial or verbal cognitive style using the ZenQ (Zenhausern, 1978), and empathy using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1983). In Study 2 (N = 76), we experimentally elicited verbal or visual cognitive processing via priming and measured empathy in response to a vignette about a woman injured in a car accident. In both studies, we measured willingness to help by assessing participants’ willingness to assist the injured woman. Results showed that visuospatial cognitive processing increased empathy and willingness to help. Empathic concern mediated the relationship between cognitive style and willingness to help. Results highlight the importance of mental imagery in increasing empathy and helping.
... It was shown that participants who preferred the right hemisphere displayed greater alpha power, which is inversely related with activation, compared with those who preferred the left hemisphere. Similarly, statistical analyses in several studies that compared biophysical methods (Dichotic Deafness Test, Phased Mirror Tracing, Best Hand Test) with surveys for hemispheric preferences (The Asymmetry Questionnaire, Polarity Questionnaire, Preference Test) have also revealed significant correlations between these biophysical tests and surveys (Morton, 2002(Morton, , 2003a(Morton, , 2003b(Morton, , 2003c(Morton, , 2003d. In the present study, the results of Torrance and Taggart's HIPS were verified using P300 values in an attempt to evaluate learning as a complex cognitive process. ...
Full-text available
Recently, integrated and contextual learning models such as problem-based learning (PBL) and brain/mind learning (BML) have become prominent. The present study aimed to develop and evaluate a PBL program enriched with BML principles. In this study, participants were 295 first-year medical students. The study used both quantitative and qualitative methods (mixed design). First, the students’ hemispheric preferences were defined using the Human Information Processing Survey and reassessed using event-related potentials (ERPs). Then, by considering BML principles, a six-week PBL program was revised and evaluated using both quantitative and qualitative tools, including evaluation forms, exam scores, expert observations, document reviews, and interviews. With regard to hemispheric preferences, 59.9% of the students preferred both hemispheres, 28.9% preferred the right, and 11.2% preferred the left, and these partially correlated with ERP P300 recordings. The evaluation study showed that compared with the standard PBL program, the students and tutors were more satisfied with the BML-enriched PBL program, and the students’ average exam scores were higher and the differences were statistically significant (p .001). These results demonstrate that various learning models can be improved using BML principles, resulting in increased satisfaction and academic success.
... Many hemisphericity researchers have used dichotic hearing preference as an indication of right versus left-brain preference (e.g., Jackson, Furnham, & Miller, 2001;Jackson, 2002Jackson, , 2005Morton, 2002Morton, , 2003Williams, 1986). However, this study was designed to be delivered over the internet, and the dichotic listening test could not be controlled, so was therefore omitted. ...
Personality and individual differences research is relevant to practically every facet of human existence. For instance, since theories of persons either explicitly or implicitly guide clinical work, the field contributes to discussions of understanding abnormal psychology and provides a guide for conceptualising best treatment. Additionally, the field is relevant to understanding human development across the lifespan, and our understanding of personality and individual differences impacts upon our views of socialisation and interpersonal relations. This book presents research which draws attention to the rich scientific literature that continues to emerge with respect to personality and individual differences psychology.
Most adults, especially women, hold infants and dolls but not books or packages on the left side. One reason may be that attention is more often leftward in response to infants, unlike emotionally neutral objects like books and packages. Women's stronger bias may reflect greater responsiveness to infants. Previously, we tested the attention hypothesis by comparing women's side-of-hold of a doll, book, and package with direction-of-attention on the Chimeric Faces Test (CFT) [Harris, L. J., Cárdenas, R. A., Spradlin, Jr., M. P., & Almerigi, J. B. (2010). Why are infants held on the left? A test of the attention hypothesis with a doll, a book, and a bag. Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition, 15(5), 548–571. doi:10.1080/13576500903064018]. Only the doll was held more often to the left, and only for the doll were side-of-hold and CFT scores related, with left-holders showing a stronger left-attention bias than right-holders. In the current study, we tested men and women with a doll and the CFT along with a vase as a neutral object and a “non-emotional” chimeric test. Again, only the doll was held more often to the left, but now, although both chimeric tests showed left-attention biases, scores were unrelated to side-of-hold. Nor were there sex differences. The results support left-hold selectivity but not the attention hypothesis, with or without the element of emotion. They also raise questions about the contribution of sex-of-holder. We conclude with suggestions for addressing these issues.
Full-text available
It has been discovered that right-brained women’s thinking is more like right-brained men’s thought than it is to left-brained women’s thinking. Similarly, left-brained women’s thinking is more like left-brained men’s thought than it is to right-brained women’s thinking. This is a topic of Hemisity. Furthermore in Hemisity, “opposites attract”. So, left-brained men more often marry right-brained women, and right-brained grooms tend to marry left-brained brides. Such leads to two types of families: Matripolar and Patripolar, each with opposite courtship, child rearing, religious, and political orientations. This is the topic of Familial Polarity, which is an unrecog-nized source of conflict, from the personal to the global. YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THIS!
During the 20th century as the technological age developed, there was high demand for logical, left-brained thinkers such as engineers and scientists. This was the golden era of IQ testing, where IQ scores were excellent predictors of performance on the job. However, the trend in the West since the downsizings of the 90s has been to outsource expensive cognitive left-brain tasks, like electronic engineering and computer programming, to low-cost countries like China and India. However, by moving these activities offshore, the question arises as to what will constitute viable career options in future in the West. This study explores Pink's (2005) claim that individuals that have right-brain hemisphericity will be better adapted to the future work environment in the West. The participants in this study were 145 psychology students and their family (mean age 33.5, SD = 14.5) who completed a test battery which included hemisphericity, emotional intelligence, verbal reasoning and big five factor personality questionnaires. It was found that older participants were less right-brain oriented than the younger participants. The general characteristics of right-hemisphericity participants included lower conscientiousness, and higher openness, neuroticism and attention to emotion scores. These results have implications for organisational psychology in the future.
