Screening for sexually transmitted diseases during preparticipation sports examination of high school adolescents
Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine in New Orleans, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Journal of Adolescent Health
(Impact Factor: 3.61).
06/2003; 32(5):336-9. DOI: 10.1016/S1054-139X(03)00017-X
In an urban school district, 636 students in grades 9-12 were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by ligase chain reaction assays using specimens collected for routine urinalyses during sports physical examinations. Chlamydia and gonorrhea prevalences were 2.8% and 0.7% among males, and 6.5% and 2.0% among females, respectively. Among athletes infected with either sexually transmitted disease (STD), 93.1% reported no symptoms, and treatment was documented for 75.9%. Sports physicals offered a unique opportunity to screen and treat adolescents for STDs and to provide STD-prevention counseling.
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ABSTRACT: Much research has been conducted on factor and eco-efficiency as an assessment method of environmentally-conscious or "Green" products and services (hereafter GPs). However, a generally applicable measurement or assessment method for a specific object is not clear and no standard assessment method has yet been established. Therefore, a new indicator was independently developed by taking these concepts and considering three viewpoints of "prevention of global warming (energy saving)," "effective utilization of resources" and "use of nontoxic materials," and the calculated result was reported. This indicator was developed as a qualification standard of GPs and has been used internally for accelerating GP development by reflecting it to business performance evaluation, while it has been used externally for propagation and penetration of GPs by positioning the product via a Type II environmental label. This paper describes a detailed calculation method and verifies the effectiveness of this indicator by comparing with other calculation methods. The calculation method of product functionality is also proposed in the end.
Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
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ABSTRACT: We set out to determine the prevalences of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by ligase chain reaction as well as to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis by culture in a large and diverse national sample of non-health-care-seeking young women entering the military; we also sought to compare the abilities of three different techniques of collecting specimens (first-void urine, self-collected vaginal swab, and clinician-collected endocervical swab) to identify a positive specimen. A cross-sectional sample of young women was voluntarily recruited; as a part of their routine entry pelvic examination visit, they completed a self-administered reproductive health questionnaire and provided first-void urine (used to detect C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae) and self-collected vaginal swabs (used to detect C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, and T. vaginalis). The number of positive tests divided by the number of sexually active women screened by each sampling method determined the rates of prevalence. The rate of infection with any of the three sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) tested was 14.1%. The total positive rates for each STD (identified by >/=1 specimen) were the following: for C. trachomatis, 11.6%; N. gonorrhoeae, 2.4%; and T. vaginalis, 1.7%. The proportions of positives identified by specimen type were, for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae, respectively, endocervix, 65 and 40%; urine, 72 and 24%; and vagina, 81 and 72%. The proportions of positives when specimen results were combined were, for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae, respectively, cervix plus urine, 86 and 49%; cervix plus vagina, 91 and 93%; and vagina plus urine, 94 and 79%. We concluded that STDs were epidemic in this population. Self-collected vaginal swabs identified the highest number of positive test results among single specimens, with the combined cervix-vagina results identifying the highest number of positive results. Self-collected vaginal swab collections are a feasible alternative to cervical specimen collections in this population, and the use of multiple types of specimens increases the positive yield markedly.
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