Article

Echinococcosis - An international public health challenge

University of Zurich, Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
Research in Veterinary Science (Impact Factor: 1.41). 07/2003; 74(3):191-202. DOI: 10.1016/S0034-5288(03)00006-7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

This review aims to summarise some of the recent studies that have been undertaken on parasites of the genus Echinococcus and the diseases which they cause. Although the adult parasite, which inhabits the intestine of various carnivore species is not pathogenic, the larval or metacestode stages can be highly pathogenic, causing economic losses to livestock and various forms of echinococcosis in humans, some of which have a high fatality rate. There is growing evidence that there are at least 5 species of Echinococcus rather than the generally accepted 4 species. Within these species there are a number of genotypes or strains. This can have implications for surveillance and control. In some wealthy countries, cystic echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus has been successfully controlled or indeed eradicated. However, in most parts of the world it remains a serious threat to human health. In the former Soviet Union, the disease has rapidly increased in incidence after the end of communist administration. Human alveolar echinococcosis, caused by Echinococcus multilocularis, is more sporadic. However, in some Chinese communities there is a disturbingly high human prevalence and in Europe there has been an increase in the detection rate of E. multilocularis in animals in the last 10 years. Echinococcosis can present diagnostic challenges, particularly in the definitive host in areas of low endemicity. Much of the recent work relating to the use of coproantigen and PCR to overcome these difficulties is summarized. New ideas for controlling the parasite are becoming available and these include both the use of vaccination and the application of mathematical models to determine the most cost effective means of control. Effective measures that are affordable are vital if the parasite is to be controlled in poor countries.

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    • "Given a geographic distribution and extent greater than it is believed in past, many studies have shown that hydatid cyst disease is currently considered an emerging or re-emerging disease (Thompson & McManus, 2002; Torgerson et al., 2003). The prevalence and distribution of CE depends on the presence in that country of large numbers of nomadic or seminomadic sheep and goat flocks that represent the intermediate host of the parasite, and their contact with, the dog, the final host, which mostly provides the transmission of infection to humans (Torgerson et al., 2003). "
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    DESCRIPTION: In this study the number of slaughtering animals in the five main Duhok official abattoirs from the Jan. 2010 to Dec. 2013 were found, in addition of their Hydatidiosis incidence.
    Full-text · Research · Dec 2015
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    • "The World Health Organization has recently included echinococcosis in its strategic plans for the control of neglected tropical diseases. It is common in sheep farming regions like Australia, New Zealand, China, South America, Middle East, African countries around the Mediterranean and in India1234567. The main source of income in the majority of rural population in Kashmir Valley, Jammu and Kashmir State in North India is agriculture and livestock grazing (sheep and cattle). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Echinococcosis is a human and animal health problem in many endemic areas worldwide. There are numerous reports and hospital-based studies from Kashmir, North India, yet there has been no epidemiological study conducted in Kashmir, the apparently endemic area for human hydatidosis. This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of hydatid infection in Kashmir Valley and to find out association of risk factors for acquisition of this infection. Methodology: Fourteen hundred and twenty-nine samples were collected from different districts in the Kashmir region (North India) using systematic random sampling. The 130 control samples included were from apparently healthy blood donors (100), patients with other parasitic infections (20), surgically confirmed hydatidosis patients (5), and apparently healthy subjects excluded for hydatidosis and intestinal parasitic infections (5). Hydatid-specific IgG antibody was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and seropositive samples were analysed further by Western blotting. Results: Out of 1,429 samples, 72 (5.03%) were IgG positive by ELISA. The percentage occurrence of the highly immunoreactive antigenic fractions in IgG ELISA positive samples was 57 kDa (72.2%) followed by 70 kDa (66.7%) and 39 kDa (58.3%) by immunoblotting. Samples with other parasitic infections were reactive with the cluster of 54-59 kDa antigenic fractions. Age <15 years, male gender, contact with dog, and rural residence were the most significant factors associated with the seropositivity. Conclusion: The study revealed that 72 (5.03%) out of 1,429 subjects asymptomatic for hydatidosis were seropositve to E.granulosus antigen by ELISA. Western blot analysis of 72 ELISA seropositive samples showed that 66.7% and 58.3% of samples were immunoreactive with 70 and 39 kDa specific antigenic fractions, respectively. The seropositivity was significantly higher (5.79%) in the younger age group (<15 years) as compared to the 16-55 years (4.07%) and > 55 years (3.05%) age groups, suggesting ongoing transmission of this infection in the younger age group. The number of seropositive males was significantly higher as compared to females. The risk factors identified were rural residence and contact with dogs. The study suggests the presence of asymptomatic infection in subjects in Kashmir, North India, and efforts need to be made for implementation of effective prevention measures to reduce the infection burden, which may otherwise lead to symptomatology and complications in the infected subjects.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    • "As in intermediate hosts, the parasite forms cysts in the organs of infected people, a condition known as cystic echinococcosis (CE). It can, however, take several months to years post-ingestion before signs of hydatid disease become apparent (Pawlowski et al 2001, Torgerson and Budke 2003). "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria
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