Full-text available
While seeking new functional methods to reassess the concept of hemisphericity, a two-hand line-bisection task was investigated because of reports of large, stable differences among the general population. These were found to be due to hemispheric differences in judgment of the midpoint of horizontal lines, made visible due to the unilateral brain control of each hand. By use of a two-hand line-bisection test (Best-Hand Test), university workers (n=412) were readily sorted into theoretical response categories, resulting in the production of two large groups. These two groups correlated well with those produced by four independent hemisphericity assessments, two physiological and two psychological. This is the third biophysical method whose performance-based group separations significantly correlated with those produced by preference-based hemisphericity-type questionnaires. It is rapid and avoids language, education, or cultural bias.
Full-text available
Recently, subjects, separated into two large groups by the Dichotic Deafness Test (DDT), a new brain laterality measure. These were significantly correlated with groups separated by two preference-based hemisphericity-type questionnaires, the Preference Questionnaire (PrefQ) and Polarity Questionnaire (PolQ). Here, Mirror-Tracing, another potential biophysical measure of hemisphericity earlier reported to be weakly correlated with laterality, was tested using 171 subjects, the DDT, and both questionnaires. No correlations between the DDT, PrefQ, and PolQ separation methods and Mirror Tracing outcomes were found until individuals identified as having left brain affect were removed from the population. Then, robust correlations appeared for the remaining right-affect subjects alone (n=82). These correlations became even higher when the left brain affect subjects that had been removed (n=89) were "phase corrected" from a contralateral to an ipsilateral connectivity for motor dominance and then returned to the sample (n=171). These Phased Mirror-Tracing (PMT) outcomes were also significantly correlated with 10 of the 11 statements of the PolQ. Thus, PMT joins the DDT as a second performance-based measure of laterality whose outcomes significantly correlated with those of preference-based hemisphericity questionnaires.
Proposes a model of thinking style based on whether or not a person thinks in pictures. In a preliminary questionnaire study of 66 college students, right cerebral dominance and a deductive mode of reasoning were associated with the visualizing style, while left cerebral dominance and an inductive mode of reasoning were associated with the nonvisualizing style. Converging lines of evidence (anecdotal, historical, and empirical) are offered in support of the model. (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Normative data from 24 right-handed and 24 left-handed subjects were obtained for the dichotic consonant-vowel (CV) materials (pa, ta, ka, ba, da, and ga) recorded on the Veterans Affairs (VA) compact disc (CD) Tonal and Speech Materials for Auditory Perceptual Assessment, Disc 1.0. Identification performance by the two subject groups was significantly different. With the right-handed subjects, identification performances on the materials presented to the right ear (RE) were better than performances on the materials presented to the left ear (LE) by (1) 16.3 percent for simultaneous onsets (RE = 72.8%; LE = 56.5%), (2) 11.3 percent for the 90-msec right-ear lag (RE = 86.3%; LE = 75.0%), and (3) 8.7 percent for the 90-msec left-ear lag condition (RE = 85.8%; LE = 77.2%). In comparison to the right-handed subjects, the left-handed subjects exhibited a smaller right-ear advantage and more inter-subject variability. With the left-handed subjects, identification performances on the materials presented to the right ear also were better than performances on the materials presented to the left ear by (1) 1.7 percent for simultaneous onsets (RE = 62.9%; LE = 61.1%), (2) 2.8 percent for the 90-msec right-ear lag (RE = 75.0%; LE = 72.2%), and (3) 3.1 percent for the 90-msec left-ear lag condition (RE = 75.9%; LE = 72.9%). The results are similar to previous dichotic CV data and indicate that the CVs recorded on the VA-CD provide valid estimates of identification performance on the dichotic CV materials.
Using dichotic consonant-vowel (CV) stimuli, 150 highly educated adults were segregated into two groups. In the high-output group (n = 63), the mean number of CV syllables reported by the minor ear was more than half that of the major ear, while for the low-output group (n = 87), it was less than one-fourth. The low minor ear performance of the latter group immediately disappeared when CV syllables were separated by 90 ms. These subjects (44 male, 43 females) were unaware of their temporary minor ear incapacities. Although the mechanism and brain laterality significance of this phenomenon remain to be clarified, preliminary research indicates that members of each of these two groups have other differences in common.
Using the Dichotic Deafness Test, 145 university workers were separated into dichotic deafness and hearing groups based on minor ear responses to dichotic consonant-vowel stimuli. They were also separated into putative right and left brain-oriented groups by Zenhausern's Preference Questionnaire. Interestingly, members of the dichotically hearing group chose mainly right brain-oriented answers and vice versa. A correlation coefficient twice that obtained for Zenhausern's Preference Questionnaire resulted when subject groups separated by the novel Polarity Questionnaire were compared to Dichotic Deafness Test groups. Only 30% of Preference Questionnaire items, versus 90% of Polarity Questionnaire items, were significantly correlated with Dichotic Deafness Test groups. This is the first report of hemisphericity-type questionnaires showing significant correlations with a biophysical measure of brain laterality.